Enkidu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Part of a series on
Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Chaos Monster and Sun God
Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Other traditions

Enkidu (𒂗𒆠𒆕 EN.KI.DU3 "Enki's creation") is a central figure in the Ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh. Enkidu was formed from clay and saliva by Aruru, the goddess of creation, to rid Gilgamesh of his arrogance. In the story he is a wild man, raised by animals and ignorant of human society until he is bedded by Shamhat. Thereafter a series of interactions with humans and human ways bring him closer to civilization, culminating in a wrestling match with Gilgamesh, king of Uruk. Enkidu embodies the wild or natural world, and though equal to Gilgamesh in strength and bearing, acts in some ways as an antithesis to the cultured, urban-bred warrior-king. Enkidu then becomes the king's constant companion and deeply beloved friend, accompanying him on adventures until he is stricken ill. The deep, tragic loss of Enkidu profoundly inspires in Gilgamesh a quest to escape death by obtaining godly immortality.[1]

Older sources sometimes transliterate his name as Enkimdu, Eabani, or Enkita. Enkidu is a modern variant.

Enkidu later in the Epic of Gilgamesh[edit]

Possible representation of Enkidu

Enkidu assists Gilgamesh in defeating and killing Humbaba, the guardian monster of the Cedar Forest. Afterwards, he again assists Gilgamesh in slaying Gugalanna the Bull of Heaven, which the gods have sent to kill Gilgamesh as a reprisal for rejecting Ishtar's affections while enumerating the misfortunes that befell her former lovers. Ishtar demands that the pair pay for the bull's destruction. Shamash argues to the other gods to spare both of them, but he could save only Gilgamesh. This, and the slow decomposition of Enkidu's body, provides the hero with the impetus for his quest for eternal life, and his visit to Utnapishtim.

There is another non-canonical tablet in which Enkidu journeys into the underworld, but many scholars consider the tablet to be a sequel or add-on to the original epic.

Cultural references[edit]

  • Enkidu and the Gilgamesh Epic have been mentioned in various modern works of fiction; see adaptations of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
  • In season 2 episode 8 of the TV show Lost titled Collision, John Locke is seen working on a crossword puzzle in which one of the hints is "Enkidu' Friend," the answer to which is Gilgamesh.
  • In the episode Darmok of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Captain Jean-Luc Picard references the story of Enkidu and Gilgamesh as a human parallel to that of Darmok and Jalad.
  • In the game Dragon Wars, "the man-animal Enkidu" is the patron of druids. As a reference to the original myth, he challenges a member of the party to a duel; if defeated, the character becomes the champion of Enkidu.
  • In the games series Final Fantasy, Gilgamesh is often encountered with a canine companion named Enkidu.
  • Civilization III: Conquests, the second expansion to the computer game Sid Meier's Civilization III, features the civilization of Sumeria under King Gilgamesh. Their special unit is the Enkidu Warrior.
  • Enkidu and Gilgamesh are the main antagonists of Peter David's 2003 fantasy novel, One Knight Only.
  • In the manga and anime series Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann, Enkidu is the name of the first upgraded form of the antagonist Viral's mecha Enki, which may itself have been named after the Sumerian god of the same name. Viral shares a number of traits with Enkidu himself, being a beast-man and joining forces with the protagonist.
  • Enkidu appears in some form throughout Type-Moon's Fate series. In Fate/Stay Night "Unlimited Blade Works" Route and Fate/Zero, Enkidu -Divinity subduing chains- is one of the most trusted and powerful Noble Phantasms of the Servant Gilgamesh. Enkidu appears in a dream in Fate/Extra CCC if the player's Servant is Gilgamesh, and in the light novel Fate/Strange Fake, Enkidu himself is summoned as a Servant.
  • In MARDEK RPG, full name of Enki's son is Mardek Innanu El-Enkidu.
  • In the RPG Vampire: The Masquerade, Enkidu is a Gangrel vampire member of the Anathema and keeper of several ghouled animals that no longer exist that he has absorbed into his physical form and kept them alive by vampire blood. Enkidu tries to use other vampire blood rather than his own to keep these creatures alive.(Kindred's Most Wanted pages 33 – 36).
  • In Fred Saberhagen's novel The Arms of Hercules, Enkidu is the name of Hercules' 12-year-old nephew who accompanies the demi-god on his journeys.

°Pandora Saga: Weapons of Balance, Enkidu are a playable race.

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jastrow 1911, pp. 788–789.

References[edit]

  •  Jastrow, Morris (1911). "Eabani". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 788–789. 
  • The Epic of Gilgamesh, Foster, Benjamin R. Foster trans. & edit. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001. ISBN 0-393-97516-9

External links[edit]