Coastal fortifications of New Zealand

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The New Zealand coastline
is 15,134 km long.

Coastal fortifications were constructed in New Zealand in two main waves: around 1885 as a response to fears of an attack by Russia, and in World War II due to fears of invasion by the Japanese.

The fortifications were built from British designs adapted to New Zealand conditions. They typically included gun emplacements, pill boxes, fire control or observation posts, camouflage strategies, underground bunkers, sometimes with interconnected tunnels, containing magazines, supply and plotting rooms and protected engine rooms supplying power to the gun turrets and searchlights. There were also kitchens, barracks, and officer and NCO quarters.[1]

The "Russian-scare" forts of 1885[edit]

In the 1870s New Zealand was a young self-governing colony of Britain. It had developed no coastal defences of any consequence and was becoming increasingly sensitive to how vulnerable its harbours were to attack by a hostile power or opportunistic raider. In the aftermath of the Crimean war, Tsarist Russia seemed particularly suspicious.[why?]

(In 1873 an Auckland editor perpetrated) ...what has been hailed the greatest spoof in the country's history. The Monday, 18 February 1873 edition of the Southern Cross reported the sudden declaration of war between England and Russia. As a result, the Russian warship Kaskowiski – whose very name should have made sober readers suspicious – had allegedly entered Auckland Harbour on the previous Saturday night and proceeded to capture a British ship, along with the city's arms and ammunition supply, and hold a number of leading citizens for ransom. The 954-man Russian vessel obviously meant business, with a dozen 30-ton guns as well as a remarkably new advance in warfare, a paralysing and deadly "water-gas" that could be injected into enemy ships from a great distance.[2]

The Southern Cross article created panic and the Government commissioned its first reports on the colony's defences. It was now clearly understood that Britain would protect its territories and vital shipping routes, but the defence of individual ports was the responsibility of each self-governing colony. Then Russia declared war on Turkey in 1877 producing another "scare". The decision was taken to construct fortifications and purchase naval boats which would protect the harbours at Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton and Port Chalmers. These coastal artillery fortifications or land batteries were to be based on British designs. Heavy artillery pieces and ammunition was ordered from Britain. By 1885 work started in earnest on the construction of what eventually became seventeen forts, further encouraged by yet another Russian scare.[2]

Artillery[edit]

In 1885 the New Zealand Government bought ten Armstrong BL 8-inch and thirteen Armstrong BL 6-inch guns on disappearing carriages. The disappearing gun was the very latest in military technology in the 1880s. It was "disappearing" because as it fired the recoil pushed the gun back underground where it could be reloaded under cover. The total costs of this artillery plus the costs of installation including land, emplacements, magazines and barracks was about £160,000.[3]

Following the "second Russian scare" a number of additional RML 7-inch and 64-pr guns were also installed [4]

Artillery circa 1890 Number Range Notes
Armstrong BL 8-inch Mk VII disappearing guns 10 4 miles Weighed 13 tons and fired a 180 pound shell.
Armstrong BL 6-inch disappearing guns 13 3 miles Weighed 5 tons and fired a 100 pound shell.
RML 7 inch 7 ton guns 11 Weighed 7 tons.
RML 64-pr Mk 3 guns 9 2 miles Weighed 64 cwt

The forts[edit]

