Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary

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Elizabeth of Poland
Elżbieta Łokietkówna z dziećmi.JPG
Elizabeth of Poland with her sons
Queen consort of Hungary
Tenure 1320–1342
Spouse Charles I of Hungary
Issue Louis I of Hungary and Poland
Andrew, Duke of Calabria
Stephen, Duke of Slavonia
Charles of Hungary
Ladislaus of Hungary
House House of Piast (by birth)
House of Anjou (by marriage)
Father Władysław I the Elbow-high
Mother Jadwiga of Greater Poland
Born 1305
Died 29 December 1380

Elizabeth of Poland (Polish: Elżbieta Łokietkówna) (1305 – 29 December 1380) was Queen consort of Hungary and regent of Poland. She is also known as Elizabeth of Kujavia and Elizabeth Piast.

Early life[edit]

She was a member of the Polish royal House of Piast, the daughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high, prince of Kujavia and Jadwiga of Greater Poland, she was the sister of Casimir III the Great, King of Poland and the last ruler of Piast dynasty, who died in 1370. Her sister was Cunigunde of Poland, who was married to Bernard of Świdnica.

Queen consort[edit]

Elisabeth's marriage to Charles Robert of Hungary

She was married on 6 July 1320 to Charles I Robert, King of Hungary.[1] Elizabeth was Charles' third wife. The marriage brought an alliance between Poland and Hungary.

Charles' two previous marriages are believed not to have left surviving issue, at least no surviving sons. Charles' first wife Maria of Bytom was believed to have been barren but it is also believed she bore two daughters: Catherine and Elizabeth. Others however believe that the two girls were daughters of Queen Elizabeth.

While at court in Hungary, Elizabeth is credited as having been the first to introduce perfume, then known as Hungary Water, to Europe and the western world.

Elizabeth and Charles Robert had five sons and possibly two daughters:

Charles Robert died 16 July 1342.

Queen mother[edit]

Elizabeth wished to make a good marriage for her eldest surviving son, who ascended the Polish throne on her husband's death. She had her son betrothed to Margaret of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. They married in 1342 but the marriage didn't last because, seven years into the marriage, the fourteen-year-old Margaret died, childless. Elizabeth now needed for her son to remarry and produce and heir.

The branch of the Kuyavian Piast family was popular in Hungary, and several members lived in Louis' court. Elizabeth's influence extended far beyond any other queen consort, and years before, Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, married Elizabeth of Kuyavia, the daughter of the Duke Casimir II of Kuyavia, Queen Elizabeth's cousin. Stephen II of Bosnia had a young daughter named Elizabeth, and after learning about her, the Hungarian queen insisted immediately on bringing her to the Hungarian court for fostering. Stephen was reluctant at first, but eventually dispatched Elizabeth. Three years later, Queen Elizabeth invited Stephen to Hungary and arranged a marriage between their children.

The queen mother was heir to her brother Casimir's throne after the death of their sister, Cunigunde. Her claim passed to Louis after the death of his two elder brothers. Casimir had married four times but none of his wives had given him surviving sons. He chose to leave Louis the crown of Poland thus Hungary and Poland being united under one monarch.

Elizabeth's second surviving son, Andrew, married Joan I of Naples. Andrew wished to be made king of Naples and rule jointly with his wife, but Joan refused. Pope Clement VI approved Joan's request to be crowned alone. Fearing for his life, Andrew wrote to his mother that he would soon flee the kingdom. She intervened and made a state visit; before she returned to Hungary, she bribed the Pope to reverse himself and permit Andrew's coronation. She also gave her son a ring, which was supposed to protect him from death by blade or poison, and returned with a false sense of security to Hungary. The ring didn't work; Andrew was soon assassinated.

Louis was absent from Poland between 1370-1375. Elizabeth was made regent to conveniently eliminate her from his court.[4] The Poles hated paying taxes and loved to quarrel among themselves and with the court, especially with the domineering Elizabeth. Her regency turned out to be a failure, her own Polish background notwithstanding. In 1376, the Poles killed 160 of her Hungarian bodyguards and Elizabeth escaped to Hungary lest she, too, be killed by her compatriots. Louis reconed with the rebels, and strengthened his power, at his mother's expense.

Death[edit]

After her tragic regency and her return to Hungary, Elizabeth spent her final years in a monastery outside of Buda, where she wrote her will. It specifies her desire to rest in the monastery of Saint Starobudzińskim. Elizabeth also left money and possessions to her family: she left Louis several golden vessels, daughter-in-law, Elizabeth of Bosnia - Buda Castle, granddaughter, Mary - a gold wreath, granddaughter, Hedwig - wreath of lilies, and her niece, Hedwig - a ring. She also left money to some churches.[5]

Ancestors[edit]

Elisabeth's ancestors in three generations

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Konrad I of Masovia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Casimir I of Kuyavia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agafia of Rus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Władysław I the Elbow-high
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Casimir I of Opole
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Euphrosyne of Opole
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Viola of Bulgaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elisabeth of Poland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Władysław Odonic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Boleslaus the Pious
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jadwiga of Pomerania
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jadwiga of Poland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Béla IV of Hungary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blessed Jolenta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maria Laskarina
 
 
 
 
 
 

Notes and references[edit]

See also[edit]

Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary
Born: 1305 Died: 1380
Preceded by
Beatrice of Luxembourg
Queen consort of Hungary
1320–1342
Succeeded by
Margaret of Luxembourg