Comparison of Microsoft Windows versions

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Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of computer software operating systems by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

General information[edit]

Basic general information about Windows.

DOS shells[edit]

Name Release date Latest version Status support Source model Codename OS required Architecture Editions Target market
Windows 1.0 DR5 Pre-release version 0.9 (1984) Unsupported
(1985)
Closed source Interface Manager DOS 2.2 Only 16-bit Desktops
Windows 1.0 1985-11-20 1.04 (1987-04-08) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source Interface Manager DOS 2.0 or higher 16-bit Desktops
Windows 2.0 1987-12-09 2.03 (1987-12-09) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source ? 16-bit Desktops
Windows 2.1x 1988-05-27 2.11 (1989-03-13) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source ? 16-bit Desktops
Windows 3.0 1990-05-22 3.0a with
Multimedia Extensions
(1991-10-20)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source DOS 3.1 or higher 16-bit Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0a
Windows 3.0a with Multimedia Extensions
Desktops
Windows 3.1x 1992-04-06 3.11 (1993-12-31) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source
  • 3.1: Janus
  • 3.1 for Workgroups: Kato
  • 3.11: Snowball (LB)
  • 3.11 for Workgroups: Sparta
DOS 3.3 or higher 16-bit* Windows 3.1 (build 040)
Windows for Workgroups 3.1
Windows 3.11
Windows for Workgroups 3.11
Windows 3.2 (Simplified Chinese only)
Desktops
* Has partial 32-bit compatibility with Win32s

Windows 9x[edit]

Name Release date RTM build Latest version Status support Source model Codename MS-DOS version Kernel type Architecture Editions Target market
Windows 95 1995-08-24 950 4.00.950C OSR2.5 (1997-11-26) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source Chicago MS-DOS 7.0, MS-DOS 7.1 (OSR2.x) Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit Retail, OSR1, OSR2, OSR2.1, OSR2.5 Desktops
Windows 98 1998-06-25 1998 4.10.2222A (1999-04-23) Unsupported
(2006-07-11)
Closed source Memphis MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit First edition, Second Edition Desktops
Windows Me 2000-06-19 3000 4.90.3000 (2000-09-14) Unsupported
(2006-07-11)
Closed source Millennium MS-DOS 8.0 Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit N/A Desktops

Windows NT[edit]

