Central cord syndrome

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Central Cord Syndrome
Classification and external resources
Cord s.svg
Central cord syndrome is top diagram
ICD-9 T1-6 952.13
T7-12 952.18
C1-4 952.03
C5-7 952.08
Lumbar 952.2
Sacral 952.3
DiseasesDB 33409
eMedicine pmr/22
MeSH D020210

Central cord syndrome (CCS) is an acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) that can affect a large and diverse group of patients. It was first described by Schneider in 1954.[1]

It has been reported that CCS most frequently occurs among older persons with cervical spondylosis, however, it also may occur in younger individuals.[2]

CCS is the most common incomplete SCI syndrome. It accounts for approximately 9% of traumatic SCIs.[3] It is generally associated with favorable prognosis for some degree of neurological and functional recovery. However, factors such as age, preexisting conditions and extent of injury will affect the recovery process.

Presentation[edit]

It is characterized by disproportionately greater motor impairment in upper compared to lower extremities, and variable degree of sensory loss below the level of injury in combination with bladder dysfunction and urinary retention.[4] This syndrome differs from that of a complete lesion, which is characterized by total loss of all sensation and movement below the level of the injury.

Causes[edit]

In older patients, CCS most often occurs after a hyperextension injury in an individual with long-standing cervical spondylosis. However, this condition is not exclusive to older patients as younger individuals can also sustain an injury leading to CCS. Typically, younger patients are more likely to get CCS as a result of a high-force trauma or a bony instability in the cervical spine.[4][5] Historically, spinal cord damage was believed to originate from concussion or contusion of the cord with stasis of axoplasmic flow, causing edematous injury rather than destructive hematomyelia. More recently, autopsy studies have demonstrated that CCS may be caused by bleeding into the central part of the cord, portending less favorable prognosis. Studies also have shown from postmortem evaluation that CCS probably is associated with selective axonal disruption in the lateral columns at the level of the injury to the spinal cord with relative preservation of the grey matter.[4]

Management[edit]

Nonsurgical[edit]

In many cases, individuals with CCS can experience a reduction in their neurological symptoms with conservative management. The first steps of these intervention strategies include admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) after initial injury. After entering the ICU, early immobilization of the cervical spine with a neck collar would be placed on the patient to limit the potential of further injury.[5] Cervical spine restriction is maintained for approximately six weeks until the individual experiences a reduction in pain and neurological symptoms.[5] Inpatient rehabilitation is initiated in the hospital setting, followed by outpatient physical therapy and occupational therapy to assist with .

An individual with a spinal cord injury may have many goals for outpatient occupational and physiotherapy. Their level of independence, self-care, and mobility are dependent on their degree of neurological impairment. Rehabilitation organization and outcomes are also based on these impairments.[6] The physiatrist, along with the rehabilitation team, work with the patient to develop specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, and time-centered goals.

With respect to physical therapy interventions, it has been determined that repetitive task-specific sensory input can improve motor output in patients with central cord syndrome. These activities enable the spinal cord to incorporate both supraspinal and afferent sensory information to help recover motor output.[7] This occurrence is known as "activity dependent plasticity". Activity dependant plasticity is stimulated through such activities as: locomotor training, muscle strengthening, voluntary cycling, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling[8]

Surgical[edit]

Surgical intervention is usually given to those individuals who have increased instability of their cervical spine, which cannot be resolved by conservative management alone. Further indications for surgery include a neurological decline in spinal cord function in stable patients as well as those who require cervical spinal decompression.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schneider RC, Cherry G, Pantek H (1954). "The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury; with special reference to the mechanisms involved in hyperextension injuries of cervical spine". J. Neurosurg. 11 (6): 546–77. doi:10.3171/jns.1954.11.6.0546. PMID 13222164. 
  2. ^ Rich V, McCaslin E (2006). "Central Cord Syndrome in a High School Wrestler: A Case Report". J Athl Train 41 (3): 341–4. PMC 1569555. PMID 17043705. 
  3. ^ McKinley W, Santos K, Meade M, Brooke K (2007). "Incidence and Outcomes of Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Syndromes". J Spinal Cord Med 30 (3): 215–24. PMC 2031952. PMID 17684887. 
  4. ^ a b c Harrop, James S; Ashwini Sharan; Jonathon Ratliff (2006). "Central cord injury: pathophysiology, management, and outcomes". The Spine Journal 6 (6 Suppl. 1): 198S–206S. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2006.04.006. PMID 17097539. 
  5. ^ a b c Nowak, Douglas D.; Joseph K. Lee; Daniel E. Gelb; Kornelis A. Poelstra; Steven C. Ludwig (December 2009). "Central Cord Syndrome". Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 17 (12): 756–765. PMID 19948700. 
  6. ^ Behrman, Andrea, L.; Harkema, Susan J. (2007). "Physical Rehabilitation as an Agent for Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury". Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 18 (2): 183–202. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2007.02.002. PMID 17543768. 
  7. ^ Behram, A.L.; Harkema, S.J. (2007). "Physical Rehabilitation as an Agent for Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury". Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics od North America 18 (2): 183–202. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2007.02.002. PMID 17543768. 
  8. ^ Yadla, S.; Klimo, J.; Harrop, J.S. (2010). "Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome: Etiology, Management, and Outcomes". Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation 15 (3): 73–84. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2006.04.006. PMID 17097539. 
  9. ^ Yadla, Sanjay; Paul Klimo; James S. Harrop (2010). "Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome: Etiology, Management, and Outcomes". Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation 15 (3): 73–84. doi:10.1310/sci1503-73. 
Bibliography