Gerald Posner

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Gerald Posner
Gerald Posner March 2013.jpg
Posner in Miami, Florida in March 2013.
Born (1954-05-20) May 20, 1954 (age 60)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Nationality American
Occupation Writer
Spouse(s) Trisha Posner

Gerald Posner (born May 20, 1954) is an American investigative journalist and author of several books, including Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (1993) which explores the John F. Kennedy assassination, and Killing the Dream: James Earl Ray and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1998). A plagiarism scandal, involving his articles and books, arose in 2010.[1][2][3][4][5]

Early life and education[edit]

Posner was born in San Francisco, the only child of Jerry and Gloria Posner, native San Franciscans. His father was a labor union official.

Posner was educated at St. Ignatius College Preparatory (1972), the University of California, Berkeley, (B.A.), (1975), and University of California, Hastings College of the Law (J.D.), (1978). He worked for prominent law firm Cravath, Swaine & Moore until 1980 when he went into private practice with a partner. John Martin of ABC News says "Gerald Posner is one of the most resourceful investigators I have encountered in thirty years of journalism."[citation needed] Garry Wills calls Posner "a superb investigative reporter,"[citation needed] while John Balzar, reviewing one of his books in the Los Angeles Times, dubs him "a classic-style investigative journalist."[6] Richard Bernstein, reviewing one of his books in the New York Times, lauded his "exhaustive research techniques".[7]

When Posner was hired at Cravath at age 23, he was one of the youngest attorneys ever hired by them.[8] A Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude graduate of the University of California, Berkeley (1975), he was an Honors Graduate of University of California, Hastings College of the Law (1978), where he served as the Associate Executive Editor for the Law Review.[citation needed] He left the law in 1986, when his first book, about Nazi Dr. Josef Mengele's life on the run, was published by McGraw Hill.

Career[edit]

Mengele[edit]

Posner was the coauthor (with British journalist John Ware) of a 1986 biography of Nazi "Angel of Death" Dr. Josef Mengele (McGraw-Hill). The book was the result of a five year pro-bono lawsuit that attorney Posner had brought on behalf of survivors of Mengele's medical experiments at Auschwitz.[9] Posner and Ware obtained exclusive access to 5,000 pages of Mengele's diaries and personal papers for their book.[10][11] The book was critically recognized as the "definitive" biography of Mengele.[12]

Posner testified before the U.S. Senate (1986) about how Mengele used an International Red Cross passport to safely travel from Europe to Argentina in 1949.[13] He also testified about the discovery made by him and Ware that Mengele had twice been captured by U.S. Army troops in 1945, but released both times before authorities realized he was on several Wanted Lists.[13] In June 1986, Posner appeared with Mengele's only son, Rolf Mengele, on the Phil Donahue talk show. Writer Lewis Grizzard, in his nationally syndicated newspaper column, called the hour-long live program "an incredibly compelling piece of television journalism."[14] When the Justice Department's Office of Special Investigations released its 201-page report in 1992 about what the U.S. government knew about Mengele over the decades (In the Matter of Josef Mengele, A Report to the Attorney General of the United States), the report noted that the Justice Department was "indebted to Gerald L. Posner..."[15]

Warlords of Crime[edit]

In 1988, Posner published "Warlords of Crime: Chinese Secret Societies: The New Mafia (McGraw-Hill). It was an exposé of Triads and international heroin syndicates. Posner, and his wife, Trisha, traveled to Hong Kong, the Golden Triangle, the Netherlands, San Francisco, London and New York to conduct research in person with drug dealers.[9] In its review of the book, the Chicago Tribune later commented on his research: "Posner is persuasive for the facts he gathered, all the more so because his narrative is largely the story of how he got the story, what he was told by the criminals and by law enforcement agents here and abroad and, most persuasive of all, what he saw with his own eyes. He does not dramatize; he doesn't have to. The chilling story he unearthed speaks for itself." [16] Ex-New York detective and best-selling novelist, Dorothy Uhnak, wrote in The New York Times that "'Warlords of Crime' is powerful, frightening and, unfortunately, nonfiction." [17] The Los Angeles Times called the book "grim and ultraviolent." [18][19] "Warlords" was bought by Touchstone/Disney for a motion picture.[18]

Hitler's Children[edit]

Posner's 1991 book, "Hitler's Children: Sons and Daughters of Leaders of the Third Reich Talk About Themselves and their Fathers," included in-depth interviews with a dozen children of top Nazis. The book received a strong critical reception, represented best by the "Los Angeles Times" review: "This is a mesmerizing, blood-chilling book, a set of oral histories of the sons and daughters of 11 of Hitler's top men. It is barely possible to read more than a few pages at a time; the contrast between innocent childhood experience, and the awful understanding of that experience that came with time, is enough to make you weep."[20] But Christopher Lehmann-Haupt in the New York Times questioned whether Posner's book length treatment was necessary to study the children of Nazi perpetrators. "Perhaps it would have been more enlightening had Mr. Posner studied fewer cases more intensely, or even a single case from the most intimate point of view."[21]