Fort Harbour Way-
point
Ordnance
circa 1890
Range
(miles)
Dates Notes
North Head Auckland 36°49′39″S 174°48′44″E / 36.82750°S 174.81222°E / -36.82750; 174.81222 (North Head) 1xBL 8in gun
RML 7in guns
64-pr guns
1870 At Devonport, divided into three sub-forts:
  • North Battery (to defend Rangitoto Channel)
  • South Battery (with a 7in gun to protect the inner harbour)
  • Fort Cautley (with the 8in gun on the summit).[5][6][7]
Bastion Point Auckland 36°50′43″S 174°49′29″E / 36.84528°S 174.82472°E / -36.84528; 174.82472 (Bastion Point) 2xBL 6in guns 1885– In Mission Bay. Not completed.
Fort Resolution Auckland 2xBL 6in guns 1885 In Parnell.
Fort Takapuna Auckland 36°48′55″S 174°48′24″E / 36.81528°S 174.80667°E / -36.81528; 174.80667 (Fort Takapuna) 2xBL 6in guns 1886– [8][9][10][11]
Fort Victoria Auckland 1xBL 8in gun 1885 On Mount Victoria, Devonport. The gun fired only once because of complaints from residents whose windows were broken.[12]
Fort Ballance Wellington 41°17′41″S 174°50′02″E / 41.29472°S 174.83389°E / -41.29472; 174.83389 (Fort Ballance) 2x7" RML guns
1x6" BLHP gun
2 x QF 6 pounder Nordenfelt guns
1885 (1885–1886) Point Gordon. At Miramar. Wellington's primary military fort until 1911 when Fort Dorset opened.[13]
Fort Buckley Wellington 41°15′38″S 174°47′17″E / 41.26056°S 174.78806°E / -41.26056; 174.78806 (Fort Buckley) 2x64-pr RML guns 2 At Kaiwharawhara.[14][15][16]
Haswell Battery Wellington 1xBL 8in gun 1889 At Miramar.
Fort Kelburne Wellington 2xBL 8in guns 1885 At Ngauranga.[17]
Battery Point Lyttelton 43°36′10″S 172°44′25″E / 43.60278°S 172.74028°E / -43.60278; 172.74028 (Battery Point) 2x7in RML guns
1x QF 6 pounder Nordenfelt guns
1885 On the north side of Lyttelton Harbour, 3 miles from mouth.[18][19]
Fort Jervois Lyttelton 43°37′11″S 172°45′15″E / 43.61972°S 172.75417°E / -43.61972; 172.75417 (Ripapa Island) 2x8in BL guns
2x6in BL guns
1886 On Ripapa Island on the south side of Lyttelton Harbour (often called 'Ripa') [20] Fort Jervois is an internationally rare 1880s “Russian Invasion Scare” structure, which has retained a high level of authenticity of both structure and hardware (6” and 8” disappearing guns). It is one of only five examples of this type of fortification in the world. The Island has been managed by the Department of Conservation since 1990.[21]
Spur Point Battery Lyttelton 1x64-pounder RML gun 1885 Site of battery, quarried away as part of land reclamation during the 1970s to build Cashin Quay.[22]
Lawyer's Head Battery Port Chalmers 45°54′32″S 170°32′06″E / 45.90889°S 170.53500°E / -45.90889; 170.53500 (Lawyer's Head Battery) 1885 Eastern Ocean Beach, Dunedin South.
Ocean Beach Battery Port Chalmers 1886
St Clair Battery Port Chalmers 1885 On a spur of Forbury Hill above Second Beach, Dunedin. No remnants remain; the area was cleared and subdivided for residential housing.
Fort Taiaroa Port Chalmers 45°46′26″S 170°43′40″E / 45.77389°S 170.72778°E / -45.77389; 170.72778 (Fort Taiaroa) 1xBL 6in gun 1885 Otago Harbour. This Armstrong Disappearing Gun was installed in May 1889 and was recommissioned during World War II. It is the only one of its kind working and is still in its original gun pit.[23][24]

The period up to World War II[edit]

World War II coastal fortifications[edit]

Tunnel layout for a three gun emplacement system.

The second main wave of building coastal fortifications occurred during World War II. This was mainly a response to a perceived threat of invasion by the Japanese after the attack on Pearl Harbor. From 1942 until 1944, when the threat receded, 42 coastal artillery fortifications or land batteries were either developed using historical fortifications or were built from scratch. The fortifications were built from British designs adapted to New Zealand conditions. Radar was installed which allowed long range shooting at night and replaced the traditional fortress system of range finding.[1]

Ordnance[edit]

9.2 inch gun emplacement at Stony Batter.

