| Current season or competition:
2013 Challenge Cup
|Sport||Rugby league football|
|Number of teams||94|
|Countries|| United Kingdom (RFL)
|Holders||Warrington Wolves (2012)|
|Broadcast partner||BBC Sport|
The Challenge Cup is a knockout cup competition for rugby league clubs organised by the Rugby Football League. Originally it was contested only by British teams but in recent years has been expanded to allow teams from France and Russia to take part.
It has been held annually since 1896, with the exception of the duration of World War I and the 1939–1940 season, and involves amateur, semi-professional and professional clubs. For the 2013 competition, 96 teams entered the tournament.
The Challenge cup has been sponsored since 1980. The sponsor has been able to determine the cup sponsorship name. There have been five sponsors.
- 1980–1985: State Express Challenge Cup
- 1985-2001: Silk Cut Challenge Cup
- 2001-2004: Kellogg's Nutrigrain Challenge Cup
- 2005-2007: Powergen Challenge Cup
- 2007-2012: Leeds Metropolitan University's
- 2013 - : Tetley's Challenge Cup.
The final of the Challenge Cup is one of the most prestigious matches in world rugby league, and is traditionally held at Wembley Stadium, London. Despite London not being an area traditionally associated with rugby league, the final receives a lot of mainstream media coverage and is broadcast to many different countries around the world. Traditionally, "Abide With Me" is sung before the game, and has become something of a rugby league anthem.
Wigan Warriors are the most successful club in the history of the competition, winning the Cup a record 18 times.
The clubs that formed the Northern Union had long been playing in local knock-out cup competitions under the auspices of the Rugby Football Union. However, the rugby union authorities refused to sanction a nationwide tournament, fearing that this would inevitably lead to professionalism. After the schism of 1895, the northern clubs were free to go-ahead, and they instigated the Northern Rugby Football Union Challenge Cup. In 1896 Fattorini's of Bradford were commissioned to manufacture the Challenge Cup at a cost of just £60. Fattorini's also supplied three-guineas winners' medals then valued at thirty shillings.
The first competition was held during the 1896–97 season (the second season of the new game), and 56 clubs entered to compete for the trophy. The first final was held at Headingley in Leeds, on 24 April 1897. Batley defeated St Helens 10–3 in front of a crowd of 13,492 (see picture). It is interesting to note that the St Helens side did not play in a standardised team jersey.
The competition was later interrupted by World War One, although it was held in 1915, when the season that had begun before the war was completed. It was then suspended until the end of hostilities. Initially, the final tie was held at one of the larger club grounds in the north, however, noting the excitement in Huddersfield that the town’s soccer team were playing at Wembley in the FA Cup Final and the increasing difficulty for any of the rugby league grounds to satisfy spectator demand to see the final tie, the rugby league authorities voted 13–10 to relocate to the recently built Wembley Stadium in London, aiming to emulate the FA Cup's success and to put the game on the national stage.
The first final held at Wembley was in 1929 when Wigan beat Dewsbury 13–2 in front of a crowd of 41,500. At the start of World War two, rugby league suspended its season immediately, but the Challenge Cup took a single year’s break before restarting, on a limited basis and with the support of the authorities, as part of keeping up morale. The Challenge Cup finals, which took place in the game’s Northern heartland, got big crowds as the game raised money for Prisoners of War and for Lord Beaverbrook’s armaments programme.
In 1946, the Lance Todd Trophy was introduced and awarded to the man of the match. The first winner was Billy Stott of Wakefield Trinity the first winner of the trophy on the losing team was Frank Whitcombe of Bradford Northern in 1948. In itself, it is a prestigious trophy presented only at the Challenge Cup Final. The winner is selected by the members of the Rugby League Writers' Association present at the game and the trophy is presented at a celebratory dinner at The Willows, home of the Salford City Reds.
1954 saw the Challenge Cup final drawn and the replay set the record for a rugby league match attendance. The match was on 5 May and 102,569 was the official attendance at Odsal Stadium, although it's believed that up to 120,000 spectators were present to see Warrington defeat Halifax 8 – 4.
Wigan are well known for their successes in the Challenge Cup competition, having won more Challenge Cups than any other club with eighteen Challenge Cup final wins.
Until the 1993–94 season there were very few amateur clubs included in the cup, typically two. For part of the 1980s and the 1992–93 season the cup was solely for professional clubs. The competition was then opened up to large numbers of amateur clubs as part of a deal between the Rugby Football League and British Amateur Rugby League Association over bridging the gap between the professional and amateur leagues.
The move to a summer season for rugby league in 1996 did not see the Challenge Cup moved, and it became instead essentially a pre-season tournament, with the first Summer Cup Final held earlier in the season, on 27 August at the Millennium Stadium, Cardiff.
In 1997, a Challenge Cup Plate took place for teams knocked out in the early rounds of the competition. The final took place at Wembley and was won by Hull Kingston Rovers who beat Hunslet Hawks 60–14.