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support License Codename, working name Based on (kernel) Supported architectures Editions OS type
Windows NT 3.1 1993-07-27 528 3.10.528 SP3
(1994-11-10)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source New Technology OS/2 NT 3.1 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS Workstation,
Advanced Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 3.5 1994-09-21 807 3.50.807 SP3
(1995-06-21)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source Daytona NT 3.5 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS Workstation,
Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 3.51 1995-05-30 1057 3.51.1057 SP5
(1996-09-19)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Closed source ? NT 3.51 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC Workstation,
Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 4.0 1996-08-24 1381 4.00.1381 SP6a
(1999-11-30)
Unsupported
(2004-12-31)
Closed source Cairo
Hydra (Terminal Server)
NT 4.0 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC Workstation,
Server,
Server Enterprise Edition,
Terminal Server,
Embedded
Workstation,
Server,
Embedded PCs
Windows 2000 2000-02-17 2195 5.0 SP4 Rollup 1 v2
(2005-09-13)
Unsupported
(2010-07-13)
Shared source Memphis NT NT 5.0 IA-32, IA-64 Professional,
Server,
Advanced Server,
Datacenter Server,
Powered (Embedded)
Desktop,
Workstation,
Server,
Embedded PCs
Windows XP 2001-10-25 2600 5.1.2600 SP3
(2008-04-21)
Unsupported
(2014-04-08)
Shared source Whistler NT 5.1; NT 5.2
(64-bit 2003 and x64)
IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 Starter Edition,
Home,
Professional,
Media Center,
Tablet PC,
Starter,
Embedded,
Home N,[1][2]
Home K,[3]
Home KN,[4]
Professional N,[1][2]
Professional K,[3]
Professional KN,[4]
Professional x64
Desktop,
Workstation,
Embedded PCs
Windows Server 2003 2003-04-24 3790 5.2.3790 SP2
(2007-03-13)
Supported Shared source Whistler Server, Windows .NET Server NT 5.2 IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 Standard,
Enterprise,
Datacenter,
Web,
Storage,
Small Business Server,
Compute Cluster
Server,
Network Appliance,
Embedded PCs,
HPC
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs 2006-07-08 2600 RTM
(2006-07-08)
Unsupported
(2014-04-08)
Shared source Eiger, Monch NT 5.1 IA-32 Fundamentals for Legacy PCs Desktop
Windows Vista 2006-11-08 6000 (SP2: 6002) 6.0 SP2
(2009-04-28)
Supported Closed source,
Shared source
Longhorn NT 6.0 IA-32, x86-64 Starter,
Home Basic,
Home Premium,
Business,
Enterprise,
Ultimate,
Home Basic K,
Home Basic N,
Home Basic KN,
Home Premium K,
Home Premium KN,
Business K,
Business N,
Business KN,
Enterprise K,
Enterprise KN,
Ultimate K,
Ultimate KN
Desktop,
Workstation
Windows Server 2008 2008-02-27 6001 (SP2: 6002) 6.0 SP2
(2008-02-27)
Supported Closed source,
Shared source
Longhorn Server NT 6.0 IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 Web,
Standard,
Enterprise,
Small Business Server,
Datacenter,
Web Core,
Standard Core,
Enterprise Core,
Datacenter Core,
Standard without HyperV,
Enterprise without HyperV,
Datacenter without HyperV,
Standard Core without HyperV,
Enterprise Core without HyperV,
Datacenter Core without HyperV,
HPC,
HyperV Core,
Foundation,
Storage
Server
Windows Home Server 2007-06-16 3790 5.2 Unsupported (8 January 2013) Closed source Q, Quattro NT 5.2 IA-32, x86-64 Home Server Server
Windows 7 2009-10-22[5] 7600 (SP1: 7601) 6.1 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"7", Vienna NT 6.1 IA-32, x86-64 Starter,
Home Basic,
Home Premium,
Professional,
Ultimate,
Enterprise,
Starter E,[6]
Home Basic E,
Home Premium E,
Professional E,
Ultimate E,
Enterprise E,
Starter N,
Home Basic N,
Home Premium N,
Professional N,
Ultimate N,
Enterprise N,
Starter K,
Home Basic K,
Home Premium K,
Professional K,
Ultimate K,
Enterprise K,
Starter KN,
Home Basic KN,
Home Premium KN,
Professional KN,
Ultimate KN,
Enterprise KN
Desktop, Workstation, Multi-Touch
Windows Server 2008 R2 2009-10-22 7600 (SP1: 7601) 6.1 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"7" Server NT 6.1 IA-64, x86-64 Standard,
Enterprise,
Datacenter,
Web,
Standard Core,
Enterprise Core,
Datacenter Core,
Web Core
Server
Windows Home Server 2011 2011-04-05 8400 6.1 Supported Closed source Vail NT 6.1 x86-64 Home Server Server
Windows Server 2012 2012-9-4 9200 6.2 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"8" Server NT 6.2 x86-64 Foundation
Essentials
Standard
Datacenter
Server
Windows 8 2012-10-26 9200 6.2 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"8" NT 6.2 IA-32, x86-64, ARM architecture (ARMv7) Windows 8,
Professional,
Enterprise,
N,[7]
Professional N,
Enterprise N,
Enterprise K,
Enterprise KN,
Windows RT
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multitouch
Windows 8.1 2013-10-18 9600 6.3 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"Blue" NT 6.3 IA-32, x86-64, ARM architecture (ARMv7) Windows 8.1,
Pro,
Enterprise,
Pro N,[8]
Enterprise N,
Enterprise K,
Enterprise KN,
Windows RT 8.1
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multitouch
Windows Server 2012 R2 2013-10-18 9600 6.3 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
"Blue" Server NT 6.3 x86-64 Foundation
Essentials
Standard
Datacenter
Server

Windows Embedded Compact[edit]

Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) is a variation of Microsoft's Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinctly different kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows. It is supported on Intel x86 and compatibles, MIPS, ARM, and Hitachi SuperH processors.