The fortifications were equipped with both old and new ordnance, mostly British. Some World War I ordnance was requisitioned from museums and recommissioned.[citation needed]

Ordnance used during World War II Number Range Notes
9.2 inch guns 6 18 miles
BL BL 6 inch Mk 24 guns 3 14 miles
BL 6 inch Mk 21 guns 6 13 miles
6 inch Mark 7 guns 32 12 miles
6in EOC gun 2 6 miles Elswick Ordnance Company
5 inch naval guns (USA) 6 10 miles 51 calibre MkVII 1912
4.7in guns 1 6 miles
4 inch Mark 7 guns 11 9 miles
155mm guns 2 9 miles
75mm guns 2
QF 12 pdr guns 8 8 miles
QF 6 pdr guns 12 5 miles
Bofors 40mm guns 48 4 miles
CASLs 48 Coastal Artillery Searchlight

The fortifications[edit]

The fortifications were administered by the Royal New Zealand Artillery, which grouped them into four areas. Each area was under the command of a heavy artillery regiment. Within each regiment the fortifications were grouped into batteries.[citation needed]

     Seven of the now historic Russian scare fortifications were also used.     

Upper North Island[edit]

Under the command of the 9th Heavy (Coast) Regiment.[citation needed]

Battery Name Way-
point
World War II
Ordnance
Range
(miles)
Dates Notes
60 Motutapu Island 36°45′03″S 174°55′09″E / 36.75083°S 174.91917°E / -36.75083; 174.91917 (Motutapu Island) 3 x 6in Mk 21 guns
2 x CASLs
13 1936
-1945
Consisted of a battery, camp, gun emplacement, pill boxes and US naval magazines. Its remains are administered by DOC.[25]
61
RHQ
North Head
[Russian scare]
36°49′39″S 174°48′44″E / 36.82750°S 174.81222°E / -36.82750; 174.81222 (North Head) 2 x 4in Mk 7 guns
2 x 12pdr guns
4 x 6pdr H&N
6 x CASLs
9 1870
-1957
Part of Auckland's coastal defence system from the Russian scare in 1885 to World War I. By World War II, with ships' guns able to fire long distances, the old fort was too close to the city it was meant to defend. New batteries were built at Motutapu, Castor Bay, Whangaparaoa and Waiheke Island and North Head became the centre of administration.[26] A complex of tunnels, guns, searchlights and other fortifications remain and it is now a historic reserve managed by the Department of Conservation.[5][6]
61 Bastion Point
[Russian scare]
36°50′43″S 174°49′29″E / 36.84528°S 174.82472°E / -36.84528; 174.82472 (Bastion Point) 2 x 12pdr gun
Twin 6pdr guns
3xCASLs
8 1885– Located in Mission Bay. The fortification were buried in the 1940s when the Massey Memorial was built, and effectively forgotten. In recent years, the underlying tunnels were rediscovered.
61 Great Barrier Island 6in Mk 7 gun
4in Mk 7 gun
4 x 40mm Bofors
12
61 Manakau 1x4.7in gun 6
61 Motuihe Island 36°48′40″S 174°49′29″E / 36.81111°S 174.82472°E / -36.81111; 174.82472 (Motuihe Island) 2 x 4in Mk 7 guns 9 1872– During World War II (1941) the Motuihe buildings became HMNZS Tamaki naval base, a training establishment. Now in the care of the Department of Conservation.[27][28][29]
62 Fort Takapuna
[Russian scare]
36°48′55″S 174°48′24″E / 36.81528°S 174.80667°E / -36.81528; 174.80667 (Fort Takapuna) 2 x 4in Mk 7 guns
2 x CASLs
9 1886– Also known as HMNZS Tamaki, and Narrow Neck. In 1963 the RNZN moved its New Entry Training School HMNZS Tamaki from Motuihe Island to the fort. The navy built a new Gunnery School and set up an Officer Training School. Previously officers had been sent overseas for training. Only the Officer and Trade Training schools remain. Has been under the care of the Department of Conservation since 2000.[8][9][10][10][11]
63 Castor Bay 36°45′22″S 174°46′0″E / 36.75611°S 174.76667°E / -36.75611; 174.76667 (Castor Bay) 2 x 6in Mk 7 guns
2 x CASLs
12 1942
-1944
Bunker at Castor Bay

Notable for its camouflage strategies during World War II.[30][31][32]