The last cup final before Wembley's redevelopment saw the first appearance of a team from south of the Watford Gap, when the London Broncos were beaten by a record margin, 52–16 by the Leeds Rhinos.
The redevelopment of Wembley Stadium led to the Cup Final utilising a variety of venues. The final is one of the biggest rugby league events of the year in Britain, along with the Super League Grand Final. The Challenge Cup final traditionally formed the end to the season, being played in late April or early May.
There was a belief that the Challenge Cup final taking place early in the season had led to a decline in the prestige of the cup, so the timing of the competition was altered in 2005
On 26 August 2006 St Helens scrum-half Sean Long became the first player in the history of the Challenge Cup to collect a third Lance Todd trophy following his man-of-the-match performance in the final against Huddersfield Giants. His other Lance Todd trophy wins came in the 2001 and 2004 Challenge Cup Finals.
From 2009, the television rights to the Challenge Cup were sold to Australia's leading rugby league broadcaster, Channel Nine, as part of a new 3 year contract.
Current structure 
The modern Challenge Cup has 7 rounds prior to the final. Teams are seeded, entering at different stages. The precise format has altered slightly from year to year, however the basic format is as follows:
- Preliminary Round: Amateur teams from around the United Kingdom will be split into two pools.
- First round: Amateur teams from around the United Kingdom. Most of the teams are English and affiliated to BARLA. In 2008 the 54 teams entering at this stage are as follows:
- all 38 teams from the National Conference League
- the winners of the five major regional BARLA leagues
- the British Army
- the Royal Navy
- the Royal Air Force
- the university champions – Leeds Metropolitan University
- the Student Rugby League champions
- six representatives of the Rugby League Conference (including one each from Scotland and Wales)
- Second round: The twenty seven first round winners are joined by a Russian team.
- Third round: A further three French sides, and the twenty one semi-professional British clubs from the Rugby League National Leagues enter the draw with the fourteen winners from the second round.
- Fourth round: The fourteen Super League teams join the competition with the eighteen third round winners.
- Fifth round: Last 16
- Quarter Finals: Last eight
- Semi Finals: (played at neutral venues)
List of finals 
In the seasons during the Second World War the final was played over two legs, with the aggregate score being used.
Challenge Cup winners and finalists 
Clubs by number of wins (and when they last won and lost a final). Only the aggregate winner/loser for the years during the Second World War has been counted.
|Club||Wins||Last win||Runners-up||Last final lost|
|18||Broughton Rangers §§||2||1911||0||-|
|21||Hull Kingston Rovers||1||1980||5||1986|
|24||Bradford FC §§||1||1905||1||1898|
- § Denotes current holders
- §§ Denotes club now defunct
Final records 
- Most wins: 18 by Wigan
- Most finals: 29 by Wigan
- Highest winning score: Leeds Rhinos 52 v London Broncos 16 in 1999
- Lowest winning score: Broughton Rangers 4 v Wigan 0 in 1911
- Widest margin: Leeds Rhinos 52 v London Broncos 16 in 1999
- Most points aggregate: 72 by St. Helens 40 v Bradford Bulls 32 in 1996
- Least points aggregate: 4 by Broughton Rangers 4 v Wigan 0 in 1911
- Most tries by one team: 9, by Huddersfield v St. Helens in 1915, and Leeds Rhinos v London Broncos in 1999
- Consecutive wins and finals: 8 by Wigan from 1988 to 1995
- Consecutive final defeats: 3 by Hull (1908-10) and Leeds (2010-2012)
- Most tries aggregate: 13 by St. Helens (8) v Bradford Bulls (5) in 1996
- Biggest attendance: 102,569 Warrington v. Halifax (replay) at Odsal Stadium, Bradford in 1954
- Most appearances: 11 by Shaun Edwards (Wigan – 1984, 85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95; London Broncos – 1999)
- Most wins: 9 by Shaun Edwards – (Wigan – 1985, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95)
- Most goals: 8, by Cyril Kellett (Featherstone Rovers v Bradford Northern in 1973), and Iestyn Harris (Leeds Rhinos v London Broncos in 1999)
- Most tries: 4 by Leroy Rivett (Leeds Rhinos v London Broncos in 1999)
- Most points: 20, (2 tries, 7 goals) by Neil Fox (Wakefield Trinity v Hull in 1960), and (1 try, 8 goals) by Iestyn Harris (Leeds Rhinos v London Broncos in 1999)
- Most goals in all finals: 21 by Frano Botica (Wigan, 1991 – 2, 1992 – 5, 1993 – 4, 1994 – 5, 1995 – 5)
- Most tries in all finals: 6 by Kevin Iro (Wigan, 1988 – 2, 1989 – 2, 1990 – 2)
- Most points in all finals: 46 by Frano Botica (Wigan, 1991 – 8pts, 1992 – 10pts, 1993 – 8pts, 1994 – 10pts, 1995 – 10 pts)
Round records 
- Highest score: York City Knights 132 v Northumbria University 0 2011
- Longest unbeaten run: 43 by Wigan (42 victories and 1 draw)
- Most goals in a match: 22 by Jim Sullivan (Wigan v. Flimby and Fothergill) in 1925
- Most tries in a match: 11 by George West (Hull Kingston Rovers v. Brookland Rovers in 1905)
- Most points in a match: 56 (4 tries, 20 goals) by Chris Thorman (York City Knights v. Northumbria University in 2011)
The Challenge Cup trophy was designed by silversmiths Fattorini & Sons of Bradford in 1897. The trophy stood 36 inches high manufactured of solid silver and stood on a black ebony base approximately 8 inches deep.
