F. J. Duarte
|F. J. Duarte|
Frank J. Duarte at a meeting of the Optical Society of America in 2006.
University of New South Wales
University of Alabama
Imaging Research Laboratories (EKC)
State University of New York
University of New Mexico
|Alma mater||Macquarie University|
|Doctoral advisor||J. A. Piper|
|Other academic advisors||J. C. Ward
R. E. Aitchison
|Known for||Tunable lasers
Narrow-linewidth dye lasers
Multiple-prism dispersion theory
N-slit laser interferometer
N-slit interferometric equation
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers. He introduced the generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory and has discovered various multiple-prism grating oscillator laser configurations. These configurations include the multiple-prism near-grazing-incidence grating cavities originally disclosed as copper-laser-pumped narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. Duarte's contributions have found applications in a variety of fields including:
- atomic vapor laser isotope separation,
- laser medicine,
- laser microscopy,
- laser pulse compression,
- laser spectroscopy,
- tunable diode lasers.
Solid state dye laser development 
From the mid-1980s to early 1990s Duarte and scientists from the US Army Missile Command developed, and demonstrated, ruggedized narrow-linewidth laser oscillators tunable directly in the visible spectrum. This constituted the first disclosure, in the open literature, of a tunable narrow-linewidth laser tested on a rugged terrain. This pioneering work also led to experimentation with polymer gain media and in 1994 Duarte reported on the first narrow-linewidth tunable solid state dye laser oscillators. These dispersive oscillator architectures were then refined to yield single-longitudinal-mode emission limited only by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. His work on solid-state organic-inorganic materials led to the assessment of intra-gain-medium interference phenomena and to the emission of low-divergence homogeneous laser beams from polymer-nanoparticle gain media. In 2005 Duarte and colleagues were the first to demonstrate directional coherent emission from an electrically excited organic semiconductor. These experiments utilized a tandem OLED within an interferometric configuration.
Tunable lasers for isotope separation 
Duarte and Piper developed tunable narrow-linewidth multiple-prism grating laser oscillators whose designs have been adopted by various research groups working on uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). This work was supported by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. In a review article, Duarte discloses that during the course of this research he did approach the then federal minister for energy, Sir John Carrick, to advocate for the introduction of an AVLIS facility in Australia, for nuclear energy applications. In 2002, he participated in research that led to the isotope separation of lithium using narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers.
In the late 1980s, Duarte applied Dirac’s notation to describe quantum mechanically the N-slit laser interferometer and to solve problems in industrial imaging and optical metrology. The electro-optical N-slit interferometer uses prismatic beam expansion to illuminate the N-slit array and comprises a photodiode array (or digital detector, such as, CCD or CMOS), at the interference plane, to register the interferograms. This pioneering work also led to the generalized N-slit interferometric equation that was then applied to describe classical optics phenomena such as interference, diffraction, refraction, and reflection, in a rational and unified quantum approach. Duarte also derived the cavity linewidth equation, for dispersive laser oscillators, using quantum mechanical principles.
More recently, Duarte and colleagues have developed very large N-slit laser interferometers to generate and propagate interferometric characters for secure free-space optical communications. Interferometric characters is a term that he coined in 2002 to link interefometric signals to alphanumerical characters (see figure's legend). These experiments have also provided the first observation of diffraction patterns superimposed over propagating interference signals, thus demonstrating non-destructive (or soft) interception of propagating interferograms.
A spin-off of this research, with applications to the aviation industry, resulted from the discovery that N-slit laser interferometers are very efficient and effective detectors of clear air turbulence.
Macquarie University 
Duarte studied mathematics and physics at Macquarie University (Sydney, Australia). There, he studied quantum physics under the famed theoretician John Clive Ward and semiconductor physics under Ronald Ernest Aitchison. His PhD research was on laser physics and his supervisor was James A. Piper
At Macquarie, he also established and led the successful science reform movement, that transformed the degree structure of the university. Macquarie's science reform, was widely supported by local scientists including physicists R. E. Aitchison, R. E. B. Makinson, and J. C. Ward.