64 Whanga-
paraoa
36°36′09″S 174°50′16″E / 36.60250°S 174.83778°E / -36.60250; 174.83778 (Whangaparaoa) 2 x 6in Mk 7 guns
2 x CASLs
12 SE tip of peninsula
163 Whanga-
paraoa
36°36′09″S 174°50′17″E / 36.60250°S 174.83806°E / -36.60250; 174.83806 (Whangaparaoa) 2 x 9.2in guns 18 SE tip of peninsula
164 Stony Batter
36°45′45″S 175°10′27″E / 36.76250°S 175.17417°E / -36.76250; 175.17417 (Stoney Batter) 2 x 9.2in guns 18 1942– Waiheke Island. Now in the care of the Department of Conservation.[33][34]
68 Moturoa Island 35°13′07″S 174°11′21″E / 35.21861°S 174.18917°E / -35.21861; 174.18917 (Moturoa Island) 4 x 6in Mk 7 guns
8 x 40mm Bofors
12 Bay of Islands
68 Whangaroa 35°00′40″S 173°45′21″E / 35.01111°S 173.75583°E / -35.01111; 173.75583 (Whangaroa) 6in Mk 7 gun 12 South Head of harbour.
139 Bream Head
35°51′01″S 174°31′35″E / 35.85028°S 174.52639°E / -35.85028; 174.52639 (Bream Head) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA) 10 1942
-1944
Entrance to Whangarei harbour. Remaining structures are the (Colchester) gun shelter, engine room, and observation post. The most significant feature is the spotting mural with compass bearings painted above the slit window in the observation post.[35][36]

Lower North Island[edit]

Under the command of the 10th Heavy (Coast) Regiment.[37]

Battery Name Way-
point
World War II
Ordnance
Range
(miles)
Dates Notes
70 Palmer Head 41°20′14″S 174°49′01″E / 41.33722°S 174.81694°E / -41.33722; 174.81694 (Palmer Head) 3x6in Mk 21 guns
4xCASLs
13 1936
-1957
At the entrance to the Wellington Harbour. The abandoned gun pits were blown up in the late 1960s. The only remains are the underground plotting rooms, which are closed for safety reasons.[38]
71
RHQ
Fort Dorset 41°19′33″S 174°50′14″E / 41.32583°S 174.83722°E / -41.32583; 174.83722 (Fort Dorset) 2x6in Mk 7 guns
2x4in Mk 7guns
4x12pdr guns
7xCASLs
12 1908
-1991
At the inner entrance to Wellington harbour. The fort was demolished in 1998.[39][40]
72 Fort Ballance
[Russian scare]
41°17′41″S 174°50′02″E / 41.29472°S 174.83389°E / -41.29472; 174.83389 (Fort Ballance) 2x4in Mk 7guns
Twin 6pdr guns
2x75mm guns
6xCASLs
9 1885–
1945
(1885–1886) Point Gordon

By Mount Crawford, Karaka Bays, Wellington's primary fort until 1911 when Fort Dorset opened, Fort Ballance was closed in 1945 but remnants remain.[13]