Release date RTM build Current version Status support License Codename Based on (kernel) Kernel type Operating environments Editions Purpose Short description
Windows CE 1.0 1996-11 Pegasus, Alder CE 1.0 Embedded first release of Microsoft's Windows CE line for minimalistic computers and embedded systems
Windows CE 2.0 1997-11 Mercury, Apollo CE 2.0 2.1, 2.11 Embedded
Windows CE 3.0 2000-04 Unsupported
(2007-10-09)
Shared source Cedar, Galileo, Rapier, Merlin, Stinger CE 3.0 Embedded kernel Embedded
Windows CE 4.0 2002-01-07 Talisker CE 4.0 4.1, 4.2 Embedded
Windows CE 5.0 2004-07-09 5.0 (2004-07-09) Supported Shared source Macallan CE 5.0 Embedded kernel Embedded
Windows Embedded CE 6.0 2006-11-01 Shared source Yamazaki CE 6.0 Hybrid kernel
Windows Embedded Compact 7 2011-03-01 ? ? Supported Shared source ? CE 7.0 Hybrid ? N/A

Windows Mobile[edit]

Windows Mobile is Microsoft's discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones.

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support License Codename Based on (kernel) Supported architectures
Windows Pocket PC 2002 CE 3.0
Windows Mobile 2003 2003-06-23 Ozone CE 4.20
Windows Mobile 5.0 2005-05-9/12 Magneto CE 5.0
Windows Mobile 6.0 2007-02-12 Crossbow CE 5.2
Windows Mobile 6.1 2008-04-01
Windows Mobile 6.5 2009-05-18

Windows Phone[edit]

As of 2013 Windows Phone is Microsoft's active line of operating systems for smartphones.

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support License Codename Based on (kernel) Supported architectures
Windows Phone 7 2010-11-08 Photon CE 6.0
Windows Phone 7.5 2011-11 Mango CE 6.1
Windows Phone 7.8 2013-01 CE 6.1
Windows Phone 8 2012-10-29 10211 6.2 Supported Closed source,
Shared source
Apollo, Portico NT 6.2 ARM[citation needed]

Technical information[edit]

DOS shells[edit]

Name Kernel Kernel type Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support Multiple architecture support USB support UDMA support LFN support Update management APIs Safe Mode
Windows 1.0 ? ? 16-bit No No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 2.0 ? ? 16-bit No No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 3.0 ? ? 16-bit No No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 3.1x ? (OS or shell?) ? 16-bit (partial 32-bit compatibility through Win32s) No No No No No No No Win16, Win32s No

Windows 9x[edit]

Name Kernel Kernel type Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support Multiple architecture support USB support UDMA support LFN support Update management APIs Safe Mode
Windows 95 MS-DOS 7.0 (Win95, Win95A), MS-DOS 7.1 (Win95B, Win95C) Monolithic kernel Hybrid 16/32-bit No No No Partial (OSR 2.1/2.5 only) [9] No Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 Yes
Windows 98 MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic kernel Hybrid 16/32-bit No No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 Yes
Windows 98 Second Edition MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic kernel Hybrid 16/32-bit No No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 Yes
Windows Me MS-DOS 8.0 Monolithic kernel Hybrid 16/32-bit No No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 Yes

Windows NT[edit]

The Windows NT kernel powers all recent Windows operating systems. It runs on x86, x86-64 and Itanium processors.

Name Kernel Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support Multiple architecture support USB support UDMA support LFN support Package management Update management APIs Safe Mode Data Execution Prevention
Windows NT 3.1 NT 3.1 32-bit No Yes Yes No ? Yes (NTFS and HPFS volumes only) Win32, OS/2, POSIX No No
Windows NT 3.5 NT 3.5 32-bit No Yes Yes No ? Yes (except on CDFS volumes) Win32, OS/2, POSIX No No
Windows NT 3.51 NT 3.51 32-bit No Yes Yes No ? Yes (except on CDFS volumes) Win32, OS/2, POSIX No No
Windows NT 4.0 NT 4.0 32-bit No Yes Yes Yes (if the Ion USB update is installed) Yes Yes Windows Update (if Internet Explorer 5 or later is installed) Win32, OS/2, POSIX No No
Windows 2000 NT 5.0 32/64-bit No Yes Yes (IA-64/Itanium in Advanced Server and Datacenter Server) Yes (USB 2.0 with update or SP4)[10] Yes Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32, OS/2, POSIX Yes No
Windows XP NT 5.1.2600; NT 5.2.3790 32/64-bit Yes Yes (Professional Edition only) Yes (IA-64/Itanium, x86, x86-64) Yes (USB 2.0 with update or SP1+)[11] Yes Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32, .NET Yes Yes (in SP2)
Windows Server 2003 NT 5.2.3790 32/64-bit Yes Yes Yes Yes (USB 2.0)[12] Yes Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32 Yes Yes (in SP1)
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs NT 5.1.2600 32-bit Yes ? No Yes Yes Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32 Yes Yes
Windows Vista NT 6.0.6000 ; NT 6.0.6001 (SP1) ; NT 6.0.6002 (SP2) 32/64-bit Yes Yes Yes (x86, x86-64) Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Application Win32, .NET, POSIX (only Enterprise and Ultimate) Yes Yes
Windows Server 2008 NT 6.0.6001 ; NT 6.0.6002 (SP2) 32/64-bit Yes Yes Yes (IA-64/Itanium, x86, x86-64) Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update Application Win32 Yes Yes
Windows Home Server NT 5.2 32-bit ? ? ? Yes (USB 2.0) ? Yes Win32 ? ?
Windows 7 NT 6.1 32/64-bit Yes Yes Yes (x86, x86-64) Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update Application Win32, .NET Yes Yes
Windows Server 2008 R2 NT 6.1 64-bit Yes Yes Yes (IA-64/Itanium, x86-64) Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update Application Win32, .NET Yes Yes
Windows Home Server 2011 NT 6.1 64-bit ? ? ? Yes (USB 2.0) ? Yes Win32 ? ?
Windows Server 2012 NT 6.2 64-bit Yes Yes No (x86-64) Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Update Application Win32, .NET, WinRT Yes Yes
Windows 8 NT 6.2 32/64-bit Yes Yes Yes (x86, x86-64, ARM) Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Update Application Win32, .NET, WinRT Yes Yes