Case Closed[edit]

In his book Case Closed, Posner contended that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy and Oswald's murderer, Jack Ruby, acted independently as well. Case Closed was a New York Times bestseller and a finalist for the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for History. It was also the subject of a double issue of U.S. News and World Report, and featured on programs such as ABC's 20/20, CBS Special Reports, and PBS's Frontline. The book was optioned for a television miniseries by David Wolper.[22] In his subsequent autobiography (Producer: A Memoir), Wolper, the producer of 29 television movies, including the acclaimed miniseries Roots, cited his failure to get Case Closed made into a movie as one of two career disappointments.[23]

In 1993, Posner testified before the Legislation and National Security Subcommittee of the United States House Committee on Government Operations about the findings in Case Closed.[24] In 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board briefly referenced this testimony in discussing two unsuccessful attempts to acquire the interview notes of two physicians, James Humes and J. Thorton Boswell, that Posner said he possessed.[25]

Case Closed drew widespread critical acclaim from the mainstream media;[26] exceptions included The Economist, which said the book "does little more than smugly slant every piece of disputed evidence in favour of the lone-assassin theory — an approach exactly opposite to that of conspiracy writers, who follow every inference in the evidence to their own illogical conclusions".[27] Case Closed also drew widespread criticism from academics involved in assassination research as well as from non-academic assassination researchers who contended that it contained factual inaccuracies.[28][29][30][31][32] For example, historian David Wrone wrote that "massive numbers of factual errors suffuse the book".[29] Vincent Bugliosi, whose own book Reclaiming History largely agrees with Posner's conclusions, accused Posner of "omissions and distortions" but also described Case Closed as "an impressive work".[33] "He is perhaps public enemy No. 1 to members of what might be called the JFK conspiracy industry," wrote journalist Paul Galloway.[34]

Coinciding with the 50th anniversary of the assassination in 2013, Gallup released a national poll showing that while a majority (61%) of Americans still believed a conspiracy was behind JFK's death, the number of those who thought it was a lone assassin (30%) was the highest in 46 years.[35] Although some mainstream media commentators The Independent said that "for Americans, JFK will never be case closed,",[36] others Economist cited "Case Closed" and concluded, "50 years on, face it, Oswald did it."[37] Historian Robert Dallek called "Case Closed" "authoritative,"[38] and said, "the best book on this subject is by a man named Gerald Posner, called "Case Closed," I think he has responded very effectively to all the conspiracy theories, and there are so many of them."[39] Pulitzer Prize winning journalist, Hector Tobar wrote in the Los Angeles Times that "Case Closed" was "the book that cured me of JFK conspiracies once and for all."[40]

Secret Service agent Clint Hill tweeted on the 50th anniversary, November 22, 2013, "3 shots. All from the 6th floor of the TX Schoolbk Depository. 1 gun. 1 shooter named LHO. I was there. Case Closed." [41]

"Case Closed" continued to generate widely divergent views. Film director Oliver Stone,[42] told a JFK assassination conference in Pittsburg that "Case Closed" was discredited and "there's nothing in the movie (JFK film) that I would go back on."[43] Posner, on the day of the 50th anniversary, told CNN's Anderson Cooper that "the only thing he [Stone] gets right in 'JFK' is the date on which Kennedy is killed.[44]

Killing the Dream[edit]

As controversial and talked-about as "Case Closed" was Posner's 1998 "Killing the Dream: James Earl Ray and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr." (Random House). The book concluded that confessed assassin, James Earl Ray, killed Martin Luther King Jr. acting alone, likely for the hope of collecting a racist bounty for the murder.[45] Among other portions of his book, Posner tracked down for the first time the mysterious "Raoul," fingered by James Earl Ray as the mastermind of a conspiracy to kill King and to frame Ray. After setting out to settle Ray's Raoul story, Posner challenged as a hoax the widely printed conspiracy story that Green Beret snipers from the 20th Special Forces Group were in Memphis on the day of the assassination.[45][46][47]

"Killing the Dream" was the largest private reinvestigation of the King assassination in 30 years.[48] As was "Case Closed," "Killing the Dream" was widely praised and embraced by the mainstream press, and among the national broadcasts that featured the book included CBS 48 Hours, Charlie Rose and TODAY.[49] Richard Bernstein in The New York Times wrote that the book was "the most comprehensive and definitive study of the King assassination to date....He [Posner] has rendered a valuable service by putting the King murder under his magnifying glass. One finishes this book reassured that no dark secrets remain, that no unexplained details need bedevil the national composure."[45] Two-time Pulitzer prize winning journalist and columnist, Anthony Lewis, in the New York Times Book Review, said, "With 'Killing the Dream,' he [Posner] has written a superb book: a model of investigation, meticulous in its discovery and presentation of evidence, unbiased in its exploration of every claim. And it is a wonderfully readable book, as gripping as a first-class detective story." [47] [50][51][52]