73 Fort Opau 41°13′20″S 174°41′46″E / 41.22222°S 174.69611°E / -41.22222; 174.69611 (Opau) 2x6in Mk 7 guns 12 1942
-1944
On a high headland above Makara, on Wellington's west coast, protecting Cook Strait.[41][42][43] The fort was built in 1941, and comprised two covered 6" gun emplacements, a battery operations post, and an observation post and a radar post, with a large barracks several hundred metres inland.
165 Wrights Hill Fortress 41°17′46″S 174°44′21″E / 41.29611°S 174.73917°E / -41.29611; 174.73917 (Wrights Hill Fortress) 2x9.2in guns 18 1942
1957
This British-designed fortress was similar to the 9.2 inch fortresses built at Whangaparaoa and Stoney Batter. 2,030 feet (620 metres) of interconnecting tunnels were dug. Two 185 hp diesel generators provided power to manoeuvre the guns. Each gun weighed 135 tons and could fire a 380 pound (172 kg) shell across Cook Strait or up to Plimmerton. The fortress was used for training purposes up to the mid-1950s. In early 1960 the guns were sold for scrap, ironically, to the Japanese. The Wrights Hill Fortress Restoration Society is restoring the coastal battery to its former state.[44][45]
77 Bluff Hill 39°28′43″S 176°55′03″E / 39.47861°S 176.91750°E / -39.47861; 176.91750 (Bluff Hill) 2x6in Mk 7 guns
4x40mm Bofors
12 At Napier. Also a signal station and lighthouse during World War II.[46]
77 Titirangi (Kaiti Hill) 38°42′03″S 178°03′56″E / 38.70083°S 178.06556°E / -38.70083; 178.06556 (Kaiti Hill) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA) 10 Located at Gisborne.
78 Moturoa 2x155mm guns
4x40mm Bofors
9 At New Plymouth.
140 Languard Bluff 39°57′30″S 175°01′20″E / 39.95833°S 175.02222°E / -39.95833; 175.02222 (Languard Bluff) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA) 10 At Wanganui.[47][48]

Upper South Island[edit]

Under the command of the 11th Heavy (Coast) Regiment.[citation needed]

Battery Name Way-
point
World War II
Ordnance
Range
(miles)
Dates Notes
80
RHQ
Godley Head 43°35′13″S 172°48′21″E / 43.58694°S 172.80583°E / -43.58694; 172.80583 (Godley Head) 3x6in Mk 24 guns
2xCASLs
14 1939
-1963
At the northern entrance to Lyttelton Harbour, the last NZA to be decommissioned. It last fired a gun in 1959. In its heyday in World War II, it was staffed by over 400 men and women and was a self-contained community. It is ranked in the top ten New Zealand coastal defence heritage sites.[49] It is now under the care of the Department of Conservation and the Godley Head Heritage Trust.[50][51]
81 Battery Point
[Russian scare]
43°36′10″S 172°44′25″E / 43.60278°S 172.74028°E / -43.60278; 172.74028 (Battery Point) 2x4in Mk 7guns
Twin 6pdr guns
5xCASLs
9 1886– On the northern side of Lyttelton Harbour, 3 miles from mouth.[18][19]
81 Fort Jervois
[Russian scare]
43°37′11″S 172°45′15″E / 43.61972°S 172.75417°E / -43.61972; 172.75417 (Ripapa Island) 6in EOC gun 6 1886 On Ripapa Island on the southern side of Lyttelton Harbour.[20] It is an internationally rare 1880s “Russian Invasion Scare” military defence structure, which has retained a high level of authenticity of both structure and hardware (6” and 8” disappearing guns). It is one of only five examples of this type of fortification in the world. The island has been managed by the Department of Conservation since 1990.[21]
84 Tory Channel entrance 6in Mk 7 gun
12x40mm Bofors
12 Queen Charlotte Sound
84 Maraetai 41°15′21″S 174°08′01″E / 41.25583°S 174.13361°E / -41.25583; 174.13361 (Maraetai) 6in Mk 7 gun 12 In Tory Channel, Queen Charlotte Sound.
84 Blumine Island 41°09′30″S 174°14′11″E / 41.15833°S 174.23639°E / -41.15833; 174.23639 (Blumine Island 1); 41°09′31″S 174°14′39″E / 41.15861°S 174.24417°E / -41.15861; 174.24417 (Blumine Island 2) 2x6in Mk 7 guns 12 1942
-1945
Guarding the northern entrance to Queen Charlotte Sound, the guns are positioned separately on the two northern points of Blumine Island. Associated with each emplacement are a magazine, observation post and accommodation camp.[52][53]
84 Post Office Point 6in Mk 7 gun 12 In Pelorus Sound.
84 Maud Island 41°01′01″S 173°54′21″E / 41.01694°S 173.90583°E / -41.01694; 173.90583 (Maud Island) 6in Mk 7 gun 12 At the entrance to Pelorus Sound. Under the care of the Department of Conservation.[54][55]
84 Port Hills 41°16′10″S 173°15′59″E / 41.26944°S 173.26639°E / -41.26944; 173.26639 (Port Hills) 6in Mk 7 gun 12 In Nelson.
85 Smithfield Freezing Works 44°22′16″S 171°14′41″E / 44.37111°S 171.24472°E / -44.37111; 171.24472 (Smithfield Freezing Works) 2x6in Mk 7 guns
4x40mm Bofors
12 1942–
1944
In Timaru. The No 2 (Colchester type) gun shelter is in an excellent state of preservation [56]
134 Westport 41°43′48″S 171°35′15″E / 41.73000°S 171.58750°E / -41.73000; 171.58750 (Westport Gun Emplacement) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA)
4x40mm Bofors
10 1942–
1944
On South Spit. The gun emplacement is no longer there but the battery observation post is visible on Google Earth.[57]
134 Cobden 42°26′15″S 171°12′45″E / 42.43750°S 171.21250°E / -42.43750; 171.21250 (Cobden) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA)
4x40mm Bofors
10 1942–
1944
At Greymouth. Establishment: 2 Officers, 1 WO, 3 Sergeants and 26 ORs. Grey District Council destroyed part of this site, without consultation, in 2007 to make way for a sewer line [58]
143 Wainui 43°49′46″S 172°54′17″E / 43.82944°S 172.90472°E / -43.82944; 172.90472 (Wainui) 2x6in Mk 7 guns
4x40mm Bofors
2xCASLs
12 1942–
1944
At Akaroa Harbour on Banks Peninsula [59]