American phase 
In 1983, Duarte traveled from Australia to the United States to assume a physics professorship at the University of Alabama. In 1985 he joined the Research Laboratories, at the Eastman Kodak Company, where he remained until 2006. Further, in 2006, he founded Interferometric Optics. In addition to various other appointments, he has had a long association, in laser research, with the US Army Missile Command and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command. Presently, he is also an adjunct professor at Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico.
Duarte was elected Fellow of the Australian Institute of Physics (1987) and Fellow of the Optical Society of America (1993) for his contributions to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. He is the first South American to have received such distinctions. Subsequently, he received the prestigious Engineering Excellence Award from the Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer. Duarte's contributions are cited in more than one hundred and fifty scholarly books, including several classics.
Duarte was born in Santiago, Chile, and traveled to Sydney, Australia, as a teenager. There, he lived first in Strathfield and then in the northern small town of Cowan. In the United States he resided for a brief period in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and then moved to Western New York.
See also 
- Laser linewidth
- Multiple-prism beam expanders
- Multiple-prism grating laser oscillators
- Polarization rotator
- Prism pulse compressors
- Solid state dye lasers
- F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman (Eds.), Dye Laser Principles (Academic, New York, 1990).
- F. J. Duarte (Ed.), High Power Dye Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1991).
- F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Selected Papers on Dye Lasers (SPIE, Bellingham Wa, 1992).
- F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Laser Applications (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1995).
- F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Lasers Handbook (Academic, New York, 1995).
- F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Optics (Elsevier Academic, New York, 2003).
- F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC, New York, 2009).
- F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers, Opt. Commun. 43, 303–307 (1982).
- F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Generalized prism dispersion theory, Am. J. Phys. 51, 1132–1134 (1983).
- F. J. Duarte, Generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory for pulse compression in ultrafast dye lasers, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 223–229 (1987).
- References and schematics on tunable laser oscillators
- F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, A prism preexpanded grazing incidence pulsed dye laser, Appl. Opt. 20, 2113-2116 (1981).
- F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Narrow linewidth high prf copper laser-pumped dye-laser oscillators, Appl. Opt. 23, 1391-1394 (1984).
- S. Singh, K. Dasgupta, S. Kumar, K. G. Manohar, L. G. Nair, U. K. Chatterjee, High-power high-repetition-rate copper-vapor-pumped dye laser, Opt. Eng. 33, 1894-1904 (1994).
- A. Sugiyama, T. Nakayama, M. Kato, Y. Maruyama, T. Arisawa, Characteristics of a pressure-tuned single-mode dye laser oscillator pumped by a copper vapor oscillator, Opt. Eng. 35, 1093-1097 (1996).
- N. Singh, Influence of optical inhomogeneity in the gain medium on the bandwidth of a high-repetition-rate dye laser pumped by copper vapor laser, Opt. Eng. 45, 104204 (2006).
- L. Goldman, Dye lasers in medicine, in Dye Laser Principles , F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1990) Chapter 10.
- R. M. Clement, M. N. Kiernan, and K . Donne, Treatment of vascular lessions, US Patent 6398801 (2002).
- J. Sawinski and W. Denk, Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 034701 (2007).
- B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
- U. Siegner, M. Achermann, and U. Keller, Spatially resolved femtosecond spectroscopy beyond the diffraction limit, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1847-1857 (2001).
- L. Y. Pang, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. S. Kintzer, Ultrashort-pulse generation from high-power diode arrays by using intracavity optical nonlinearities, Opt. Lett. 17, 1599-1601 (1992).
- K. Osvay, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, Z. Heiner, M. Divall, J. Klebniczki, and I. E. Ferincz, Measurement of non-compensated angular dispersion and the subsequent temporal lengthening of femtosecond pulses in a CPA laser, Opt. Commun. 248, 201-209 (2005).
- J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd Ed. (Academic, New York, 2006).
- W. Demtröder, Laserspektroscopie: Grundlagen und Techniken, 5th Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2007).
- W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Principles, 4th Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2008).
- P. Zorabedian, Characteristics of a grating-external-cavity semiconductor laser containing intracavity prism beam expanders, J. Lightwave Tech. 10, 330-335 (1992).
- R. W. Fox, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, Semiconductor diode lasers, in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Electromagnetic Radiation, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet (Eds.) (Academic, New York, 1997) Chapter 4.
