Eske Willerslev

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Eske Willerslev
Willerslev.png
Eske Willerslev in the laboratory.
Born June 5, 1971
Gentofte
Nationality Danish
Fields Evolutionary biologists
Institutions University of Copenhagen
Known for Ancient DNA

Eske Willerslev (5 June 1971) is a Danish evolutionary biologist notable for his pioneering work on Ancient DNA. He is currently a full professor at Copenhagen University and director of the Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics. He is the son of historian Richard Willerslev and twin brother of anthropologist Rane Willerslev.

Biography[edit]

Before becoming a scientist Willerslev led several expeditions in Siberia in the early 1990s with his twin brother, anthropologist Rane Willerslev collecting ethnographic materials and Megafauna skeleton remains that are stored at Moesgaard Museum in Denmark (the largest Siberian ethnographical collection in Denmark). Willerslev also lived as a fur trapper in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic from 1993-94.[1] Willerslev handed in his PhD thesis as a doctor thesis and obtained his DSc at Copenhagen University in 2004.[2] He moved to Oxford University as an independent Wellcome Trust Fellow, and became full professor at Copenhagen University at the age of 33, the youngest person to become a full professor in Denmark at the time. Willerslev is a Foreign Associate Member of The National Academy of Sciences (USA),[3] elected member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters,[4] and Honorary Doctor at University of Oslo.[5] He has been a visiting professor at Oxford University, UK, and a Miller visiting professor at UC Berkeley. In 2014 he became an adopted member of the Crow Tribe in Montana (Apsaalooke), where he carries the name ChiitdeeXia’ssee (Well Known Scout).[6]

He has received several awards including the Antiquity Prize for the best paper in the journal Antiquity in 2009, the Danish Independent Research Council's Major EliteForsk Prize,[7] the Rosenkjær Award[8] and the Genius Award (Geniusprisen) of Danish Science journalists for "an impressive array of research successes in the public eye, combined with a unique tour-de-force through university".[9][10]

Research[edit]

Megafaunal extinction[edit]

His group is interested in understanding what caused the decreases in diversity of Megafauna after the last ice age and past human population genetics. He was the first to use environmental ancient DNA where ancient DNA from animals and plants is retrieved directly from the environment such as sediments and ice.[11][12] Using this approach, Willerslev and collaborators estimated that woolly mammoth in mainland Alaska survived more than 3,500 years than previously thought, thereby dismissing the Blitzkrieg and Impact hypotheses for Megafauna extinction.[13] They also clarified the importance of climate change as a driver of Megafauna population dynamics,[14] and the decline of protein rich forbs during the Pleistocene extinctions.[15]

Early Peopling of the Americas[edit]

In 2008 he led the DNA study on coprolites from the Paisley Caves in Oregon showing human presence in North America more than 14,000 years ago and some 1000 years prior to Clovis.[16] In 2010 a team led by Willerslev sequenced the genome of a 4,000-year-old man from the Saqqaq culture of Greenland from his hair, the first ancient human genome to be sequenced. The DNA obtained from the hair was fragmented into an average size of 55 base pairs.[17] They revealed that the Saqqaq peoples represent a migration from Siberia to the Americas that is separate from that of Native American and Inuit ancestors. In 2014 his team showed that all paleoeskimos in the New World belong to the same population as the Saqqaq man and that they lived in genetic isolation from Native Americans for almost 5,000 years before they died out some 700 years ago.[18] In 2013 his team discovered a genetic link between western Eurasians and Native Americans by sequencing the genome of the 24,000-year-old Mal´ta boy from central Siberia, showing that all contemporary Native Americans carry approximately 1/3 of their genome from the Mal’ta population.[19] In 2014 his team sequenced the Clovis-age genome from the 12,600-year-old Anzick boy from Montana and found it to be ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans thereby rejecting the Solutrean theory for early peopling of the Americas.[20] The skeleton of the boy was later reburied by the support of Willerslev and this event facilitated his adoption into the Crow tribe.[6]

Other research[edit]