Lower South Island[edit]

Under the command of the 13th Heavy (Coast) Regiment.[citation needed]

Battery Name Way-
point
World War II
Ordnance
Range
(miles)
Dates Notes
RHQ Dunedin
82 Fort Taiaroa
[Russian scare]
45°47′12″S 170°43′39″E / 45.78667°S 170.72750°E / -45.78667; 170.72750 (Taiaroa Heads) 6in EOC gun
5xCASLs
6 Otago Peninsula.
Armstrong disappearing gun at Taiaroa Head
82 Rerewahine 45°47′13″S 170°44′45″E / 45.78694°S 170.74583°E / -45.78694; 170.74583 (Rerewahine) 2x6in Mk 7 guns 12 Otago Peninsula.
82 Tomahawk 45°54′19″S 170°33′11″E / 45.90528°S 170.55306°E / -45.90528; 170.55306 (Tomahawk) 2x6in Mk 7 guns 12 Dunedin
82 Harington Point 45°47′00″S 170°43′28″E / 45.7834°S 170.7245°E / -45.7834; 170.7245 (Harrington Point) 2xTwin 6pdr guns
2x6pdr H&N
Dunedin
141 Cape Wanbrow 45°07′13″S 170°58′50″E / 45.12028°S 170.98056°E / -45.12028; 170.98056 (Cape Wanbrow) 5in Mk 7 gun (USA) 10 1942– Under the care of the Oamaru Coastal Defence Restoration Group [60][61]
142 Bluff 6in Mk 7 gun 12

Post war[edit]

The advent of air warfare and missiles made these forts redundant and most were decommissioned by the 1950s. Godley Head continued because of compulsory military training and last fired a gun in 1959. The Department of Conservation has the remains of around 30 installations on land it manages.[49]

Postscript[edit]

None of the forts fired a gun in anger, though in 1939 a Battery Point gun accidentally sank the fishing boat "Dolphin" and killed its skipper.[citation needed]

