The Deep Ones are creatures in the Cthulhu Mythos of H. P. Lovecraft. The beings first appeared in Lovecraft's novella "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" (1931), but were already hinted at in the early short story "Dagon". The Deep Ones are a race of fish-frog-like, ocean-dwelling creatures with an affinity for mating with humans which occurs regularly along the coast.
Numerous Mythos elements are associated with the Deep Ones, including the legendary town of Innsmouth, the undersea city of Y'ha-nthlei, the Esoteric Order of Dagon, and the beings known as Father Dagon and Mother Hydra. After their debut in Lovecraft's tale, the sea-dwelling creatures resurfaced in the works of other authors, especially August Derleth.
Lovecraft provides a description of the Deep One in "The Shadow Over Innsmouth":
I think their predominant color was a greyish-green, though they had white bellies. They were mostly shiny and slippery, but the ridges of their backs were scaly. Their forms vaguely suggested the anthropoid, while their heads were the heads of fish, with prodigious bulging eyes that never closed. At the sides of their necks were palpitating gills, and their long paws were webbed. They hopped irregularly, sometimes on two legs and sometimes on four. I was somehow glad that they had no more than four limbs. Their croaking, baying voices, clearly used for articulate speech, held all the dark shades of expression which their staring faces lacked ... They were the blasphemous fish-frogs of the nameless design - living and horrible.
Lovecraft describes the Deep Ones as a race of undersea-dwelling humanoids whose preferred habitat is deep in the ocean (hence their name). However, despite being primarily marine creatures, they can come to the surface and can survive on land for some time. All Deep Ones are immortal; none die except by accident or violence. They are said to serve the beings known as Father Dagon and Mother Hydra, as well as Cthulhu. They are opposed by mysterious beings known as the Old Gods, whose powerful magic can keep them in check. This detail is one of the vestigial hints that August Derleth developed as the mostly un-named Elder Gods.
Deep One hybrid 
The backstory of "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" involves a bargain between Deep Ones and humans, in which the aquatic species provides plentiful fishing and gold in the form of strangely formed jewellery. In return, the land-dwellers give human sacrifices and a promise of "mixing"—the mating of humans with Deep Ones. Although the Deep One hybrid offspring are born with the appearance of a normal human being, the individual will eventually transform into a Deep One, gaining immortality—by default—only when the transformation is complete.
The transformation usually occurs when the individual reaches middle age. As the hybrid gets older, he or she begins to acquire the so-called "Innsmouth Look" as he or she takes on more and more attributes of the Deep One race: the ears shrink, the eyes bulge and become unblinking, the head narrows and gradually goes bald, the skin becomes scabrous as it changes into scales, and the neck develops folds which later become gills. When the hybrid becomes too obviously non-human, it is hidden away from outsiders. Eventually, however, the hybrid will be compelled to slip into the sea to live with the Deep Ones in one of their undersea cities.
Father Dagon and Mother Hydra 
Father Dagon and, his consort, Mother Hydra are both deep ones overgrown after millennia ruling over their lesser brethren. Together with Cthulhu, they form the triad of gods worshipped by the Deep Ones (their names are inspired by Dagon, the Semitic fertility deity, and the Hydra of Greek mythology).
"Cyclopean and many-columned Y'ha-nthlei" is the only Deep One city named by Lovecraft. The name may have been inspired by the Lord Dunsany character "Yoharneth-Lahai", "the god of little dreams and fancies" who "sendeth little dreams out of PEGANA to please the people of Earth."
In "The Shadow Over Innsmouth", it is described as a great undersea metropolis located below Devil's Reef just off the coast of Massachusetts, near the town of Innsmouth. Its exact age is not known, but one resident is said to have lived there for 80,000 years.
In Lovecraft's story, the U.S. government torpedoed Devil's Reef in 1928 as part of a raid on the town of Innsmouth.
Primary source 
- Lovecraft, Howard P. (1984) . "The Shadow Over Innsmouth". In S. T. Joshi (ed.). The Dunwich Horror and Others (9th corrected printing ed.). Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-037-8. Definitive version.
Secondary sources 
- Harms, Daniel (1998). "Dagon". The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: Chaosium. p. 73. ISBN 1-56882-119-0.
- —"Deep Ones", pp. 81–82. Ibid.
- —"Hydra (Mother Hydra)", p. 143. Ibid.
- —"Y'ha-nthlei", p. 340. Ibid.
- Kermit Marsh III (a pseudonym?) (Hallowmas 1982). "Derleth's Use of the Words 'Ichthic' and 'Batrachian'". Crypt of Cthulhu #9: A Pulp Thriller and Theological Journal 2 (1). Robert M. Price (ed.) Bloomfield, NJ: Miskatonic University Press.
- The Deep Ones are a popular fixture in Derleth's Cthulhu Mythos fiction, appearing in about half of his tales. ("Derleth's Use of the Words 'Ichthic' and 'Batrachian'", Crypt of Cthulhu #9.)
- Robert M. Price suggests that "Dagon" and Cthulhu are actually the same entity, Dagon being "the closest biblical analogy to the real object of worship of the deep ones"--The Innsmouth Cycle, Robert M. Price, ed., p. ix.
- Lovecraft, "The Shadow Over Innsmouth".
- Price makes this suggestion in the introduction of Dunsany's "Of Yoharneth-Lahai", The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 1.
- "For eighty thousand years Pht'thya-l'yi had lived in Y'ha-nthlei" (ibid).
- Brian Lumley, "Rising With Surtsey".
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