On the other hand, conspiracy theorists bristled at "Killing the Dream," criticizing Posner for in part basing "his King book on a psychological evaluation of James Earl Ray, which he [Posner] is not qualified to give, and he dismisses evidence of conspiracy in King's murder as cynical attempts to exploit the tragedy." [53] William Pepper, Ray's final defense attorney, repeatedly dismissed Posner's book as inaccurate and misleading. Dexter King, one of Martin Luther King's sons, also criticized it.[54] In 1999, the King family, represented by Pepper, brought a civil lawsuit in which a jury found evidence of a conspiracy involving Loyd Jowers, the owner of a restaurant near the assassination site. In response to that verdict, Posner told The New York Times, "It distresses me greatly that the legal system was used in such a callous and farcical manner in Memphis. If the King family wanted a rubber stamp of their own view of the facts, they got it."[55]

Motown[edit]

Posner seemingly took a respite from assassination controversy in his 2002 book, "Motown: Music, Money, Sex and Power," a business history of one of America's most successful recording labels. The New York Times Janet Maslin said the book was "actually a much more reputable book than its title suggests" and concludes that "Happily, Mr. Posner, a former Wall Street lawyer, has a good ear for tales, tall or otherwise. And he also assiduously digs into the business practices that turned the Motown story sour."[56] Most of the mainstream press echoed the San Francisco Chronicle that concluded "Posner offers the most objective and thoroughly accurate history of the label to date, plus a detailed and complex portrait of its founder, Berry Gordy."[57] In his New York Times review of the 2013 Broadway show, "Motown: The Musical," Charles Isherwood noted, "For a full and coherent history of Mr. Gordy’s game-changing music factory, you’d need to check out Gerald Posner’s engrossing book “Motown: Music, Money, Sex and Power.”[58] The criticism by some of "Motown" was that Posner was "tone deaf about music" but invariably noted that since he had written a business history, not a review of the label's music, "to his credit, Posner claims to be nothing more than a historian anyway..."[59]

Why America Slept[edit]

In 2003 Random House published Posner's Why America Slept, which discusses the conspiracy of the Arab al-Qaeda terrorists who were responsible for the September 11, 2001, attacks. In the book Posner claims that Prince Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud had ties to al-Qaeda and advance knowledge of the 9/11 attacks. This assertion was strongly denied by Prince Ahmed's family, who pointed out that he in fact loved America, spent time at his home there, and invested heavily in the American horse racing industry.[60] Prince Ahmed, two other Saudi princes named by Posner, and the chief of the Pakistani Air Force, all died within days of each other, either from a blood clot after a simple operation, a car wreck involving only one vehicle, dehydration in the desert, or a sabotaged helicopter explosion.[61][62] Three of the men were in their forties, and one in his twenties. In Why America Slept, Posner became the first journalist to reveal the details of an American interrogation against one of the highest ranking Al Qaeda suspects caught to date.[62] Why America Slept reached No. 2 on the New York Times best-seller list.[63]

Secrets of the Kingdom[edit]

In his 2005 book Secrets of the Kingdom: The Inside Story of the Secret Saudi-U.S. Connection, Posner provides an account of the "close" business and personal relationship between the House of Saud and the U.S. government, including discussions of "dirty bomb" technology and the financial and political maneuvering surrounding 9/11. Posner also asserts that the Saudis have built an elaborate doomsday scenario around their oil fields. The Saudis have denied this, and some skepticism has been expressed about the plausibility of Posner's account of such a scheme.[64] According to Posner, he and his wife, Trisha, have been banned from entering Saudi Arabia as a result of this book.

Miami Babylon[edit]

This 2009 book explores the history of Miami Beach, with a particular focus on corruption, extravagance, and the drug trade. Some of the individuals interviewed by Posner for Miami Babylon have complained of severe misquoting and inaccuracies.[65] Miami Babylon has been optioned for a television series.[66][67]

Editorial writings[edit]

Posner was a strong supporter of Al Gore for the 2000 presidential election, and wrote a Wall Street Journal editorial shortly after the 9/11 attacks reversing his opinion of George W. Bush.[68] Later he changed his opinion again; in October 2006, in "An Open Letter to the President",[69] published on The Huffington Post, he reverted to his original position that Bush was a bad president stifled by his stubbornness. He also wrote about investigative issues for The New York Times, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Talk, Newsweek, Time, the Miami Herald, and the Daily Telegraph. He was a regular contributor to NBC's Today Show, as well as other national shows on the History Channel, CNN, FOX News, and CBS. He was a frequent guest on MSNBC's Countdown with Keith Olbermann. A member of the National Advisory Board of the National Writers Union, Posner is also a member of the Authors Guild, International PEN, The Committee to Protect Journalists, and Phi Beta Kappa. He worked on all his projects with his wife Trisha Posner, who is also an author and artist.[70] Posner was the Chief Investigative Reporter for The Daily Beast, until his dismissal due to plagiarism in 2010.[71]