Windows Phone[edit]

Name Kernel Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support Multiple architecture support USB support UDMA support LFN support Package management Update management APIs Safe Mode Data Execution Prevention
Windows Phone 8 NT 6.2 32-bit Yes Yes No (ARM) Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update WinRT Yes Yes

Supported file systems[edit]

Various versions of Windows support various file systems, including: FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, HPFS, or NTFS, along with network file systems shared from other computers, and the ISO 9660 and UDF file systems used for CDs, DVDs, and other optical discs such as Blu-ray. Each file system is usually limited in application to certain media, for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF, and as of Windows Vista, NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on. Windows Embedded CE 6.0, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, and Windows Server 2008 onwards support exFAT, a file system more suitable for flash drives.

Windows 9x[edit]

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS UDF
Windows 95 Yes Yes Yes (OSR2 or above) Network Drive Yes Network Drive No
Windows 98 Yes Yes Yes Network Drive Yes Network Drive Yes (1.5, read)
Windows Me Yes Yes Yes Network Drive Yes Network Drive Yes (1.5, read)

Windows NT[edit]

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS UDF (More Info) ReFS
Windows NT 3.1, 3.5, 3.51 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes v1.0/v1.1 ? No
Windows NT 4.0 Yes Yes No Partial Yes Yes v1.2 ? No
Windows 2000 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.0 Yes No
Windows XP Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.1 Yes (2.01) No
Windows Server 2003 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.1 Yes No
Windows Vista Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) No
Windows Server 2008 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes No
Windows 7 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) No
Windows Server 2008 R2 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) No
Windows Server 2012 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows 8 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) No
Windows 8.1 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes (2.6) Yes

Windows Phone[edit]

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS UDF (More Info) ReFS
Windows Phone 8 ? Yes Yes No ? Yes v5 ? No

Hardware requirements[edit]

Installing Windows requires an internal or external optical drive. A keyboard and mouse are the recommended input devices, though some versions support a touchscreen. For operating systems prior to Vista, the drive must be capable of reading CD media, while in Windows Vista onwards, the drive must be DVD-compatible. The drive may be detached after installing Windows.

Windows 9x[edit]

CPU RAM Free disk space
Windows 95 386 MB 120 MB
Windows 98 486 DX2 66 MHz 16 MB 300 MB
Windows Me (Millennium Edition) Pentium 150 MHz 32 MB 400 MB

Windows NT[edit]

Version CPU RAM Free disk space Video adapter and monitor
Minimum Recommended
Windows NT 3.51 Workstation 386, 25 MHz 8 MB ? 90 MB ?
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation 486, 33 MHz 12 MB ? 110 MB ?
Windows 2000 Professional 133 MHz 32 MB ? 650 MB VGA (640 × 480)
Windows XP 233 MHz 64 MB 128 MB 1.5 GB SVGA (800 × 600)
For Aero (if applicable):
128 MB VRAM
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs 500 MB
Windows XP Professional x64 700 MHz Itanium[13] 1 GB[13] ? 6 GB[13]
Windows Server 2008 1 GHz (x86) or 1.4 GHz (x64) 2 GB 10 GB
Windows Vista 800 MHz 384 MB (Starter)
512 MB (others)

