Capture of Belgrade (1739)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Capture of Belgrade
Date 1739
Location Belgrade
44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800°N 20.467°E / 44.800; 20.467Coordinates: 44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800°N 20.467°E / 44.800; 20.467
Result Ottoman victory
Territorial
changes
Belgrade captured by Ottomans
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire Habsburg Austria
Commanders and leaders
İvaz Mehmet Pasha
Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha
Count Wallis

Capture of Belgrade refers to the recapture of Belgrade (capital of modern Serbia) by the Ottoman Empire in 1739.

Background[edit]

According to the Treaty of Pruth signed in 1711 between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, the Russians had stipulated to stop interfering in the affairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. But in the War of the Polish Succession, Habsburg Austria and the Russian Empire were allies. The Ottomans saw this alliance as a violation of the treaty and engaged in a war against Russia. Being an ally of Russia, the Austrians also declared war on the Ottoman Empire in 1737. But the Austrian army was defeated in two major battles, the Battle of Banja Luka and the Battle of Grocka, and had to fall back on Belgrade.

The siege[edit]

the Ottoman Empire had first captured Belgrade in 1521 (the first campaign of Suleyman I, the Magnificent) but lost it to Austria in 1717 (under Eugene of Savoy). The Ottomans had since then been searching for an opportunity to regain the city. After the battle of Grocka the grand vizier İvaz Mehmet Pasha laid siege to Belgrade (July 1739). In August, Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (former grand vizier) from the western front joined him. After the siege of 51 days Count Wallis, the commander of Austrians, ordered the burning of the Danubean fleet under his command and sued for peace.[1] [2]

Peace talks[edit]

Main article: Treaty of Belgrade

During the peace talks in Belgrade, Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg represented Austria and Mektupçu Ragıp (future grand vizier Koca Ragıp) ) was among the Ottoman representatives. Changing the borders caused no big problem: Austria agreed to cede territories to the Ottoman side. But the major issue was the future of Belgrade. The earliest offer of Austrians was to keep Belgrade in return for the territories ceded to Ottoman side, which the Ottoman representatives refused. The second offer of the Austrian side was to cede Belgrade on the condition that the fortifications were to be demolished. İvaz Mehmet Pasha also refused this offer. Negotiations broke down. But, Louis Sauveur Villeneuve, the French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire proposed a compromise in which only the former Ottoman fortification would be kept. Both sides agreed on the proposal and the treaty was signed on 18 September 1739.

Aftermath[edit]

Except for a brief occupation during the Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791) the Austrians were never able to capture Belgrade. The Ottomans kept the city up to the Serbian Uprising. In 1815 Belgrade was a city of semi-independent Serbia under Ottoman suzerainty. By the Treaty of Berlin (1878) Serbia gained full independence.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 20
  2. ^ Nicolae Jorga: Geschiste des Osmanichen vol IV, (trans: Nilüfer Epçeli) Yeditepe Yayınları, 2009, ISBN 975-6480-20-3 ,p.364