Film Projects[edit]

Posner was a regular panelist on HistoryCENTER, the History Channel's weekly current affairs discussion program, from 2000-2002.[72] He has also had an on-air role in broadcast documentaries, including among others the 1993 Frontline "Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?"; "Who Killed JFK: The Final Chapter" (1994); "Hitler and Stalin, A Legacy of Hate"(1994); "The Secret KGB JFK Assassination File" (1999); "Jack Ruby on Trial" History Channel (2004); "Gangs of New York", History Channel (2002); "Conspiracy", TV Series (2004–05); "Beyond Biba - A Portrait of Barbara Hulanicki", (2009); "Roads to Memphis", a look at the Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination, American Experience PBS, 2010; and "JFK Assassination: The Definitive Guide", History Channel (2013).[72][73][74]

Posner has also been a Historical Consultant on two Holocaust-related episodes - "Liberation and Revenge" and "Frenzied Killing", both in 2005 - of the documentary series "Auschwitz: The Nazis and the 'Final Solution'".[72][73] He was also the consultant to "Inheritance," a 2006 documentary about the story of Monika Hertwig and her effort to grapple with the enormity of the crimes of her father, Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp commander, Amon Goeth.[73] And in 2013, Posner was again the Historical Consultant, this time for PBS/NOVA "Cold Case JFK", an updated ballistics examination of the JFK assassination.[73]

Posner was also the Consulting Producer of the film documentary, "The Barrel of a Gun", by Tigre Hill, about the 1981 murder of a Philadelphia police officer and the convicted murderer, Abu-Jamal.[73]

Personal life[edit]

Posner is married to author and journalist Trisha Posner.[75]

Controversies[edit]

Plagiarism and quote falsification[edit]

In 2010, Posner was the chief investigative reporter at the Daily Beast. Following the revelation that a number of Posner's stories for the Beast contained portions plagiarized from articles in other publications, Posner resigned from the Beast.[71][76][77][78][79] According to Posner, the plagiarism was inadvertent and the result of the "compressed deadlines" of the Beast and confusing his assembled research with his own writing in the "master files" he assembled on each story. Allegations of plagiarism also surfaced concerning his latest book, Miami Babylon (October 2009).[80][81] Posner said the Miami Babylon plagiarism occurred because of a new system of "trailing endnotes", because an individual he interviewed read one of the plagiarized sources and reiterated it during the interview, and because he mistook other people's writing for his own after scanning source documents into a computer database.[82][83] The Miami New Times also found that Posner "seems to add, subtract, or misattribute quotes" and displayed a series of such "apparently altered or misattributed quotes".[81][84] For all the examples shown, Posner cited a source article, where an examination of the source showed that the quote given in Posner's writing was either substantially altered (e.g., words added), never said by the subject, misattributed, or used out of context.

Posner subsequently hired attorney Mark Lane, threatening litigation against the Miami New Times on grounds of tortious interference (i.e., that its investigation and reporting of this case damaged Posner's business relationship with his publishers) and emotional distress.[85][86][87] In a press release, Posner stated "Although I'm convinced Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President Kennedy, I've always believed that had Mark Lane represented Oswald, he would have won an acquittal. That's why Mark Lane was the obvious choice as my own attorney."[85] Soon thereafter, the Miami New Times published evidence of additional plagiarism from multiple sources in both Secrets of the Kingdom and Why America Slept.[88] According to Poynter Institute senior scholar Roy Peter Clark, "This constitutes plagiarism by any definition I can think of....The capturing of someone else's material that is this extensive cannot, in my opinion, have been done accidentally."[89] Evidence was also presented indicating that Posner had repeatedly "scrubbed" elements of the journalism scandal from his Wikipedia page.[89] According to Posner, the media reports detailing his journalistic transgressions were actually the result of a "coordinated effort" to "discredit my book Miami Babylon" because of the book's "unvarnished and investigative history".

