||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (March 2014)|
Cyclecars were small, generally inexpensive cars manufactured mainly between 1910 and the late 1920s.
- 1 General description
- 2 Introduction
- 3 Sporting cars and cyclecar races
- 4 Demise
- 5 Cyclecars by countries
- 6 See also
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Cyclecars were propelled by single-cylinder, V-twin or more rarely four-cylinder engines, often air-cooled. Sometimes these had been originally used in motorcycles and other components from this source such as gearboxes were also employed. Cyclecars were halfway between motorcycles and cars and were fitted with lightweight bodies, sometimes in a tandem two-seater configuration and could be primitive with minimal comfort and weather protection. They used various layouts and means of transmitting the engine power to the wheels, such as belt drive or chain drive often to one rear wheel only to avoid having to provide a differential.
The rise of cyclecars was a direct result of reduced taxation both for registration and annual licences of lightweight small-engined cars. In France, for example, a car was classed for reduced rates if it weighed less than 350 kg (772 lb).
On 14 December 1912, at a meeting of the Federation Internationale des Clubs Moto Cycliste, it was formally decided that there should be an international classification of cyclecars to be accepted by the United Kingdom, Canada, United States, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Austria and Germany. It was also decided to establish two classes of cyclecars, as follows;
- (i) Large class
- Max. weight: 350 kg (772 lb)
- Max. engine capacity: 1,100 cc (67 cu in)
- Min. tyre section: 60 mm (2.4 in)
- (ii) Small class
- Min. weight: 150 kg (331 lb)
- Max. weight: 300 kg (661 lb)
- Max. engine capacity: 750 cc (46 cu in)
- Min. tyre section: 55 mm (2.2 in)
All cyclecars were to have clutches and change-speed gears. This requirement could be fulfilled by even the simplest devices such as provision for slipping the belt on the pulley to act as a clutch, and varying of the pulley diameter to change the gear ratio.
From 1898 to 1910, automobile production quickly expanded. Light cars of that era were commonly known as voiturettes. The smaller cyclecars appeared around 1910 with a boom shortly before the outbreak of the First World War.
Sporting cars and cyclecar races
By the early 1920s, the days of the cyclecar were numbered. Mass producers, such as Ford, were able to reduce their prices to undercut those of the usually small cyclecar makers. Similar affordable cars were offered in Europe, such as the Citroën 5CV, Austin 7 or Morris Cowley.
The cyclecar boom was over. The majority of cyclecar manufacturers closed down. Some companies such as Chater-Lea survived by returning to the manufacture of motorcycles.
After World War II, small, economic cars were again in demand and a new set of manufacturers appeared. The cyclecar name did not reappear however and the cars were called microcars by enthusiasts and bubble cars by the general population.
Cyclecars by countries
- Moser (cyclecar) (Fritz Moser, Fabrique d’Automobiles et Motocyclettes) de:Fritz Moser, Fabrique d’Automobiles et Motocyclettes
- Worthington-Williams, Michael (1981). From cyclecar to microcar the story of the cyclecar movement. Beaulieu Books. ISBN 0-901564-54-0.
- David Thirlby (2002). inimal Motoring: From Cyclecar to Microcar. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2367-3.
- North American Cyclecars
- Cyclecar rivals to the Morgan three-wheeler
- Orphan Babies Volume 1 book on cyclecars
- "Car History 4U – Special Features / Cyclecars". Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- CycleKartClub – Forum and Builders Group of home built 200cc replicas of traditional cycle cars