Kennewick Man

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Kennewick Man, skull and reconstruction, 2014. Forensic anthropologist Doug Owsley believes that the closest living relatives are Polynesians and Ainu.[1]

Kennewick Man is the name generally given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric Paleoamerican man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington, on July 28, 1996.[2] It is one of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found. Radiocarbon tests on bone have shown it to date from 8.9k to 9k cal years B.P.[1][3]

The discovery of the remains led to considerable controversy, as the Umatilla people and other tribes have wanted the remains returned to them for reburial under NAGPRA. Detailed study of the ancient skeleton commenced after a court ruling in 2004 compelled the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide access to the skeleton for scientists. The USACE retains custody, as the remains were found on property under its control.

A first attempt at DNA analysis in the early 2000s found meaningful results on that specimen impossible to attain with the techniques available at that time. With changes in technology, additional DNA testing of remains has been conducted by an analytical laboratory in Denmark. An 2013 email from the laboratory to the USACE stated the feeling, based on preliminary results of analysis, that the specimen contained Native American DNA. However, no final results have been presented and the laboratory refuses further discussion until such time.[4]

Description[edit]

When all the pieces were put together, the skeleton of Kennewick Man was found to be nearly complete. A stone projectile was found lodged in the man's hip bone. As his anatomical features were quite different from those of modern Native Americans, scientists thought that his relationship to other ancient people was uncertain.

The finding of the skeleton triggered a nine-year legal clash between scientists, the U.S. government, and Native American tribes that claim Kennewick Man as one of their ancestors and want the remains returned to them under NAGPRA.

In February 2004, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that a cultural link between any of the Native American tribes and the Kennewick Man could not be proved because of the age of the remains. Its ruling allowed scientific study of the remains to continue, while the USACE retained custody of the remains.[5][6] In July 2005, a team of scientists from around the United States convened in Seattle for ten days to study the remains in detail. Their research results were published in 2014 in Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton edited by Douglas Owsley and Richard Jantz.[7][8]

Although DNA testing was conducted in the early 2000s, the technology was not advanced enough to deal with ancient remains and the results were inconclusive.[9] Advances in ancient DNA analysis since then have led to renewed testing, which is still under way in Denmark (as of February 2015). A 2013 email from the analysts to the USACE stated that the analysts "feel that Kennewick has normal, standard Native-American genetics," based on preliminary analysis. The team responsible for the testing, however, has emphasized that the result is only preliminary and could change some with more detailed analysis.[4]

Findings[edit]

The discovery of Kennewick Man was accidental. Will Thomas and David Deacy were attending the annual hydroplane races, and found his skull in a reservoir on the Columbia River at Columbia Park [10] The remains had been scattered in the reservoir due to erosion.

Following delivery of the cranium by the coroner, they were examined by archaeologist James Chatters. In ten visits to the site, Chatters managed to collect 350 bones and pieces of bone, which, with the skull, completed almost an entire skeleton.[11] The cranium was fully intact with all the teeth that had been present at the time of death.[12] All major bones were found, except the sternum and a few bones of the hands and feet. Many of the bones were broken into several pieces.[13] After studying the bones, Chatters concluded that they belonged to "a male of late middle age (40-55 years), and tall (170 to 176 cm, 5′7″ to 5′9″),and was fairly muscular with a slender build". The initial race identification was Caucasoid.[12]

A small bone fragment was submitted to the University of California, Riverside for radiocarbon dating. This indicated the age of the skeleton at approximately 9,300 to 9,600 years (8,400 uncalibrated "radiocarbon years"), not the 19th century, as had originally been assumed.[11] Subsequent radiocarbon dating indicates a somewhat younger age of 8.9k to 9k cal years BP.[3][14]

Chatters found that bone had partially grown around a 79 mm (3.1 in) stone projectile lodged in the ilium, part of the pelvic bone.[13] On x-ray, nothing appeared. Chatters put the bone through a CT scan, and it was discovered that the projectile was made from a siliceous gray stone that was found to have igneous (intrusive or volcanic) origins.[13] The projectile, leaf-shaped, long, and broad, with serrated edges, fit the definition of a Cascade point. This type of point is a feature of the Cascade phase, which occurred roughly 7,500 to 12,000 years BP.[13]

