The Welsh Language Society
The Welsh Language Society, (Welsh: Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a non-violent direct action pressure group in Wales campaigning for the right of Welsh people to use the Welsh language in every aspect of their lives. The current Chairperson of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg is Robin Farrar of Nebo in Gwynedd.
History and background
The Society was established in name on 4 August 1962 at Pontarddulais in South Wales, but did not have a constitution until 18 May 1963. The formation was at least partly inspired by the annual BBC Wales Radio Lecture given on 13 February 1962 by Saunders Lewis and entitled Tynged yr iaith (The fate of the language).
The first campaigns were for official status for the language, with a call for Welsh-language tax returns, schools, electoral forms, post office signs, birth certificates and so on. This was done through the formation of 'cells', the first operating in Bangor in April 1963 by Owain Owain who also founded and edited the Society's only publication, Tafod y Ddraig ('The Dragon's Tongue') and designed the logo.
Cymdeithas yr Iaith believes in non-violent direct action and in the course of its campaigns over a thousand people have appeared before the courts for their part in various campaigns, many receiving prison sentences, making it one of Britain's largest protest groups since the suffragettes - in terms of fines and the numbers sent to prison. Typical actions include painting slogans on buildings owned by businesses, and other minor criminal damage. At the beginning of the 1970s Cymdeithas began to campaign for a Welsh-language radio and television service. Radio Cymru was established in 1977, but in 1979 the Conservative government announced that it would not keep its election promise of the establishment of a separate Welsh language television channel. Some protesters refused to buy television licences and others climbed up television masts and invaded television studios. S4C was finally launched in 1982.
On 24 July 2004 (five weeks after launching), Radio Carmarthenshire's studios in Narberth were invaded by eleven activists from the Welsh language Society Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg. They were protesting about Radio Carmarthenshire's decision to limit the amount of Welsh Language programming broadcast on Radio Carmarthenshire. The offices and studios were stormed during a live broadcasts, taking Radio Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire off air for 15 minutes. According to Keri Jones, his head of sales was injured, and needed hospital treatment for a fractured wrist during the scuffles which ensued. Police arrested eleven activists, and subsequently released them pending further enquiries. Keri Jones later branded the members of the group as "terrorists".
Cymdeithas claim that 50% of the population in Carmarthenshire speak Welsh as a first language, but less than 5% of Radio Carmarthenshire's output is in Welsh. As a result of complaints and pressure from the society and individuals, the United Kingdom's broadcasting watchdog Ofcom issued Radio Carmarthenshire with a 'yellow card' warning in late 2004 and any further claims of the station not conforming to its licence agreement will result in the station being severely reprimanded by Ofcom.
Cymdeithas is a largely voluntary movement, which also employs four full-time members of staff, one at its head office in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, one member in its Caernarfon office, two members in its Cardiff office, one part-time member in the Llanfihangel ar Arth office and one part-time in the Aberystwyth office.
According to the language group's website, its campaigns have contributed to securing the following policy changes for the language:
1960's - Bilingual Road Signs 1970's - Welsh language TV channel campaign 1982 – S4C established, the world's only Welsh Language TV channel 1980's - Campaign for a Property Act to help sustain Welsh speaking communities 1993 - Welsh Language Act 1993, public bodies required to offer limited Welsh language services 2000's - Campaign for New Welsh Language Act; Campaign to keep local schools 2010 - Official Status for the Language under the Welsh Language Measure 2011 - Welsh-medium higher education college ‘Y Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol' established
The principal campaigns can be divided into four major areas:
Hawliau i'r Gymraeg (Rights to the Welsh language)
At the beginning of the 21st century, Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg started a campaign for a new Welsh Language Act. The Welsh Language Act of 1993 declared that Welsh should be treated on an equal basis with English, but Cymdeithas yr Iaith argued that this fell short of what is needed.
In 2007, the society published its own Welsh Language Measure, draft legislation which would, amongst other things establish official status for the Welsh language, rights to use it, and establish the office of the Welsh Language Commissioner.
In 2011, based in large part on Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg's proposals, the National Assembly passed the Welsh Language Measure (Wales) 2011 which established the Welsh language as Wales' official language and the Welsh Language Commissioner.
Cymunedau Cynaliadwy (Sustainable Communities)
This group leads on a number of matters, including housing and planning policy. Since the 1980's the group has called for a Property Act to increase the number of communities where Welsh is the main language of the area as well as tackling income inequality and environmental problems.
On 11 March 2014, the group published its own "Property and Planning Bill for the benefit of our communities (Wales) 2014" which enshrined the six main principles of its Property Act as well as establishing the Welsh language as a statutory material consideration in the planning system.
Dyfodol Digidol (Digital Future)
This group campaigns for rights to see and hear the language. This includes campaigns for investing in Radio Cymru and S4C, as well as the presence of the Welsh language online.
Grŵp Addysg (Education Group)
Welsh language medium education is available in most areas of Wales in the secondary and primary stage of school education. Welsh second-language GCSEs are compulsory in English medium education. This group demands improvements and also massive expansions in further (college) and higher (university) education. This mainly includes a Welsh language federal college, which is a multi-sited college that provides courses and resources in the medium of Welsh
Responding to the 2011 Census results
Following the crisis revealed by the 2011 Census results, the group held a series of rallies across Wales. In the first rally in Caernarfon in December 2012, the group published its Maniffesto Byw (Living Manifesto) which outlined tens of policies designed in order to strengthen the language. The society launched the "Dwi eisiau byw yn Gymraeg" (I want to live in Welsh) slogan in the same rally.
On 6 February 2013 and 4 July 2013, deputations of Cymdeithas yr Iaith met with First Minister Carwyn Jones to press for urgent policy changes in light of the Census results.
A revised version of the Maniffesto Byw (Living Manifesto) was published in July 2013, following a public consultation and extraordinary general meeting when a number of amendments to the manifesto were passed.
In August 2013, the group wrote to the First Minister Carwyn Jones giving him six months to state his intention to deliver six policy changes for the benefit of the language:
1. Addysg Gymraeg i Bawb / Welsh-medium Education for All
2. Tegwch Ariannol i'r Gymraeg / Fair Funding for Welsh
3. Gweinyddu'n fewnol yn Gymraeg / Make Welsh the language of work
4. Safonau Iaith i Greu Hawliau Clir / Clear Language Rights
5. Trefn Cynllunio er budd ein Cymunedau / Community-focused Planning System
6. Y Gymraeg yn greiddiol i Ddatblygu Cynaliadwy / Welsh central to Sustainable Development
First Minister Carwyn Jones made no such statement of intent by 1 February 2014, so the group started a direct action campaign and held a series of protests across the country.
- Davies, A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14-014581-8, p 649: "the catalyst (for its formation) was the radio lecture given by Saunders Lewis on 13/2/62"
- Dylan Philps. "history of the welsh language society" in The Welsh Language in the Twentieth Century. Ed. by G.H. Jenkins and M.W. Williams. Page 471
- Dylan Phillips, 'Trwy ddulliau chwyldro..? Hanes Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg', Gomer, 1998, ISBN 1-85902-594-3 p 257
- Clive Betts, 'Inside the Welsh Language Society', Western Mail, 5/7/1977
- BBC News | WALES | Four charged after language rally
- BBC News | WALES | Five arrested at language rally
- Activist arrested over Tesco protest - Daily Post North Wales
- Tynged yr Iaith, The Welsh Language Society, Broadcasting in Welsh, The Welsh Language Act on Ymgyrchu!, a website by the National Library of Wales