November 2, 1828|
Brooklyn, New York, United States
|Died||July 16, 1893
New York City, New York
|Place of burial||Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York|
|Allegiance|| United States of America
|Years of service||1861–1865|
|Unit||IX Army Corps
Army of the Potomac
|Commands held|| 17th New York Volunteers
89th New York Volunteers
|Battles/wars||American Civil War
New York Draft Riots
|Other work||Civil servant and businessman|
Brigadier General Edward E. Jardine (November 2, 1828 – July 16, 1893) was an American U.S. Army officer during the American Civil War serving with the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment under General Benjamin Butler and later the Army of the Potomac under General Ambrose Burnside in Virginia and North Carolina campaigns.
He was also one of the senior military officers during the New York Draft Riots and, although narrowly escaping lynching at the hands of a mob, the injuries he sustained during the riots ended his military career and the effects from which would last throughout his life.
Early life and military service
Edward Jardine was born in Brooklyn to Charles Jardine, an Englishman of French decent, shortly after his parents arrived in the United States. He came from a poor background and, as a teenager, he worked at a hardware store and attended night school. At age 18, Jardine married Ophelia Kreemer with whom he would have two sons, Augustus E. and James R.D. Jardine. Jardine eventually became a successful hardware importer and served in the State National Guard prior to the start of the American Civil War.
Enlisting in the Union Army in May 1861, he received a commission as an officer with the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, popularly known as Hawkins' Zouaves, and later the IX Army Corps where he served under General Benjamin Butler at the Battle of Big Bethel and Hatteras Inlet expedition. In 1862, he accompanied the Army of the Potomac in General Ambrose Burnside's Roanoke expedition and took part in the Battles of Hatteras Inlet, Roanoke Island, South Mountain, Antietam and Fredericksburg. Twice wounded during the campaign, Jardine was promoted to the rank of major for "gallant conduct" and briefly commanded the 89th Infantry Regiment.
New York Draft Riots
After his unit had been disbanded in early 1863, the two-year enlistment terms having expired, he and other former Union officers were in New York to recruit new members. At the time the New York Draft Riots broke out, Jardine held no formal command. He did, however, call upon former members of Hawkins' Zouaves as well as other regiments to help local officials to defend against the rioters. Only 200 or so men responded his plea, but Jardine took command of the small force and prepared to face the rioters. A veteran artillery officer, he also gave artillery support to several regiments.
On July 15, Jardine and his men engaged the rioters at First Avenue and Nineteenth Street supporting Major Robinson and the Duryea's Zouaves with artillery fire from two howitzers. While the infantrymen engaged the rioters, Jardine ordered the guns to sweep the avenue but the mob scattered from the street by the time he gave the order to fire. Within a few minutes, they began taking fire from both sides of the street. Both artillery and sharpshooters returned fire, neither being effective. Despite being vastly outnumbered, he and his men attempted to disperse the mob but were instead pushed back leaving many soldiers dead and wounded on the streets before being forced to retreat. It was during this battle that Jardine was struck in the thigh by a piece of lead pipe fired from a cannon, which caused a compound fracture, an injury from which he would never fully recover.
He was rescued by local residents, two young women, who hid him and two others in the basement of their Second Avenue home. By the time the mob began searching homes and buildings for wounded soldiers, the two Duryea officers having escaped hours before, Jardine was able to escape notice by wearing civilian clothes. A second version claims that, upon the mob breaking into the house, the two officers were clubbed to death and that only the intervention of one of the rioters, a veteran of Hawkins' Zouaves, had recognized him that he persuaded the others to spare him. Jardine was taken to the home of a nearby surgeon where he remained for the rest of the riots.
Retirement and later years
Jardine was later given command of the 17th Infantry Regiment, newly formed from the original 7th and 9th Regiments, but was turned over his command due to his injury and was eventually transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps. He was awarded the rank of brevet Brigadier General upon his retirement and honorably discharged in May 1865.
He was briefly involved in business interests on Wall Street with W.T. Pelton, nephew of noted political reformer Samuel J. Tilden, but left New York for New Jersey where he settled in Fort Lee along the Hudson River. From 1867 until 1869, Jardine was editor and publisher for the Daily Times in Jersey City. He was also active in local politics and ran for public office several times before becoming a clerk for the New Jersey state legislature in 1869. Involved in the Grand Army of the Republic, Jardine was elected provincial commander of its New Jersey chapter and, years later, became the commander of its New York chapter as well as its senior vice commander in chief.
During the next year, Jardine was personally appointed as a weigher to the New York U.S. Custom House by President Ulysses S. Grant. He would remain in this position for almost twenty years until poor health, due to his old injuries, forced him to retire. After several years as a widower, he married Katherine Clark in 1885. His health continued to decline as complications from his wounds becoming steadily worse in his old age and was bedridden for much of 1887. In March 1888, Jardine suffered an attack which caused him to be confined in the Hotel Pomeroy until his death.
Funeral services were held at the Scottish Rite Hall at Madison Avenue and Twenty-Ninth Street the following afternoon. Reverend Clark Wright delivered the eulogy and members of the Chancellor Walworth Lodge of Masons, the George Washington Post of the Grand Army and Loyal Legion of Honor were in attendance.
- "Gen. Edward Jardine Dead; End of a Notable Career as a Soldier and Businessman". New York Times. 17 Jul 1893
- Swinton, William. History of the Seventh Regiment, National Guard, State of New York, During the War of the Rebellion. New York: Fields, Osgood and Co., 1870. (pg. 401)
- Asbury, Herbert. The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the New York Underworld. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1928. (pg. 150-151) ISBN 1-56025-275-8
- Beath, Robert Burns. History of the Grand Army of the Republic. Bryan, Taylor, & Co. Publishers, 1889. (pg. 153-154)
- Ward, William H, ed. Records of Members of the Grand Army of the Republic. San Francisco: H.S. Crocker & Co., 1886. (pg. 170)
- Cook, Adrian. The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974.