To further investigate the mystery of the Kennewick man and determine whether the skeleton belonged to the Umatilla Native American tribe, an extraction of DNA was analyzed. However, according to the report of the scientists performing the DNA analysis, "available technology and protocols do not allow the analysis of ancient DNA from these remains."[15]

Forensic anthropologist Douglas Owsley, who later led the scientific team that examined Kennewick Man's skeleton in 2005, discovered that the bones in Kennewick Man's arms were were bent. Owsley theorized that this was the result of muscles built up over the course of a lifetime of hunting and spearfishing.[16][17][page needed] Kennewick Man was found to be clearly right-handed, as the bones of the right arm are noticeably larger than the bones found in Kennewick Man's left arm.

Chatters et al. conducted a graphic comparison, including size, of Kennewick Man to eighteen modern populations and showed Kennewick Man to be most closely related to the Ainu. However, when size was excluded as a factor, no association to any population was established.[11] Chatters said that anthropologist C. Loring Brace classified Ainu and Polynesians as a single craniofacial Jomon-Pacific cluster and Chatters said "Polynesians have craniofacial similarities to Asian, Australian and European peoples".[18] Brace himself stated in a 2006 interview with the Tri-City Herald that his analysis of the skeleton indicated that Kennewick Man was related to the Ainu.[19]

Anthropologist Joseph Powell of the University of New Mexico was also allowed to examine the remains. Powell used craniometric data obtained by anthropologist William White Howells of Harvard University and anthropologist Tsunehiko Hanihara of Saga University that had the advantage of including data drawn from Asian and North American populations.[18] Powell said that Kennewick Man was not European but most resembled the Ainu[11] and Polynesians.[18] Powell said that the Ainu descend from the Jōmon people who are an East Asian population with "closest biological affinity with south-east Asians rather than western Eurasian peoples".[20] Furthermore, Powell said that dental analysis showed the skull to have a 94 percent consistency with being of a Sundadont group like the Ainu and Polynesians and only a 48 percent consistency with being of a Sinodont group like that of North Asia.[18] Powell said analysis of the skull showed it to be "unlike American Indians and Europeans".[18] Powell concluded that Kennewick man "is clearly not a Caucasoid unless Ainu and Polynesians are considered Caucasoid."[20]

The biological diversity among ancient skulls in the Americas has further complicated attempts to establish how closely Kennewick Man is related to any modern Native American tribes.[11] Skulls older than 8,000 years old have been found to possess greater physical diversity than do those of modern Native Americans. The origin of that diversity, whether due to different lineages or local adaptation, is a matter of debate.

In 2005, a 10-day examination of the skeleton led by forensic anthropologist Douglas Owsley revealed that Kennewick Man had arthritis in his right eblow, both of his knees, and within several of his vertebrae, although not severe enough to be crippling. Owsley discovered that Kennewick Man had also suffered some trauma in his lifetime, which was evident by a fractured rib that had healed, a depression fracture on Kennewick Man's forehead and similar indentation on the left side of the head, and a spear jab that healed. Despite earlier theories regarding Kennewick Man's age, the Owsley team thinks he may have been as young as 38 at the time of death.[17][page needed][21]

Kennewick Man was found to have been deliberately buried. By examining the calcium carbonate left behind as underground water collected on the underside of the bones which then evaporated, scientists were able to conclude that Kennewick Man was lying on his back with his feet rolled slightly outward and his arms at his side, with the palms facing down - a position that could hardly have come about by accident.[17][page needed][22][23]

The findings of the study team convened under Owsley have been published in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, editors).[8] In it, multiple disciplines including forensic anthropology, physical anthropology, and isotope chemistry are used to reconstruct the life history and heritage of that individual.

Measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in the bone collagen indicate that the man lived almost exclusively on a diet of marine mammals for the last 20 or so years of his life and that the water he drank was glacial melt water.[24] The closest marine coastal environment where one could find glacial melt water at the time of Kennewick Man was Alaska. That combined with the location of the find led to the conclusion that the individual led a highly mobile, water-borne lifestyle centered on the northern coast.[25][26]

Craniofacial measurements of the skull were found to resemble those of the Ainu, descendants of the Jōmon aboriginals of Japan.[27] The Jōmon and Kennewick Man are thought by the authors to share common ancestors among seafaring peoples of coastal Asia with similar craniofacial characteristics.[26][28]

As of April 2015 there are no published results from a DNA sample submitted by the US Army Corps of Engineers for analysis.

Scientific significance[edit]

The discovery of Kennewick Man, along with other ancient skeletons, has furthered scientific debate over the exact origin and history of early Native American people.[11] One hypothesis holds that a single source of migration occurred, consisting of hunters and gatherers following large herds of game who wandered across the Bering land bridge. An alternative hypothesis is that more than one source population was involved in migration immediately following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) that occurred ~22k to ~18k years BP, and that the land migration through Beringia was preceded by, or roughly synchronous with, a waterborne migration from coastal Asia.[29] The similarity of some ancient skeletal remains in the Americas, such as Kennewick Man, to coastal Asian phenotypes is suggestive of more than one migration source.[1][11][20][30] Classification of DNA from ancient skeletons such as Kennewick Man and others of similar phenotype may or may not reveal genetic affiliation between them, with either Beringian[31][32] or coastal Asian[33][34] source populations.

Regardless of the debate over there being one or more than one source of migration following the LGM, Kennewick Man has yielded insight into the marine lifestyle and mobility of early coastal migrants.[25] Further details, such as the health history and youthful life environment of Kennewick Man, could be revealed as forensic technology develops and dependent on the ability of scientists to obtain access to the skeleton.[1][35]

Ownership controversy[edit]

According to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, if human remains are found on federal lands and their cultural affiliation to a Native American tribe can be established, the affiliated tribe may claim them. The Umatilla tribe requested custody of the remains, wanting to bury them according to tribal tradition. Their claim was contested by researchers hoping to study the remains.[36] The Umatilla argued that their oral history goes back 10,000 years and say that their people have been present on their historical territory since the dawn of time.[37]

Robson Bonnichsen and seven other anthropologists sued the United States for the right to conduct tests on the skeleton. On February 4, 2004, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit panel rejected the appeal brought by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Umatilla, Colville, Yakama, Nez Perce, and other tribes on the grounds that they were unable to show any evidence of kinship.[5][6] The presiding judge found that the US government had acted in bad faith, and awarded attorney’s fees of $2,379,000 to the plaintiffs.[1]

On April 7, 2005, during the 109th Congress, United States Senator John McCain introduced an amendment to NAGPRA which (section 108) would have changed the definition of "Native American" from being that which "is indigenous to the United States" to "is or was indigenous to the United States."[38] However, the 109th Congress concluded without enacting the bill. By the bill's definition, Kennewick Man would have been classified as Native American, regardless of whether any link to a contemporary tribe could be found.

Proponents of this definition argue that it agrees with current scientific understanding, which is that it is not in all cases possible for prehistoric remains to be traced to current tribal entities, partly because of social upheaval, forced resettlement and extinction of entire ethnicities caused by disease and warfare. Passage of this bill would not resolve the controversy related to Kennewick Man, as there would have to be a determination of which Native American group should take possession of the remains, if he could not be definitively linked with a current tribe. To be of practical use in a historical and prehistorical context, some argue further that the term "Native American" should be applied so that it spans the entire range from the Clovis culture (which cannot be positively assigned to any contemporary tribal group) to the Métis, a group of mixed ancestry who developed as an ethnic group as a consequence of European contact, yet constitute a distinct cultural entity.[citation needed]

