Sideroxylon

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For other meanings see Sideroxylon (disambiguation).
bully trees
Starr 010330-0568 Sideroxylon persimile.jpg
Sideroxylon persimile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Sapotaceae
Subfamily: Sapotoideae
Tribe: Sideroxyleae
Genus: Sideroxylon
L.[1]
Type species
Sideroxylon inerme
L.[2][3]
Synonyms[4]
  • Apterygia Baehni
  • Bumelia Sw.
  • Calvaria Comm. ex C.F.Gaertn.
  • Cryptogyne Hook.f.
  • Decateles Raf.
  • Dipholis A.DC.
  • Edgeworthia Falc. 1842, illegitimate homonym, not Meisn. 1841 (Thymelaeaceae)
  • Lyciodes Kuntze
  • Mastichodendron (Engl.) H.J.Lam
  • Monotheca A.DC.
  • Nesoluma Baill.
  • Reptonia A.DC.
  • Robertia Scop., rejected name
  • Robertsia Endl.
  • Rostellaria C.F.Gaertn.
  • Sclerocladus Raf.
  • Sinosideroxylon (Engl.) Aubrév.
  • Spiniluma (Baill.) Aubrév.
  • Spondogona Raf., rejected name
  • Tatina Raf.

Sideroxylon is a genus of trees in the family Sapotaceae described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.[3][5] They collectively known as bully trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek words σιδηρος (sideros), meaning "iron", and ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood."[6]

Distribution[edit]

The genus is distributed mainly in North and South America, but also in Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, and various oceanic islands.[4] Some species, such as Gum Bully (S. lanuginosum), S. tenax, and Buckthorn Bully (S. lycioides), are found in subtropical areas of North America. The only South African species, the White Milkwood (S. inerme), is associated with three historical sites, and these individuals were declared national monuments due to their unusual longevity.[7][8]

Ecology[edit]

Several species have become rare due to logging and other forms of habitat destruction. The Tambalacoque (S. grandiflorum, syn. Calvaria major) of Mauritius was affected by the extinction of the birds which dispersed its seed; it was suggested that the species entirely depended on the dodo (Raphus cucullatus) for that purpose and nearly became a victim of coextinction, but this is not correct.[9][10] Bully trees provide food for the larvae of certain Lepidoptera, such as the Bumelia Webworm Moth (Urodus parvula) as well as several species of Coleoptera of the genus Plinthocoelium, commonly known as Bumelia Borers.

Species[edit]