He also led a study showing that living bacteria can take up ancient DNA by natural transformation allowing for genomic recycling of ancient genetic traits.[21] Willerslev and collaborators have sequenced the genome of a 700,000-year-old horse from Yukon in Canada, which as of 2014 is the oldest genome ever sequenced.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.science.ku.dk/nyheder/02062008/
  2. ^ Willerslev E. (2004) Recovery and analysis of ancient DNA from ice, sediments, and fossil remains. DSc thesis University of Copenhagen 2004 pp. 1-346, HCØ tryk, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
  3. ^ "Eske Willerslev". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  4. ^ "VIDENSKABERNES SELSKAB". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  5. ^ "Ancient and environmental DNA studies - Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  6. ^ a b "For Crow-indianerne er han »Well-known Wolf«". www.b.dk. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  7. ^ "Eske Willerslev — EliteForsk". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  8. ^ "Rosenkjær-foredrag med Eske Willerslev". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  9. ^ cawa (2009-06-16). "DNA-forsker Eske Willerslev fik hæderspris". Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  10. ^ "Geniusprisen". Retrieved 2014-10-07. Eske Willerslev har en imponerende række af formidlingssucceser i offentligheden bag sig kombineret med en enestående tour-de-force gennem universitetsverdenen [...] Begge har beriget Danmark med formidling af højeste karat og Danske Videnskabsjournalister er stolte af at kunne hædre de to forskere. 
  11. ^ Willerslev, Eske; Anders J. Hansen; Jonas Binladen; Tina B. Brand; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Beth Shapiro; Michael Bunce; Carsten Wiuf; David A. Gilichinsky; Alan Cooper (2003-05-02). "Diverse plant and animal genetic records from Holocene and Pleistocene sediments". Science 300 (5620): 791–795. doi:10.1126/science.1084114. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 12702808. 
  12. ^ Willerslev, Eske; Enrico Cappellini, Wouter Boomsma, Rasmus Nielsen, Martin B. Hebsgaard, Tina B. Brand, Michael Hofreiter, Michael Bunce, Hendrik N. Poinar, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Sigfus Johnsen, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Ole Bennike, Jean-Luc Schwenninger, Roger Nathan, Simon Armitage, Cees-Jan de Hoog, Vasily Alfimov, Marcus Christl, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Joel Barker, Martin Sharp, Kirsty E. H. Penkman, James Haile, Pierre Taberlet, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Antonella Casoli, Elisa Campani, Matthew J. Collins (2007-07-06). "Ancient biomolecules from deep ice cores reveal a forested southern Greenland". Science 317 (5834): 111–114. doi:10.1126/science.1141758. ISSN 1095-9203. PMC 2694912. PMID 17615355. 
  13. ^ Haile, James; Duane G. Froese, Ross D. E. Macphee, Richard G. Roberts, Lee J. Arnold, Alberto V. Reyes, Morten Rasmussen, Rasmus Nielsen, Barry W. Brook, Simon Robinson, Martina Demuro, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kasper Munch, Jeremy J. Austin, Alan Cooper, Ian Barnes, Per Möller, Eske Willerslev (2009-12-29). "Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (52): 22352–22357. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912510106. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 2795395. PMID 20018740. 
  14. ^ Lorenzen, Eline D.; David Nogués-Bravo, Ludovic Orlando, Jaco Weinstock, Jonas Binladen, Katharine A. Marske, Andrew Ugan, Michael K. Borregaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Simon Y. W. Ho, Ted Goebel, Kelly E. Graf, David Byers, Jesper T. Stenderup, Morten Rasmussen, Paula F. Campos, Jennifer A. Leonard, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Thomas W. Stafford, Kim Aaris-Sørensen, Persaram Batra, Alan M. Haywood, Joy S. Singarayer, Paul J. Valdes, Gennady Boeskorov, James A. Burns, Sergey P. Davydov, James Haile, Dennis L. Jenkins, Pavel Kosintsev, Tatyana Kuznetsova, Xulong Lai, Larry D. Martin, H. Gregory McDonald, Dick Mol, Morten Meldgaard, Kasper Munch, Elisabeth Stephan, Mikhail Sablin, Robert S. Sommer, Taras Sipko, Eric Scott, Marc A. Suchard, Alexei Tikhonov, Rane Willerslev, Robert K. Wayne, Alan Cooper, Michael Hofreiter, Andrei Sher, Beth Shapiro, Carsten Rahbek, Eske Willerslev (2011-11-17). "Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans". Nature 479 (7373): 359–364. doi:10.1038/nature10574. ISSN 0028-0836. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  15. ^ Willerslev, Eske; John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Kari Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos, Eva Bellemain, Anne Krag Brysting, Reidar Elven, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Julian Murton, Andrei Sher, Morten Rasmussen, Regin Rønn, Tobias Mourier, Alan Cooper, Jeremy Austin, Per Möller, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, François Pompanon, Delphine Rioux, Vincent Niderkorn, Alexei Tikhonov, Grigoriy Savvinov, Richard G. Roberts, Ross D. E. MacPhee, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kurt H. Kjær, Ludovic Orlando, Christian Brochmann, Pierre Taberlet (2014-02-06). "Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet". Nature 506 (7486): 47–51. doi:10.1038/nature12921. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 24499916. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  16. ^ Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Dennis L. Jenkins, Anders Götherstrom, Nuria Naveran, Juan J. Sanchez, Michael Hofreiter, Philip Francis Thomsen, Jonas Binladen, Thomas F. G. Higham, Robert M. Yohe, Robert Parr, Linda Scott Cummings, Eske Willerslev (2008-05-09). "DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America". Science 320 (5877): 786–789. doi:10.1126/science.1154116. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18388261. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  17. ^ Katherine Harmon "Long-Locked Genome of Ancient Man Sequenced". Retrieved 2014-10-07.  Scientific American. 10 February 2010.