The remains are now (2014) at the Burke Museum at the University of Washington, where they were deposited in October 1998. The Burke Museum is the court-appointed neutral repository for the remains and does not exhibit the remains. They are still legally the property of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, as they were found on land under its custody.[39] The tribes still want the remains to be reburied. The Corps of Engineers continues to deny scientist's requests to conduct additional studies of the skeleton.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Douglas Preston, "The Kennewick Man Finally Freed to Share His Secrets", Smithsonian Magazine, September 2014
  2. ^ Kennewick Man Skeletal Find May Revolutionalize Continent's History, Science Daily, 2006-04-26, retrieved 2013-02-06 
  3. ^ a b Stafford, Thomas W., Chronology of the Kennewick Man skeleton (Chapter 5), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton , (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014.  ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7
  4. ^ a b [1], Phys.org (Seattle Times), January 20, 2015
  5. ^ a b Bonnichsen, et al. v. United States, et al. (PDF), United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals), 2004-02-04, no. 02-35994 
  6. ^ a b Melissa Lee Phillips (2005-07-06), Scientists finally study Kennewick Man, BBC News Online, retrieved 2013-02-06 
  7. ^ "New Book on Kennewick Man Details Hard Life in Paleoamerica", National Museum of Natural History, 08/25/2014
  8. ^ a b Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton, Edited by Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7
  9. ^ Merriwether, D. Andrew, Graciela S. Cabana, and David M. Reed, Kennewick Man Ancient DNA Analysis: Final Report Submitted to the Department of the Interior, National Park Service 
  10. ^ Stang, John (2005-06-20). "Skull found on shore of Columbia". Tri-City Herald. Archived from the original on 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Custred, Glynn (2000). "The Forbidden Discovery of Kennewick Man" (PDF). Academic Questions 13 (3): 12–30. doi:10.1007/s12129-000-1034-8. 
  12. ^ a b Chatters, James C. (2004). "Kennewick Man". Arctic Studies Center at the National Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2013-02-05. originally published in the "Newsletter of the American Anthropological Association" 
  13. ^ a b c d Chatters, James C. (2000). "The Recovery and First Analysis of an Early Holocene Human". American Antiquity (Society for American Archaeology) 65 (2): 291–316. doi:10.2307/2694060. JSTOR 2694060. PMID 17216899. 
  14. ^ Douglas Preston, "The Kennewick Man Finally Freed to Share His Secrets", Smithsonian Magazine, September 2014
  15. ^ Lindsay, Everett. "Archeology Program: Kennewick Man". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  16. ^ Chatters, James C., Occupational stress markings and patterns of injury (Chapter 16), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton, (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  17. ^ a b c Annual Editions: Archaeology, 10th Edition
  18. ^ a b c d e James C. Chatters. (2001). Ancient Encounters: Kennewick Man and the First Americans. Touchstone Rockefeller Center. USA.
  19. ^ King, Anna (July 23rd, 2006). "Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton". TriCity Herald. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ a b c Powell, Joseph F.; Rose, Jerome C. Chapter 2 Report on the Osteological Assessment of the Kennewick Man Skeleton (CENWW.97.Kennewick). Retrieved September 10, 2011.
  21. ^ Cook, Della Collins, The natural shocks that that flesh is heir to (Chapter 15), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  22. ^ Owsley, Douglas L., Williams, Aleitha A., and Stafford, Thomas W., Taphonomic indicators of burial context (Chapter 18), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  23. ^ Berryman, Hugh, Postmortem breakage as a taphonomic tool for determining burial position (Chapter 20), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  24. ^ Schwarcz, Henry P., Stafford, Thomas W., Knyf, Martin, Chisholm, Brian, Longstaffe, Fred J., Chatters, James C., and Owsley, Douglas W., Stable isotope evidence for diet and origin (Chapter 17), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  25. ^ a b Dixon, E. James, Heaton, Timothy H., Lee, Craig M., Fifield, Terence E., Brenner, Joan, Coltrain, Kemp, Brian M., Owsley, Douglas W., Parrish, Eric, Turner, Christy , Edgar, J.H. Heather, Worl, Rosita K., Smith David G., and Farmer, G. Lang, Evidence of maritime adaptation and coastal migration from southeast Alaska (Chapter 29), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  26. ^ a b Preston, Douglas (September 2014). "The Kennewick Man Finally Freed to Share His Secrets". Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  27. ^ Gill, George, Cranial features that reflect population affinities (Chapter 26), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  28. ^ Brace, C. Loring, Seguchi, Noriko, Nelson, A. Russell, Qifeng, Pan, Umeda, Hideyuki, Wilson, Margaret, and Brace, Mary L., The Ainu and Jōmon connection (Chapter 23), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  29. ^ Erlandson, J., and Braje, T.;, From Asia to the Americas by boat? Paleogeography, paleoecology, and stemmedpoints of the northwest Pacific (PDF) 
  30. ^ Brace, C. Loring, Seguchi, Noriko, Nelson, A. Russell, Qifeng, Pan, Umeda, Hideyuki, Wilson, Margaret, and Brace, Mary L., The Ainu and Jōmon connection (Chapter 23), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton, Edited by Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  31. ^ Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG et al., Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders 
  32. ^ Fagundes NJ, Kanitz R, Eckert R et al. (March 2008). "Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82 (3): 583–92. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026. 
  33. ^ Adachi N., Shinoda K, Umetsu K, Matsumura H., Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Jomon skeletons from the Funadomari site, Hokkaido, and its implication for the origins of Native American, Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Mar;141(3):504-5. 
  34. ^ Brian M. Kemp, Ripan S. Malhi, John McDonough, Deborah A. Bolnick, Jason A. Eshleman, Olga Rickards, Cristina Martinez-Labarga, John R. Johnson, Joseph G. Lorenz, E. James Dixon, Terence E. Fifield, Timothy H. Heaton, Rosita Worl, and David Glenn Smith, Genetic Analysis of Early Holocene Skeletal Remains From Alaska and its Implications for the Settlement of the Americas, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132:605–621 (2007) (PDF) 
  35. ^ Hawkinson, Cleone, Kennewick Man's future. Storage and care at the Burke Museum (Chapter 31), in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton (Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz, Editors) 680 pp. Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7 
  36. ^ Minthorn, Armand (September 1996). "Human Remains Should Be Reburied". Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 
  37. ^ Thomas, David Hurst (2001). Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity (Reprint ed.). Basic Books. p. xxii. ISBN 978-0-465-09225-3. 
  38. ^ "S. 536, 109th Cong., Native American Omnibus Act of 2005 (Reported in Senate)". Library of Congress. 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  39. ^ "Kennewick Man". Burke Museum. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Adler, Jerry. "A 9,000-Year-Old Secret." New York: Newsweek. July 25, 2005. Vol. 146, Issue 4; pg. 52. (subscription required)
  • Benedict, Jeff. "No bone unturned: Inside the world of a top forensic scientist and his work on America's most notorious crimes and disasters" New York: HarperCollinsPublishers, 2003. ISBN 0-06-095888-X
  • Carrillo, Jo (ed.). Readings in American Indian Law: Recalling the Rhythm of Survival, Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1998.
  • Chatters, James C. "Ancient Encounters: Kennewick Man & the First Americans" New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. ISBN 0-684-85936-X
  • Dewar, Elaine. Bones, Discovering the First Americans, Carroll & Graf Publishers, New York, 2002, ISBN 0-7867-0979-0
  • Downey, Roger. "Riddle of the Bones: Politics, Science, Race, and the Story of Kennewick Man" New York: Springer, 2000. ISBN 978-0-387-98877-1
  • Gear,Kathleen O'Neal and Gear, Michael W. "People of the Raven", TOR Books, New York, 2004, ISBN 0-765-34757-1
  • Jones, Peter N. "Respect for the Ancestors: American Indian Cultural Affiliation in the American West" Boulder: Bauu Press, 2005. ISBN 0-9721349-2-1
  • Owsley, Douglas W. and Jantz, Richard L., editors. Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-62349-200-7
  • Thomas, David Hurst. "Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity" New York: Basic Books, ca. 2000. ISBN 0-465-09224-1

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 46°13′23.14″N 119°8′36.00″W / 46.2230944°N 119.1433333°W / 46.2230944; -119.1433333