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A flagon is a large leather, metal or ceramic vessel, commonly a pitcher, often used for drink, whether this be water, ale, or something else.
As a Roman Catholic term or use, the flagon is the large vessel, usually glass and metal, that holds the wine. Before March 2002, a flagon may have also been used to hold the wine during the consecration of the Eucharist and then be poured into many chalices. This pouring of the precious blood from flagon to chalice was eliminated. A smaller container called a cruet is used for the priest's chalice, usually identical to the cruet of water, which is mingled with the wine before consecration. The cruets do not remain on the altar after the preparation of the gifts.
In the Anglican Church, the flagon is the vessel that contains the wine to be consecrated. If more than one chalice is used during the administration of Communion, the flagon (or an additional cruet filled with wine and water) is placed on the altar at the Offertory, and other chalices are brought to the altar after the Breaking of the Bread. There should be only one chalice on the altar during the Great Thanksgiving.
In New Zealand, a flagon refers to a glass vessel filled with beer available in public bars or bottle stores. Drinkers could take their own washed flagons or swap their empties for those pre-filled, corked and ready for sale. The flagon was followed by the half-gallon (2.27 l) jar and was preceded by the square rigger and the bluey. These were commonly used during the period of six-o'clock closing of bars. A flagon can hold different volumes of beer or wine and is thought to have originated from an amendment to the licensing laws, which took effect in 1881. The amendment allowed winemakers to sell wine from their vineyards for off-licence consumption, so long as the quantity was two gallons (9.09 l) or more (hence the "2 g" flagon). Before this change winemakers could only sell wine from hotels. A half-gallon flagon was a common volume used for beer.
In modern Ireland a flagon usually refers to a 2 litre bottle of cider. More traditionally it is an Irish name that refers to a particular size and shape for a bottle of liquor (usually whiskey) that is usually on sale in liquor stores(Brit. Off licenses) throughout Ireland. This bottle is about a quarter the volume of a normal bottle of whiskey and is similar in shape to a hip flask