[14]

1 GB 15 GB
(~6.5 GB for OS)
Windows Server 2008 1 GHz (x86) or 1.4 GHz (x64) 2 GB 10 GB
Windows 7 1 GHz 1 GB (x86)
2 GB (x64)
4 GB 16 GB
(~6.5 GB for OS)
Windows Server 2012 1.4 GHz (x86-64) 512 MB 1 GB 10 GB
Windows 8 1 GHz 1 GB (x86)
2 GB (x64)
4 GB 20 GB
(~6.5 GB for OS)
1024 x 768 for Windows Store apps
1366 x 768 to snap apps

Windows Phone[edit]

Version CPU RAM Free disk space Video adapter and monitor
Minimum Recommended
Windows Phone 8 1 GHz 512 MB N/A 8 GB WVGA (800 × 480)

Physical memory limits[edit]

Maximum limits on physical memory (RAM) that Windows can address vary depending on both the Windows version and between IA-32 and x64 versions.[15][16]

Windows 9x[edit]

  • Windows 95: 480 MB[17]
  • Windows 98: 1 GB
  • Windows Me: 1.5 GB

Windows NT[edit]

Operating system Limit on IA-32 Limit on x64
Windows NT 4.0 4 GB N/A
Windows 2000 Professional/Server 4 GB N/A
Windows 2000 Advanced Server 8 GB N/A
Windows 2000 Datacenter 32 GB N/A
Windows XP Starter 512 MB N/A
Windows XP Home 4 GB N/A
Windows XP Professional 4 GB 128 GB
Windows Server 2003 RTM Web 2 GB N/A
Windows Server 2003 RTM Standard/Small Business 4 GB N/A
Windows Server 2003 RTM Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB N/A
Windows Server 2003 R2/SP1 Standard 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2003 R2/SP1 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB
Windows Vista Starter 1 GB N/A
Windows Vista Home Basic 4 GB 8 GB
Windows Vista Home Premium 4 GB 16 GB
Windows Vista Business/Enterprise/Ultimate 4 GB 128 GB
Windows Home Server 4 GB N/A
Windows Server 2008 Web Server/Standard/Small Business 4 GB 32 GB
Windows HPC Server 2008 N/A 128 GB
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB
Windows 7 Starter 2 GB N/A
Windows 7 Home Basic 4 GB 8 GB
Windows 7 Home Premium 4 GB 16 GB
Windows 7 Professional/Enterprise/Ultimate 4 GB 192 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation N/A 8 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Web Server/Standard N/A 32 GB
Windows HPC Server 2008 R2 N/A 128 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise/Datacenter N/A 2 TB
Windows 8 4 GB 128 GB
Windows 8 Pro/Enterprise 4 GB 512 GB
Windows Server 2012 Foundation N/A 32 GB
Windows Server 2012 Essentials N/A 64 GB
Windows Server 2012 Standard/Datacenter N/A 4 TB
Windows Storage Server 2012 Standard N/A 4 TB
Windows Storage Server 2012 Workgroup N/A 32 GB

Security features[edit]

Resource access control Subsystem isolation mechanisms Integrated firewall Encrypted file systems
Windows 2000 ACLs TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes (NTFS only)
Windows XP ACLs Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall (from SP2), TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes (NTFS only)
Windows Server 2003 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes
Windows Vista ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes
Windows Server 2008 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes
Windows 7 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes
Windows Server 2012 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes
Windows 8 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes

Features[edit]