- F. J. Duarte, J. J. Ehrlich, W. E. Davenport, and T. S. Taylor, Flashlamp-pumped narrow-linewidth dispersive dye laser oscillators: very low amplified spontaneous emission levels and reduction of linewidth instabilities, Appl. Opt. 29, 3176-3179 (1990).
- F. J. Duarte, W. E. Davenport, J. J. Ehrlich, and T. S. Taylor, Ruggedized narrow-linewidth dispersive dye laser oscillator, Opt. Commun. 84, 310-316 (1991).
- F. J. Duarte, Solid-state multiple-prism grating dye laser oscillators, Appl. Opt. 33, 3857-3860 (1994).
- F. J. Duarte, Multiple-prism grating solid-state dye laser oscillator: optimized architecture, Appl. Opt. 38, 6347-6349 (1999).
- F. J. Duarte and R. O. James, Tunable solid-state lasers incorporating dye-doped polymer-nanoparticle gain media, Opt. Lett. 28, 2088-2090 (2003).
- F. J. Duarte, L. S. Liao, and K. M. Vaeth, Coherence characteristics of electrically excited tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Opt. Lett. 30, 3072-3074 (2005).
- F. J. Duarte, Coherent electrically excited organic semiconductors: visibility of interferograms and emission linewidth, Opt. Lett. 32, 412-414 (2007).
- F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Comparison of prism preexpanded and grazing incidence grating cavities for copper laser pumped dye lasers, Appl. Opt. 21, 2782-2786 (1982).
- F. J. Duarte, Tunable lasers for atomic vapor laser isotope separation: the Australian contribution, Australian Physics 47(2), 38-40 (2010).
- I. E. Olivares, A. E. Duarte, E. A. Saravia, F. J. Duarte, Lithium isotope separation with tunable diode lasers, Appl. Opt. 41, 2973-2977 (2002).
- F. J. Duarte and D. J. Paine, Quantum mechanical description of N-slit interference phenomena, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '88, R. C. Sze and F. J. Duarte (Eds.) (STS, McLean, Va, 1989) pp. 42-47.
- F. J. Duarte, in High Power Dye Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1991) Chapter 2.
- F. J. Duarte, On a generalized interference equation and interferometric measurements, Opt. Commun. 103, 8–14 (1993).
- F. J. Duarte, Electro-optical interferometric microdensitometer system, US Patent 5255069 (1993).
- F. J. Duarte, Interference, diffraction, and refraction via Dirac’s notation, Am. J. Phys. 65, 637–640 (1997).
- F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Optics (Elsevier Academic, New York, 2003). Chapter 2.
- F. J. Duarte, Cavity dispersion equation: a note on its origin, Appl. Opt. 31, 6979-6982 (1992).
- F. J. Duarte, Secure interferometric communications in free space, Opt. Commun. 205, 313-319 (2002).
- F. J. Duarte, T. S. Taylor, A. M. Black, W. E. Davenport, and P. G. Varmette, N-slit interferometer for secure free-space optical communications: 527 m intra interferometric path length , J. Opt. 13, 035710 (2011).
- F. J. Duarte, T. S. Taylor, A. B. Clark, and W. E. Davenport, The N-slit interferometer: an extended configuration, J. Opt. 12, 015705 (2010).
- F. J. Duarte, Laser Physicist (Optics Journal, New York, 2012).
- F. J. Duarte et al., Science degree, University News 1 (100) 16 (1977).
- B. Mansfield and M. Hutchinson, Liberality of Opportunity: A history of Macquarie University 1964-1989 (Hale and Iremonger, Sydney, 1992)
- J. C. Ward, Memoirs of a Theoretical Physicist (Optics Journal, Rochester, 2004).
- "Interferometric Optics". Optics Journal. 29th of August, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: F. J. Duarte|
- Duarte's home page
- Prism and Multiple-Prism Pulse Compression: Tutorial
- Tunable Laser Books
- United States Patents by F. J. Duarte, at Patent Genius
- Group photograph at Lasers '92: right to left; Marlan Scully, Willis Lamb, John L. Hall, and F. J. Duarte.