In 1972 the United States declassified a contingency plan for invading New Zealand. This plan consisted of a 120-page intelligence document called Naval War Plan for the Attack of Auckland, New Zealand. The intelligence for the report was gathered during the visit of the Great White Fleet to Auckland over six days in 1908. The plan advocated Manukau Harbour as the best invasion point and landing heavy guns on Rangitoto Island to shell the forts on the North Shore. The plan was not very realistic and may have been an exercise to keep young officers busy.[62]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Coast Artillery Defences
  2. ^ a b Wolfe, Richard (2007) With Honour – Our Army Our Nation Our History. Page 51. ISBN 978-0-670-04565-5
  3. ^ 1885 report to Parliament on harbour defence
  4. ^ Disappearing Guns
  5. ^ a b North Head Historic Reserve
  6. ^ a b North Head
  7. ^ North Head self-guided walk
  8. ^ a b 9 Coast Regiment at Fort Takapuna
  9. ^ a b Fort Takapuna historic walk
  10. ^ a b c Fort Takapuna Historic Reserve
  11. ^ a b Fort Takapuna
  12. ^ Fortifications at Mt Victoria, Auckland
  13. ^ a b Fort Ballance, Wellington
  14. ^ Fort Buckley
  15. ^ Fort Buckley: period photo
  16. ^ Fort Buckley: photos
  17. ^ Fort Kelburne: Period photo
  18. ^ a b Battery Point: Lyttelton Harbour
  19. ^ a b Annotated photo of Battery Point
  20. ^ a b Fort Jervois, Ripapa Island
  21. ^ a b Fort Jervois Restoration
  22. ^ Glackin, Russel (2009). In Defence of Our Land: A Tour of New Zealand's Historic Harbour Forts. Penguin Group. p. 64. ISBN 978-014301186-6. 
  23. ^ Fort Taiaroa
  24. ^ Raising the Guns
  25. ^ Historic Motutapu Island Recreation Reserve
  26. ^ History of North Head
  27. ^ Hauraki Gulf Defences
  28. ^ HMNZS Tamaki
  29. ^ Long, Instructor Lieutenant A.G.
  30. ^ Kennedy Park or Castor Oil Bay
  31. ^ McCarthy, Christine (2002) Camouflage: Military Upholstery and Interior Disguise. Space and Culture, Vol5, No4, 320–332.
  32. ^ Ngaire's War
  33. ^ Stony Batter Historic Reserve, Waiheke Island
  34. ^ Stony Batter
  35. ^ Head Gun Emplacement, 1942 Bream Head Gun Emplacement, 1942
  36. ^ Bream Head Gun – Well worth a visit
  37. ^ 10 Coast Regiment
  38. ^ Palmer Heads fortress, Wellington
  39. ^ Fort Dorset
  40. ^ Photos of guns at Fort Dorset
  41. ^ Fort Opau, Wellington
  42. ^ Fort Opau: Photos
  43. ^ Fort Opau: More photos
  44. ^ Wrights Hill Fortress Restoration Society
  45. ^ Wrights Hill Fortress
  46. ^ Bluff Hill Lookout
  47. ^ Wanganui gun emplacements
  48. ^ Photos of Wanganui Coastal Battery
  49. ^ a b "Godley Head coastal defence battery". 
  50. ^ The Godley Head Heritage Trust
  51. ^ Godley Battery and Camp
  52. ^ Defence Installations, Blumine Island
  53. ^ Background to the Blumine Project
  54. ^ Maud Island/Te Hoiere Scientific Reserve
  55. ^ Photo of Maud Island gun emplacement
  56. ^ 11 (Heavy) Coast Regiment NZA Timaru
  57. ^ 134 Heavy Battery RNZA Westport
  58. ^ 134 Heavy Battery NZA Greymouth
  59. ^ 11 (Heavy) Coast Regiment NZA Wainui
  60. ^ 141 Heavy Battery NZA Oamaru
  61. ^ Cape Wanbrow Military Site
  62. ^ Stevens, David and Reeve, John (2001) Southern Trident: Strategy, History and the Rise of Australian Naval Power, Page 184–188. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86508-462-6

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cooke, Peter (2002) Defending New Zealand: Ramparts on the Sea 1840s–1950s. (Wellington). Two volumes. ISBN 0-473-08923-8. Peter Cooke is a desktop publisher who has collated images of and commented on extensive source documents and period photos he has found in various archives.
  • Corbett, Peter D. (2003). A First Class Defended Port: The History of the Coast Defences of Auckland, its Harbour and Approaches. ISBN 0-478-22452-4 (Available from Auckland Conservancy, Department of Conservation).
  • Glackin, Russell (2009) In defence of our land: a tour of New Zealand's historic harbour forts, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-301186-3.

External links[edit]