Harper Lee lawsuit[edit]

On May 3, 2013, Posner was named in a federal lawsuit brought by famed author Harper Lee in Manhattan. Lee claimed that Samuel Pinkus, her literary agent's son-in-law, tricked her into signing away her rights to To Kill a Mockingbird, directing the royalties to be paid into a corporation formed by Posner for that purpose.[90]

Before he even filed an answer in the case, it was dismissed against Posner on September 5, 2013.[91] The lawsuit was dismissed with prejudice, meaning that Lee cannot file the same claim against him.[92] Posner told the Miami Herald that, "I have always maintained that not a single contention about me in the complaint was accurate. I was simply the wrong person named in the wrong lawsuit." [93] And to Law360, he said, "I am gratified the complaint was dismissed. There was never any basis for this lawsuit against me." [94]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mengele: The Complete Story (1986)
  • Warlords of Crime: Chinese Secret Societies – The New Mafia (1988)
  • Bio-Assassins (1989)
  • Hitler's Children: Sons and Daughters of Leaders of the Third Reich Talk About Their Fathers and Themselves (1991) ISBN 978-0-394-58299-3
  • Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (1993) ISBN 978-0-679-41825-2
  • Citizen Perot: His Life and Times (1996)
  • Killing the Dream: James Earl Ray and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1998) ISBN 978-0-375-50082-4
  • Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11 (2003) ISBN 978-0-375-50879-0
  • Motown: Music, Money, Sex, and Power (Music of the Great Lakes) (2003) Random House ISBN 978-0-375-50062-6
  • Secrets of the Kingdom: The Inside Story of the Saudi-U.S. Connection (2005) ISBN 978-1-4000-6291-1
  • Miami Babylon: Crime, Wealth and Power – A Dispatch From the Beach (2009) ISBN 978-1-4165-7656-3

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gerald Posner RESIGNS From Daily Beast Over Plagiarism Scandal by Danny Shea, The Huffington Post, February 11, 2010.
  2. ^ 3 Lessons from Gerald Posner's Plagiarism Scandal by John Hudson, The Atlantic Wire, February 12, 2010
  3. ^ Plagiarism Excuses. Taking—er, borrowing—a page out of the Gerald Posner playbook. by David Graham, Newsweek, February 11, 2010
  4. ^ Amid book scandal, authors Gerald Posner and Frank Owen confront each other at Miami Beach Botanical Garden by Steve Rothaus, Miami Herald, April 2010
  5. ^ Fun Plagiarism Scandal Becoming Funner Lawsuit and Conspiracy Scandal by Hamilton Nolan, Gawker, May 13, 2010
  6. ^ Balzar, John (August 11, 1996). "Review of Posner's ''Citizen Perot : His Life and Times'' in ''The Los Angeles Times''". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Review of Posner's ''Killing the Dream: James Earl Ray and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.'' in ''The New York Times''". Nytimes.com. April 22, 1998. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  8. ^ Posner, Gerald. "Gerald Posner". Huffington Post. 
  9. ^ a b http://www.bitterlawyer.com/gerald-posner-cravath-to-controversy/
  10. ^ http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133d/essays/Posner1986TPolfer083.htm
  11. ^ "How Nazi War Criminal Josef Mengele Cheated Justice for 34Years," Chicago Tribune Magazine, May 18, 1986
  12. ^ "A fascinating account of Mengele's life on the run and the fruitless efforts to apprehend him." "Mengele: The Complete Story: A Review," by Harry Trimborn, Los Angeles Times Book Review, July 13, 1986, p. 9

    "The book effectively paints a picture of a lonely, embittered Nazi. It knocks down decades of myths that Mengele was shielded by a protective squad of underground Nazis." "Book Review: Mengele, Entertainment, United Press International, July 18, 1986, BC Cycle

    "The research is remarkable." "Escape for the Angel of Death, Mengele: The Complete Story," by John Gellner, The Globe and Mail (Canada), July 19, 1986, p. D17

    "The Mengele story has now been told, excellently, by the authors of this book..." Books: Evil of the Mediocre/Review of Mengele, by Norman Stone, The Sunday Times (London), August 31, 1986, Issue 8456

    "Well researched and wonderfully free of all the customary fantasy and exaggeration...Fascinating." "The Death Doctors," by Neal Ascherson, The New York Review of Books, May 28, 1987

    "This highly engrossing book gives the fullest account yet published of Josef Mengele's life..." "Mengele: Review," Publishers Weekly, June 1986

    "It's a pity that the official search for him did not match the vigor with which Posner and Ware stalk their subject in print." Mengele: The Complete Story, Book Review Supplement, San Francisco Chronicle, July 1986.

  13. ^ a b http://kahler.org/mengele.pdf
  14. ^ http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1986-06-26/news/8606280557_1_josef-mengele-posner-donahue
  15. ^ http://www.justice.gov/criminal/hrsp/archives/1992/10-01-92mengele-rpt.pdf
  16. ^ Warlords of Crime: Review, by Clarence Petersen, Chicago Tribune Books Review supplement, Zone C, paperbacks, p. 8
  17. ^ Warlords of Crime: Review, by Dorothy Uhnak, The New York Times, Book Review, October 9, 1988, p. BR35
  18. ^ a b "Outtakes: Coming to America," by Pat H. Broeske, Los Angeles Times, March 12, 1989, Calendar Section, p. 36
  19. ^ "Fascinating." Courier Mail (Canada), by G. Clark, June 3, 1989.