Version Shell Visual styles Internet Explorer Web server Windows Media Player Command-line interpreter
Windows 1.0 MS-DOS executive (Unnamed) N/A N/A N/A N/A
Windows 2.0 MS-DOS executive (Unnamed) N/A N/A N/A N/A
Windows 3.0 Program Manager (Unnamed) N/A N/A 3.0 (Multimedia Extension edition only) N/A
Windows 3.1x Program Manager (Unnamed) N/A N/A 3.1 N/A
Windows 95 Windows shell Classic 2.0 in OSR1
3.0 in OSR2 and OSR2.1
4.0 in OSR2.5
N/A 4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows NT 4.0 Windows shell Classic 2.0 PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE
Windows 98 Windows shell Classic 4.01 PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows 98 SE Windows shell Classic 5.0 PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows 2000 Windows shell Classic 5.01 IIS 5.0 5.0 and 6.4 (side by side) COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE
Windows Me Windows shell Classic 5.5 N/A 6.4 and 7.0 (side by side) COMMAND.COM
Windows XP Windows shell Luna (default), Classic 6.0 IIS 5.1 5.1, 6.4 and 8 (in RTM)
5.1, 6.4 and 9 (in SP1)
COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Server 2003 Windows shell Classic (default), Luna 6.0 IIS 6.0 9 (10 in SP1) COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Vista Windows shell Aero (default), Classic 7.0 IIS 7 11 COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Server 2008 Windows shell, Server Core Classic (default), Aero (via "Desktop Experience") 7.0 IIS 7 11 (enabled by installing "Desktop Experience") COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows 7 Windows shell Aero (default), Classic 8.0 IIS 7.5 12 COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell v2.0
Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows shell, Server Core Classic (default), Aero (via "Desktop Experience") 8.0 IIS 7.5 12 (via "Desktop Experience") CMD.EXE,
PowerShell v2.0
Windows Server 2012 Windows shell, Server Core Metro-inspired 10.0 IIS 8 12 (via "Desktop Experience") CMD.EXE,
PowerShell v3.0
Windows 8 Windows shell Metro-inspired 10.0 IIS 8 12 COMMAND.COM, CMD.EXE,
PowerShell v3.0
Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows shell, Windows server core Metro-inspired 11.0 IIS 8.5 12 (via "Desktop Experience") CMD.EXE,
PowerShell v4.0

Timeline[edit]

Windows 3.1x Windows NT 3.1 Windows NT 3.51 Windows 95 Windows NT Server 3.51 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 98 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 Windows Me Windows XP Windows XP Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 R2 Windows Vista Windows Home Server Windows Server 2008 Windows Embedded Industry Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows MultiPoint Server Windows Home Server 2011 Windows MultiPoint Server Windows Embedded Industry Windows Server 2012 Windows 8 Windows Embedded 8 Windows 8.1 Windows Server 2012 R2


See also[edit]

Other Microsoft operating systems[edit]

  • Xenix – licensed version of Unix; sold to SCO in the 1990s
  • OS/2 – developed jointly with IBM
  • DOS
    • MS-DOS – developed jointly with IBM, versions 1.0–8.0
    • MSX-DOS – developed by MS Japan for the MSX 8-bit computer
    • MDOS/MIDAS – designed for the 8080/Z80 microprocessors in 1979
  • Cairo (operating system) – a cancelled "true object-oriented OS" planned after Windows NT
  • Singularity – Microsoft Research project started in 2003 to build a highly-dependable operating system in which the kernel, device driver, and applications are all written in managed code
  • Recovery Console – a lightweight DOS-like environment included in the installation media of Windows XP and earlier to help recover system when fails to start
  • Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) – Starting with Windows XP, a lightweight version of Windows called Windows PE is supplied that is used for the deployment of workstations and servers on bare-metal machines. Starting with Windows Vista, Windows installation media uses the same platform; in addition, a modified version called Windows RE (or simply Recovery Environment) is installed along Windows to help in cases of emergency instead of Recovery Console.
  • Windows To Go – Not an actual operating system; it is a feature of Windows 8 copies the entire operating system to a USB device, along with a special license for such uses

Windows clones, emulators, etc.[edit]

  • Freedows OS – Windows clone
  • TinyKRNL – open source kernel based on Windows's NT design
  • ReactOS – project to develop an operating system that is binary compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5.x
  • E/OS – Linux distribution which allow to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, BeOS, OS/2, DOS, and Linux
  • Wine (software) – compatibility layer which allows to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Microsoft to Release Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N in Europe". Microsoft. June 8, 2005. 
  2. ^ a b "Description of Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N". Microsoft. 
  3. ^ a b "Changes to Windows XP Home Edition K and Windows XP Professional K from earlier versions of Windows XP". Microsoft. 
  4. ^ a b "Description of the feature changes and the functionality changes in Windows XP Home Edition KN and in Windows XP Professional KN". Microsoft. 
  5. ^ LeBlanc, Brandon (June 2, 2009). "The Date for General Availability (GA) of Windows 7 is...". The Windows Blog. Retrieved February 5, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Update on E editions of Windows 7". Microsoft. 
  7. ^ "Description of the Windows Media Feature Pack for N and KN versions of all Windows 8 editions". Microsoft. 
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