Accepted Species[4]
  1. Sideroxylon acunae (Borhidi) T.D.Penn. - Cuba
  2. Sideroxylon alachuense L.C.Anderson - Florida
  3. Sideroxylon altamiranoi (Rose & Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Hidalgo, Querétaro
  4. Sideroxylon americanum (Mill.) T.D.Penn. - Yucatan, West Indies
  5. Sideroxylon anomalum (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Barahona
  6. Sideroxylon beguei Capuron ex Aubrév. - Madagascar
  7. Sideroxylon bequaertii De Wild. - Zaïre
  8. Sideroxylon betsimisarakum Lecomte - Madagascar
  9. Sideroxylon borbonicum A.DC. - Réunion
  10. Sideroxylon boutonianum A.DC. - Mauritius
  11. Sideroxylon bullatum (R.A.Howard & Proctor) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  12. Sideroxylon canariense Leyens, Lobin & A.Santos - Canary Is
  13. Sideroxylon cantoniense Lour. - SE China
  14. Sideroxylon capiri (A.DC.) Pittier - Mesoamerica, West Indies
  15. Sideroxylon capuronii Aubrév. - Madagascar
  16. Sideroxylon cartilagineum (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - Sinaloa, Jalisco, Guerrero
  17. Sideroxylon celastrinum (Kunth) T.D.Penn. - Texas, Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, Bahamas
  18. Sideroxylon cinereum Lam. - Mauritius
  19. Sideroxylon contrerasii (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  20. Sideroxylon cubense (Griseb.) T.D.Penn. - West Indies
  21. Sideroxylon discolor Radcl.-Sm. - Socotra
  22. Sideroxylon dominicanum (Whetstone & T.A.Atk.) T.D.Penn. - Dominican Rep
  23. Sideroxylon durifolium (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Chiapas, Belize
  24. Sideroxylon ekmanianum (Urb.) Bisse, J.E.Gut. & Iglesias - Cuba
  25. Sideroxylon eriocarpum (Greenm. & Conz.) T.D.Penn. - Oaxaca
  26. Sideroxylon eucoriaceum (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Veracruz, Guatemala
  27. Sideroxylon eucuneifolium (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Guatemala
  28. Sideroxylon excavatum T.D.Penn. - Guerrero, Oaxaca
  29. Sideroxylon fimbriatum Balf.f. - Socotra
  30. Sideroxylon floribundum Griseb. - Belize, Guatemala, Jamaica
  31. Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq. - West Indies, S Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Florida
  32. Sideroxylon galeatum (A.W.Hill) Baehni - Rodrigues
  33. Sideroxylon gerrardianum (Hook.f.) Aubrév. - Madagascar
  34. Sideroxylon grandiflorum A.DC. - Mauritius
  35. Sideroxylon hirtiantherum T.D.Penn. - Guatemala, Honduras
  36. Sideroxylon horridum (Griseb.) T.D.Penn. - Cuba, Cayman Is
  37. Sideroxylon ibarrae (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Baja Verapaz
  38. Sideroxylon inerme L. - Africa (from Somalia to Cape Province), Aldabra, Juan de Nova I
  39. Sideroxylon jubilla (Ekman ex Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Cuba
  40. Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx. – - USA (AZ to SC + KY),[11] NE Mexico
  41. Sideroxylon leucophyllum S.Wats. - Baja California, Sonora
  42. Sideroxylon lycioides L. – Buckthorn Bully - USA (TX to DE)[12]
  43. Sideroxylon macrocarpum (Nutt.) J.R.Allison - Georgia
  44. Sideroxylon majus (Gaertn.f.) Baehni Réunion
  45. Sideroxylon marginatum (Decne. Ex Webb) - Cape Verde
  46. Sideroxylon mascatense (A. DC.) T.D. Penn. - from Ethiopia to Pakistan
  47. Sideroxylon mirmulans' R.Br. - Madeira
  48. Sideroxylon moaense (Bisse & J.E.Gut.) J.E.Gut. - Cuba
  49. Sideroxylon montanum (Sw.) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  50. Sideroxylon nadeaudii (Drake) Smedmark & Anderb. - Tahiti
  51. Sideroxylon nervosum Wall. ex G.Don - Myanmar
  52. Sideroxylon obovatum Lam. - West Indies, Venezuela
  53. Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D.Penn. - from Veracruz to Paraguay
  54. Sideroxylon occidentale (Hemsl.) T.D.Penn. - Baja California, Sonora
  55. Sideroxylon octosepalum (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Clarendon
  56. Sideroxylon oxyacanthum Baill. - Ethiopia, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia
  57. Sideroxylon palmeri (Rose) T.D.Penn. - Mexico
  58. Sideroxylon peninsulare (Brandegee) T.D.Penn. - Baja California
  59. Sideroxylon persimile (Hemsl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad
  60. Sideroxylon picardae (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Hispaniola
  61. Sideroxylon polynesicum (Hillebr.) Smedmark & Anderb. - Hawaii, Rapa-Iti
  62. Sideroxylon portoricense Urb. - Mesoamerica, Greater Antilles
  63. Sideroxylon puberulum A.DC. - Mauritius
  64. Sideroxylon reclinatum Michx. - USA (LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC)[13]
  65. Sideroxylon repens (Urb. and Ekman) T.D.Penn. - Hispaniola
  66. Sideroxylon retinerve T.D.Penn. - Honduras
  67. Sideroxylon rotundifolium (Sw.) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  68. Sideroxylon rubiginosum T.D.Penn. - Dominican Rep
  69. Sideroxylon salicifolium (L.) Lam. - West Indies, Mesoamerica, Florida
  70. Sideroxylon saxorum Lecomte - Madagascar
  71. Sideroxylon sessiliflorum (Poir.) Capuron ex Aubrév. - Mauritius
  72. Sideroxylon socorrense (Brandegee) T.D.Penn. - Socorro I
  73. Sideroxylon st-johnianum (H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse) Smedmark & Anderb. - Henderson I
  74. Sideroxylon stenospermum (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  75. Sideroxylon stevensonii (Standl.) Standl. & Steyerm. - Chiapas, Belize, Guatemala
  76. Sideroxylon tambolokoko Aubrév. - Madagascar
  77. Sideroxylon tenax L. - USA (FL, GA, SC, NC)[14]
  78. Sideroxylon tepicense (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  79. Sideroxylon thornei (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - USA (FL, GA, AL)[15]
  80. Sideroxylon verruculosum (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - Mexico
  81. Sideroxylon wightianum S.Mori - Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangdong, Vietnam

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Sideroxylon L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-09-31. Retrieved 2010-11-01.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ lectotype designated by Baillon, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 908 (1891)
  3. ^ a b Tropicos, Sideroxylon L.
  4. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 192-193 in Latin
  6. ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-521-86645-3. 
  7. ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 8 Page 236, Bully, Sideroxylon Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 192. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 89. 1754.
  8. ^ Flora of China, Vol. 15 Page 212, 铁榄属 tie lan shu Sinosideroxylon (Engler) Aubreville, Adansonia, n.s. 3: 32. 1963.
  9. ^ Witmer, M. C.; A. S. Cheke (1991). "The dodo and the tambalacoque tree: an obligate mutualism reconsidered". Oikos 61 (1): 133–137. doi:10.2307/3545415. 
  10. ^ Hershey, D. R. (2004). "The widespread misconception that the tambalacoque absolutely required the dodo for its seeds to germinate". Plant Science Bulletin 50: 105–108. 
  11. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon lanuginosum
  12. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon lycioides
  13. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon reclinatum
  14. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribtuion map, Sideroxylon tenax
  15. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon thornei
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "GRIN Species Records of Sideroxylon". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 

External links[edit]