  18. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Bjarne Grønnow, Martin Appelt, Hans Christian Gulløv, T. Max Friesen, William Fitzhugh, Helena Malmström, Simon Rasmussen, Jesper Olsen, Linea Melchior, Benjamin T. Fuller, Simon M. Fahrni, Thomas Stafford, Vaughan Grimes, M. A. Priscilla Renouf, Jerome Cybulski, Niels Lynnerup, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Kate Britton, Rick Knecht, Jette Arneborg, Mait Metspalu, Omar E. Cornejo, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Yong Wang, Morten Rasmussen, Vibha Raghavan, Thomas V. O. Hansen, Elza Khusnutdinova, Tracey Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, Claus Andreasen, Hans Lange, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Joan Coltrain, Victor A. Spitsyn, Anders Götherström, Ludovic Orlando, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Michael H. Crawford, Finn C. Nielsen, Jørgen Dissing, Jan Heinemeier, Morten Meldgaard, Carlos Bustamante, Dennis H. O’Rourke, Mattias Jakobsson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev (2014-08-29). "The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic". Science 345 (6200): 1255832. doi:10.1126/science.1255832. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25170159. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  19. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Pontus Skoglund, Kelly E. Graf, Mait Metspalu, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Simon Rasmussen, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, Ludovic Orlando, Ene Metspalu, Monika Karmin, Kristiina Tambets, Siiri Rootsi, Reedik Mägi, Paula F. Campos, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Elza Khusnutdinova, Sergey Litvinov, Ludmila P. Osipova, Sardana A. Fedorova, Mikhail I. Voevoda, Michael DeGiorgio, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Søren Brunak, Svetlana Demeshchenko, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Rasmus Nielsen, Mattias Jakobsson, Eske Willerslev (2014-01-02). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature 505 (7481): 87–91. doi:10.1038/nature12736. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  20. ^ Rasmussen, Morten; Sarah L. Anzick, Michael R. Waters, Pontus Skoglund, Michael DeGiorgio, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, Simon Rasmussen, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Shane M. Doyle, G. David Poznik, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Rachita Yadav, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Samuel Stockton White V, Morten E. Allentoft, Omar E. Cornejo, Kristiina Tambets, Anders Eriksson, Peter D. Heintzman, Monika Karmin, Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen, David J. Meltzer, Tracey L. Pierre, Jesper Stenderup, Lauri Saag, Vera M. Warmuth, Margarida C. Lopes, Ripan S. Malhi, Søren Brunak, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Ian Barnes, Matthew Collins, Ludovic Orlando, Francois Balloux, Andrea Manica, Ramneek Gupta, Mait Metspalu, Carlos D. Bustamante, Mattias Jakobsson, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev (2014-02-13). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature 506 (7487): 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 24522598. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  21. ^ Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Klaus Harms, Ludovic A. A. Orlando, J. Victor Moreno Mayar, Simon Rasmussen, Tais W. Dahl, Minik T. Rosing, Anthony M. Poole, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Søren Brunak, Sabrina Inselmann, Johann de Vries, Wilfried Wackernagel, Oliver G. Pybus, Rasmus Nielsen, Pål Jarle Johnsen, Kaare Magne Nielsen, Eske Willerslev (2013-12-03). "Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (49): 19860–19865. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315278110. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 24248361. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  22. ^ Orlando, Ludovic; Aurélien Ginolhac, Guojie Zhang, Duane Froese, Anders Albrechtsen, Mathias Stiller, Mikkel Schubert, Enrico Cappellini, Bent Petersen, Ida Moltke, Philip L. F. Johnson, Matteo Fumagalli, Julia T. Vilstrup, Maanasa Raghavan, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Josef Vogt, Damian Szklarczyk, Christian D. Kelstrup, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Jesper Stenderup, Amhed M. V. Velazquez, James Cahill, Morten Rasmussen, Xiaoli Wang, Jiumeng Min, Grant D. Zazula, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Cecilie Mortensen, Kim Magnussen, John F. Thompson, Jacobo Weinstock, Kristian Gregersen, Knut H. Røed, Véra Eisenmann, Carl J. Rubin, Donald C. Miller, Douglas F. Antczak, Mads F. Bertelsen, Søren Brunak, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Oliver Ryder, Leif Andersson, John Mundy, Anders Krogh, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kurt Kjær, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Lars Juhl Jensen, Jesper V. Olsen, Michael Hofreiter, Rasmus Nielsen, Beth Shapiro, Jun Wang, Eske Willerslev (2013-07-04). "Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse". Nature 499 (7456): 74–78. doi:10.1038/nature12323. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 23803765. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 

Sources[edit]