The Battle on Yanbu began on December 1, 1916, when Fakhri Pasha, with 2 brigades invaded the outskirts of the city. The Ottomans initially had repelled the Arabs from strategic points in the city. Within a couple of days Pasha controlled all routes in and out of the city. The Arab soldiers in the city begin constructing a makeshift airstrip for use by British aircraft. More Arab and British reinforcements arrive and strengthen defenses in the city, 5 British Navy ships also arrive to help in the defense of the city. By December 9, Arab counter-attacks open up the routes to the city, and flights from the HMS Raven II severely attack Ottoman columns. Because of the Navys presence in the ocean off of Yanbu, Pasha calls off all advances on the night of December 11/12. Due to logistical errors, and counterattacks from the Arabs, the Ottomans start the retreat to Medina on January 18, 1917, thus, ending the Recapture of Yanbu.