    "Excellent." History of Chinese Organized Crime, by Bill Wallace, San Francisco Chronicle," August 13, 2000, Sunday Book Review, mentioned in a review of The Dragon Syndicates, p. 5.

  20. ^ Stabiner, Karen (May 5, 1991). "Nonfiction". Los Angeles Times. 
  21. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (June 24, 1991). "Books of The Times; Nazis' Children Contend With Their Legacy". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ "The JFK Debate Gets 'Case Closed,' The Movie," Outlook: Science & Society, "U.S. News & World Report," November 1, 1993.
  23. ^ Producer: A Memoir – David L. Wolper – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  24. ^ The effectiveness of Public Law 102-526, the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992: Hearing before the Legislation and National Security Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, November 17, 1993. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 1994. p. 26. ISBN 0-16-043551-X. 
  25. ^ Assassination Records Review Board (September 30, 1998). "Chapter 7: Pursuit of Records and Information from Non-Federal Sources". Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board (pdf). Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. p. 134. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  26. ^ Kansas City Star, November 13, 2003: “Also notable from 1993 was a terrific three-hour documentary, ‘Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?’ produced by the PBS series ‘Frontline.’ It will reair at 9 p.m. ET Thursday on KCPT, Channel 19. Using Gerald Posner as an expert witness—he had just written Case Closed, a meticulous brief for the lone-gunman view—‘Frontline’ picked apart all of the most plausible alternative scenarios for the killings of both Kennedy and Oswald.”

    The Toronto Sun, February 22, 1994: “In fact, I think all conspiracy theories are blown out of the water by Posner's meticulous research and careful conclusions.”

    Sydney Morning Herald, November 27, 1993: “PAINSTAKING re-examination of the greatest murder mystery of modern times: who killed JFK? It's no mystery concludes lawyer/journalist [Posner]: lone assassin Lee Harvey Oswald did it. And who would argue after reading this meticulous analysis, complete with graphics, illustrations and detailed appendices?”

    Chicago Tribune, October 3, 1993: "Half of 'Case Closed' is a meticulous examination of Oswald's entire life, culminating in an almost day-by-day chronicle of his movements in the last two months before the assassination."

    Newsday (New York), September 16, 1993: "Posner employs meticulous research to reach what counts as a novel conclusion: That, for all its flaws, the Warren Commission was right. Oswald killed JFK without help from anyone.”

    Agence France Presse, November 21, 1993: “In the flurry of publications marking the 30th anniversary of Kennedy's death, one book, ‘Case Closed’ by journalist Gerald Posner, was singled out for its thorough and thoughtful treatment of the subject.”

    Buffalo News (New York), October 24, 1993: “[P]osner has done an impressively thorough job with the ashes of a 30-year-old case."

    The Miami Herald, October 10, 1993: "Richard Reeves' President Kennedy and Gerald Posner's Case Closed are rigorously thorough and finely crafted contributions to a confusing historical record."

    Newsday (New York), September 16, 1993: "Its appeal lies both in its thorough, apparently even-handed research, and the fact that, following the publication in recent years of a near-constant stream of conspiracy books, 'Case Closed' may be the first by a respected author to argue persuasively for the Oswald-alone theory, a scenario most Americans dismissed years ago."

    The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec), September 11, 1993: "The author is also thorough in his coverage of Oswald's Marine service and subsequent defection to the Soviet Union (information about which is scarce).”

    Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, FL), September 18, 1993: "Posner's exact and thorough destruction of the conspiracy theorists gives you Oswald the man, not Oswald the brilliant secret agent or Oswald the hapless patsy."

    Florida Today, April 24, 2000: "The industry standard belongs perhaps to lawyer-turned- investigative reporter Gerald Posner, whose meticulous Case Closed in 1993 was an immersion into assassination minutiae."

    The Toronto Star, November 20, 1993: "Case Closed is not by any means a crackpot work but a thorough job with some pretensions to scholarship."

    Chicago Tribune, Book Review, Jeffrey Toobin, September 12, 1993: "Unlike many of the 2,000 other books that have been written about the Kennedy assassination, Posner's 'Case Closed' is a resolutely sane piece of work. More importantly, 'Case Closed' is utterly convincing in its thesis, which seems, in light of all that has transpired over the past 30 years, almost revolutionary. His thesis is this: Lee Harvey Oswald killed Kennedy by himself…. I started ‘Case Closed’ as a skeptic—and slightly put off by the presumptuous title. To my mind historical truth is always a slippery thing. The chances of knowing for sure what happened in any event—much less one as murky as the Kennedy assassination—seem remote. But this fascinating and important book won me over. Case closed, indeed.”

