Ctenosauriscidae

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Ctenosauriscidae
Temporal range: Early-Middle Triassic, 247.5–237Ma
Ctenosauriscus koeneni holotype.png
Vertebrae of the ctenosauriscid Ctenosauriscus koeneni
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Branch: Poposauroidea
Family: Ctenosauriscidae
Kuhn, 1964

Ctenosauriscidae is an extinct family of pseudosuchian archosaurs within the clade Poposauroidea.[1] Ctenosauriscids existed in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America during the Early Triassic to the Middle Triassic period (latest Olenekian to Anisian stages).[1] All species had large "sails" on their backs. Ctenosauriscids are among the earliest archosaurs and represent the first global radiation of the group.[2]

Genera[edit]

Genus Status Age Location Unit Notes Images

Arizonasaurus

Valid

Anisian

 Arizona

Moenkopi Formation

Arizonasaurus
Ctenosauriscus
Some fossils of the "Waldhaus ctenosauriscid"

Bromsgroveia

Valid

Anisian

 United Kingdom

Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation

Bystrowisuchus

Valid

Olenekian

 Russia

Lipovskaya Formation

Ctenosauriscus

Valid

Olenekian

 Germany

Solling Formation

Ctenosauriscus is one of the oldest archosaurs known to date.[2]

Hypselorhachis

Valid

Anisian

 Tanzania

Manda Formation

"Waldhaus ctenosauriscid"

Anisian

 Germany

Röt Formation

Xilousuchus

Valid

Olenekian

 China

Heshanggou Formation

Xilousuchus is one of the oldest archosaurs known to date.[2]

Phylogeny[edit]

Ctenosauriscidae was named by Oskar Kuhn in 1964 to include the genus Ctenosauriscus.[3] It is a stem-based taxon defined by Richard J. Butler, Stephen L. Brusatte, Mike Reich, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Rainer R. Schoch and Jahn J. Hornung in 2011 as "the most inclusive clade containing Ctenosauriscus koeneni but not Poposaurus gracilis, Effigia okeeffeae, Postosuchus kirkpatricki, Crocodylus niloticus, Ornithosuchus longidens, or Aetosaurus ferratus".[2] The cladograms below follows a 2011 analysis by Butler et al., the first based on Brusatte et al. 2010[4] and the second based on Nesbitt et al. 2011.[1]

Poposauroidea

Lotosauridae



Ctenosauriscidae

Arizonasaurus



Bromsgroveia



Ctenosauriscus



Hypselorhachis



Waldhaus ctenosauriscid





Poposaurus



Sillosuchus


Shuvosauridae

Effigia



Shuvosaurus






Poposauroidea

Qianosuchus



Ctenosauriscidae

Arizonasaurus



Ctenosauriscus



Hypselorhachis



Waldhaus ctenosauriscid



Xilousuchus




Poposauridae

Poposaurus




Lotosauridae

Lotosaurus


Shuvosauridae

Sillosuchus




Effigia



Shuvosaurus








References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sterling J. Nesbitt (2011). "The Early Evolution of Archosaurs: Relationships and the Origin of Major Clades". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 352: 1–292. doi:10.1206/352.1. 
  2. ^ a b c d Richard J. Butler, Stephen L. Brusatte, Mike Reich, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Rainer R. Schoch and Jahn J. Hornung (2011). "The sail-backed reptile Ctenosauriscus from the latest Early Triassic of Germany and the timing and biogeography of the early archosaur radiation". PLoS ONE 6 (10): e25693. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025693. PMC 3194824. PMID 22022431. 
  3. ^ Oskar Kuhn (1964). "Ungelöste Probleme der Stammesgeschichte der Amphibien und Reptilien". Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg. 118-119: 293–325. 
  4. ^ Brusatte, S.L.; Benton, M.J.; Desojo, J.B.; Langer, M.C. (2010). "The higher-level phylogeny of Archosauria (Tetrapoda: Diapsida)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8 (1): 3–47. doi:10.1080/14772010903537732.