Tony Collins, the Rugby Football League's archivist, stated in 2007 that, "Fattorini's weren't given any particular commission, just told to come up with something prestigious". The trophy cost £60. The average wage in 1897 was around £2 per week which suggests an equivalent 2007 price of £16,000, although Collins says, "if you wanted something made of silver and with that level of craftsmanship these days, it would be far more expensive. In terms of its subsequent value, the RFL got a bargain."
The trophy currently presented to the winners after the final is not the original which had to be withdrawn due to its delicate condition. As well as the silver wearing thin, it had lost its fluted top and the players on each of the handles had been damaged. The original Fattorini trophy was last presented at the 2001 Challenge Cup Final to St Helens captain Chris Joynt after his team had beaten Bradford Bulls. The original trophy is now stored at the RFL's headquarters at Red Hall and only used for promotional appearances.
The trophy used today was created by Jack Spencer Goldsmiths of Sheffield in 800 man-hours and is an almost exact replica of the Fattorini piece. One improvement made with the new version is that the small shields displaying each winning team and captain are now the same size, whereas they had been getting smaller as space ran out on the original. The new trophy's neck has been strengthened. The second trophy was first presented to Wigan, winners of the 2002 Challenge Cup Final.
The winners of the Cup in looking after the trophy must "follow a certain code of practice," says Collins. When not in a secure cabinet, the trophy must always be in the presence of someone. When the trophy is taken out overnight, somebody must sleep in the same room and if taken in a car there must be two people in attendance. Collins reveals that, "When it went down to France for some Catalans publicity photos, it even had its own seat on the plane."
Media coverage 
The BBC have covered this tournament from the 1950s, from the inception of Grandstand, with commentary by Eddie Waring. When he retired, commentary was covered by Ray French and he continues to work for the BBC albeit in semi-retirement, with his last Challenge Cup Final in 2009. From 2010, the present day main commentator is Dave Woods. He usually commentates with Brian Noble, Jonathan Davies, Iestyn Harris or Ian Millward. Nowadays, BBC continue to broadcast the tournament with Clare Balding hosting from 2006 to 2012 until her move to Channel 4 Racing. Mark Chapman was secondary host in 2012 when Balding was unavailable for the cup and international matches, and previous hosts for the BBC are John Inverdale and Steve Rider.
Sky Sports now have the rights for the early rounds with one match each round and two quarter finals; while BBC also show one match in the early rounds, two quarter finals, both semi finals and the final.
Lance Todd Trophy 
The Lance Todd Trophy, named in memory of Lance Todd, is awarded to the man-of-the-match in the Challenge Cup Final. The winner is decided each year by those members of the Rugby League Writers' Association present at the match.
The double 
In Rugby League, the term 'the Double' is referring to the achievement of a club that wins the Championship and Challenge Cup in the same season. To date, this has been achieved by nine different clubs.
|1||Wigan||6||1989/90, 1990/91, 1991/92, 1992/93, 1993/94, 1994/95|
|2||St Helens||3||1965/66, 1996, 2006|
Note. In the event of a tie, the team that won x amount of 'Doubles' first is given preference.
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- Demsteader, Christine (2000-10-01). "Rugby League's home from home". BBC Sport (UK: BBC). Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- Baker, Andrew (20 August 1995). "100 years of rugby league: From the great divide to the Super era". Independent, The. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Julian Shea (2007-08-22). "Rugby league's precious metal". BBC. Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Demsteader, Christine (2000-10-01). "Rugby League's home from home". BBC Sport (UK: BBC). Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- Kelner, Simon (1997-05-04). "Saints go shining through the hype". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 2009-12-05.
- BBC (2004-02-27). "Profile: Challenge Cup Trophy". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- RFL. "Lance Todd Trophy". Rugby Football League. Retrieved 2009-05-08.[dead link]
- BBC Sport (2008-08-26). "Lance Todd Trophy winners". BBC. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- The Challenge Cup at therfl.co.uk
- Scores from Sky Sports
- My Yorkshire – player Ken Dean talks about the record breaking 1954 final replay
- The Challenge Cup at 188-rugby-league.co.uk