    Entertainment Weekly, Gene Lyons, September 24, 1993: “As thorough and incisive a job of reporting and critical thinking as you will ever read, Case Closed does more than buttress the much beleaguered Warren Commission's conclusion ….More than that, Posner's book is written in a penetrating, lucid style that makes it a joy to read. Even the footnotes, often briskly debunking one or another fanciful or imaginary scenario put forth by the conspiracy theorists, rarely fail to enthrall…. Case Closed is a work of genuine patriotism and a monument to the astringent power of reason. ‘A’”

    US News & World Report, August 23, 1993: “He [Posner] sweeps away decades of polemical smoke, layer by layer, and builds an unshakable case against JFK's killer."

    NYTBR (in the review of Norman Mailer's Oswald's Tale), April 30, 1995. "Gerald Posner's 'Case Closed' (1993), which argues with an awesome command of evidentiary detail that Oswald did it, period."

    Dallas Morning News, June 22, 1997: "More than three decades after the Kennedy assassination, there still are Americans who wonder. Gerald Posner's masterful study of that case should have laid those doubts to rest for thinking readers…”

  27. ^ The Economist, "The death of a president", October 9th 1993; cited in 2013 letter published by The Economist
  28. ^ John M. Newman, The Baltimore Sun, September 22, 1993, Case Closed doesn't close the Oswald file
  29. ^ a b David R. Wrone. "Review of Gerald Posner, Case Closed.", Journal of Southern History 6 (February 1995), pp. 186–188.
  30. ^ Peter Dale Scott, "A Review of Gerald Posner, Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, Deep Politics II: Essays on Oswald, Skokie, Illinois, Green Archives Publications, 1995.
  31. ^ Harold Weisberg, Case Open: The Omissions, Distortions and Falsifications of Case Closed, NY, Carroll and Graf, 1994.
  32. ^ Martin Shackelford, "Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, by Gerald Posner: A Preliminary Critique," The Investigator, August–September 1993.
  33. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History, Introduction, p. xxxviii
  34. ^ Galloway, Paul (May 18, 1998). "Killing Conspiracy Theories". Chicago Tribune. 
  35. ^ http://www.gallup.com/poll/165893/majority-believe-jfk-killed-conspiracy.aspx
  36. ^ Cornwell, Rupert (November 17, 2013). "For Americans, JFK will never be case closed". The Independent (London). 
  37. ^ "Face it: Oswald did it". The Economist. November 23, 2013. 
  38. ^ Joseph Palermo, "The 50th Anniversary of the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (Part One), Huffington Post, November 8, 2013
  39. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiQyDa4N8PQ
  40. ^ Tobar, Hector (November 20, 2013). "The book that cured me of JFK conspiracies once and for all". Los Angeles Times. 
  41. ^ https://twitter.com/clinthill_SS/status/403384506029064192
  42. ^ Oliver Stone
  43. ^ "Oliver Stone: There's nothing in 'JFK' I would go back on - CNN.com". CNN. November 22, 2013. 
  44. ^ http://www-cgi.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1311/22/acd.01.html
  45. ^ a b c The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/04/19/daily/posner-book-review.html |url= missing title (help). 
  46. ^ http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/parnell/killing.htm
  47. ^ a b The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/04/26/reviews/980426.26lewist.html |url= missing title (help). 
  48. ^ The Washington Post. January 30, 1999 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/mlk/memphis/memphis.htm |url= missing title (help). 
  49. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGZaLHwsZzw
  50. ^ "Writing in the clear, forceful manner of a reporter in total command of his facts, Posner has produced . . . the definitive account of a landmark event." Philadelphia Inquirer, April 1998; "Prodigiously researched and painstakingly detailed. Savannah Morning News, May 1988; "Combining fresh reporting with a careful review of the investigation, and using the common sense that is a scarce commodity in this field, Posner does for the King assassination what he did for the JFK killing in his book, 'Case Closed.' USA Today, April 1988
  51. ^ "'Killing the Dream,'a heavily researched and well-written examination of the facts by author Gerald Posner, strives to lay the question to rest, much to the chagrin of a cadre of conspiracy buffs. Posner succeeds." http://edition.cnn.com/books/reviews/9804/27/killing.the.dream.cnn/index.html
  52. ^ "Posner's 'Killing the Dream; is a state-of-the-art review and reconsideration of everything that's known about Ray and the events that led up to King's assassination." "New 'leads' in King case invariably go nowhere," by David J. Garrow, The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, Perspective Section, March 29, 1998, pp. C1-2.
  53. ^ http://www.umsl.edu/~thomaskp/mlk.htm
