Earth Departure Stage

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This article is about the SDLV second stage. For the stage used on the Saturn V to leave LEO, see S-IVB. For the "EDS" on Saturn, see Emergency Detection System.
Earth Departure Stage
Country of origin United States
Used on Ares V
SLS Block II
Associated stages
Comparable S-IVB
Launch history
Status Cancelled (Ares V)
In development (SLS)
Ares V EDS
Engines 1 J-2X
Thrust 1,310 kilonewtons (290,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 448 seconds (vacuum)
Fuel LH2/LOX
SLS Block II EDS
Length 24 metres (79 ft)
Engines 3 J-2X
Thrust 3,930 kilonewtons (880,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 448 seconds (vacuum)
Fuel LH2/LOX

The Earth Departure Stage (EDS) is the name given to the second stages of two Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicles, the Ares V and the Block II Space Launch System. The EDS is used to boost the rocket's payload into a parking orbit around the Earth and from there send the payload out of low Earth orbit to its destination in a manner similar to that of the S-IVB rocket stage used on the Saturn V rockets that propelled the three-man Apollo missions to the Moon between 1968 and 1972.

Ares V[edit]

Design[edit]

The EDS used on the Ares V would have been propelled by a single J-2X main engine fuelled with liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2), and was to have been designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama as part of Project Constellation. Originally, the stage would have been based on the Space Shuttle's External Tank, and would have used two J-2X engines, while the Ares V core booster would have used five Space Shuttle Main Engines and two 5-segment Solid Rocket Boosters during the first eight minutes of flight. When the Ares V was then redesigned around the use of five (later six[1]) RS-68B rocket engines currently used on the Delta IV EELV family, the EDS was then redesigned using only a single J-2X engine and a common bulkhead, thus in its final design, the EDS resembled an oversized S-IVB, but with the capability of on-site storage (using new propellant storage techniques along with a "loiter skirt" containing solar panels for electricity) for up to 4 days, something impossible with the old S-IVB.

Mission[edit]

Launched on the Ares V rocket, the EDS with its Altair payload would not have become active until the six RS-68 engines cutoff and the Ares V core was jettisoned to burn up in Earth's atmosphere. Upon separation using the on-board staging and ullage motors, the single J-2X engine would then have fired at full thrust to place itself and the Altair into a Low-Earth orbit until it was retrieved, via a separate launch on an Ares I, by the Orion MPCV and its four-person astronaut crew.

Once the Orion was docked with the Altair and its systems were checked out, the crew was to jettison the "loiter skirt" and then fire the J-2X engine for a second time, this time at 80% rated thrust, for Trans Lunar Injection (TLI). Unlike the S-IVB, which propelled the Apollo Spacecraft and its three-man crew in a forward-facing motion, the EDS would have fired its onboard rocket with the crew facing the EDS. This "eyeballs out" type of flying would be similar to the flight profile of the proposed, but never flown Manned Venus Flyby, from the cancelled Apollo Applications Program of the late 1960s.

When TLI was completed and the EDS was shut down for the last time, it would then have been jettisoned to fly into a heliocentric orbit, or in a manner similar to that employed by NASA from Apollo 13 to Apollo 17, it may have been deliberately crashed into the lunar surface to help scientists calibrate sensitive seismometers placed on the lunar surface by either astronauts on lunar sortie flights or by unmanned robotic probes.[2]

Space Launch System[edit]

The EDS used on the Block II Space Launch System will be 80 feet (24 m) long and equipped with two J-2X engines.[3] The block II EDS may be replaced by the Exploration Upper Stage.

Other uses[edit]

While the EDS will primarily be used for Orion lunar sortie, and later lunar outpost flights to the lunar polar regions, the EDS could also be used for the proposed Orion Asteroid Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid, and possibly be used for the launching of the proposed 8 to 16-meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (AT-LAST) to the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange Point. The EDS itself, or a derivative of the EDS may also be used for the eventual mission to Mars after 2030.

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.