  54. ^ William F. Pepper - An Act of State, rev. ed. (2008), Synopsis, by Mark K. Jensen, Scribd.
  55. ^ Yellin, Emily (December 9, 1999). "Memphis Jury Sees Conspiracy in Martin Luther King's Killing". The New York Times. 
  56. ^ Maslin, Janet (January 2, 2003). "BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Tales From Detroit's Other Industry". The New York Times. 
  57. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/books/article/Our-editors-recommend-2639353.php; "An investigative journalist who keeps his narrative in fine rhythm, Posner details the dark side of the heavenly Motown sound" http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20139168,00.html; "Most of what Posner presents has been aired before, though seldom as relentlessly and with as much documentation. Like other '60s icons, Motown turns out to have had a side seamy enough to rival that of the Kennedys' Camelot. Posner roasts Motown to a turn to feed pop-culture fans' taste for destroying the idols they once worshipped. Delicious." Booklist, December 2012
  58. ^ Isherwood, Charles (April 14, 2013). "‘Motown: The Musical,' Berry Gordy's Story". The New York Times. 
  59. ^ http://www.popmatters.com/review/motown-music-money-sex-and-power/
  60. ^ http://www.geni.com/people/Prince-Ahmed-bin-Salman-bin-Abdulaziz-Al-Saud/6000000011196199493
  61. ^ Time. August 31, 2003 http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,480226,00.html |url= missing title (help). 
  62. ^ a b http://hnn.us/article/1680
  63. ^ http://www.pkarchive.org/personal/NYTBestSeller4.html
  64. ^ With Friends Like These, by Thomas Lippman, Washington Post, May 29, 2005
  65. ^ Miami Babylon backlash, backstabbing and bitchery by Lesley Abravanel, "Miami Herald", October 14, 2009.
  66. ^ Plagiarist Gerald Posner Nabs TV Deal for Miami Babylon. Where's Our Check? by Tim Elfrink, "Miami New Times", May 27, 2010
  67. ^ Gerald Posner’s Originality Pays Off by Hamilton Nolan, "Gawker", May 27, 2010
  68. ^ I Was Wrong About Bush, The Wall Street Journal, 2001-09-25.
  69. ^ Posner, Gerald (October 3, 2006). "An Open Letter to the President". Huffington Post. 
  70. ^ "Trishaposner.com". Trishaposner.com. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  71. ^ a b The Posner Plagiarism Perplex, by Jack Shafer, Slate magazine, February 11, 2010.
  72. ^ a b c "Gerald Posner". The New York Times. 
  73. ^ a b c d e http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0692716/
  74. ^ http://www.historychannel.com.au/tv-shows/1312/jfk-assassination-the-definitive-guide
  75. ^ http://www.trishaposner.com
  76. ^ Bustos, Sergio R. "Gerald Posner resigns from Daily Beast amid plagiarism allegations". Miamiherald.com. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  77. ^ Shafer, Jack (February 5, 2010). "Plagiarism at the Daily Beast: Gerald Posner concedes lifting from the Miami Herald. – By Jack Shafer – Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  78. ^ More Posner Plagiarism, by Jack Shafer, Slate magazine, February 8, 2010.
  79. ^ Daily Beast lifts from Salon—again by Joan Walsh. April 1, 2010.
  80. ^ Gerald Posner Plagiarized Several Passages in Miami Babylon, Author Says, by Tim Elfrink, Miami New Times, March 16, 2010.
  81. ^ a b Gerald Posner plagiarized New Times, PBS, and many others, by Tim Elfrink, Miami New Times, March 30, 2010.
  82. ^ Gerald Posner plagiarizes again, this time at book speed, by Tim Elfrink, Miami New Times, March 25, 2010.
  83. ^ Posner Says He Failed to Source Material for Book, by Hillel Italie, ABC News, March 17, 2010.
  84. ^ More Gerald Posner Plagiarism in Miami Babylon, From New Times, PBS, and Many Others, by Tim Elfrink, Miami New Times, March 30, 2010.
  85. ^ a b Attorney Mark Lane Retained by Author Gerald Posner to Represent Him in Media Case, May 13, 2010.
  86. ^ Gerald Posner Hires Rush to Judgment Author Mark Lane in Plagiarism Case, by Tim Elfrink, Miami New Times, May 13, 2010.
  87. ^ Plagiarism Plagued Posner Hires Grassy Knoll Guru to Take On New Times, by Jessica Sick, "NBC Miami", May 13, 2010.
  88. ^ Gerald Posner Plagiarized in Why America Slept and Secrets of the Kingdom, Research Shows, by Tim Elfrink, May 18, 2010.
  89. ^ a b Posner Plagiarizes Again, by Tim Elfrink, May 20, 2010.
  90. ^ http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/agent_is_atticus_filch_dHGLvpNU7ivrWxftqQSlwL.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  91. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/to-kill-a-mockingbird-author-settles-copyright-suit-against-2-defendants-terms-undisclosed/2013/09/06/f1369402-1754-11e3-961c-f22d3aaf19ab_story.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  92. ^ http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090711184527AAJlWQs
  93. ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/09/06/3609822/posner-off-the-hook-robin-thicke.html
  94. ^ http://www.law360.com/articles/470604/harper-lee-settles-with-agent-over-mockingbird-copyright

External links[edit]