A Cuban Foxtrot underway
|Operators:|| Soviet Navy/ Russian Navy
|Preceded by:||Zulu-class submarine|
|Succeeded by:||Tango-class submarine|
|Displacement:||1,952 long tons (1,983 t) surfaced
2,475 long tons (2,515 t) submerged
|Length:||89.9 m (294 ft 11 in)|
|Beam:||7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)|
|Draft:||5.9 m (19 ft 4 in)|
|Propulsion:||3 × Kolomna 2D42M 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) diesel engines
3 × Electric motors, two 1,350 hp (1,010 kW) and one 2,700 hp (2,000 kW)
1 × 180 hp (130 kW) auxiliary motor
3 shafts, each with 6-bladed propellers
|Speed:||16 knots (30 km/h) surfaced
15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
9 knots (17 km/h) snorkeling
|Range:||20,000 nmi (37,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h) surfaced
11,000 nmi (20,000 km) snorkeling
380 nmi (700 km) at 2 kn (3.7 km/h) submerged
|Endurance:||3-5 days submerged|
|Test depth:||246–296 m (807–971 ft)|
|Complement:||12 officers, 10 warrants, 56 seamen|
|Armament:||10 × torpedo tubes (6 bow, 4 stern)
The Foxtrot class was designed to replace the earlier Zulu class, which suffered from structural weaknesses and harmonic vibration problems that limited its operational depth and submerged speed. The first Foxtrot keel was laid down in 1957 and commissioned in 1958 and the last was completed in 1983. A total of 58 were built for the Soviet Navy at the Sudomekh division of the Admiralty Shipyard (now Admiralty Wharves), St. Petersburg. Additional hulls were built for other countries.
The Foxtrot class was comparable in performance and armament to most contemporary designs. However, its three screws made it noisier than most Western designs. Moreover, the Foxtrot class was one of the last designs introduced before the adoption of the teardrop hull, which offered much better underwater performance. The Foxtrot class was completely obsolete by the time the last submarine was launched. The Russian Navy retired its last Foxtrots between 1995 and 2000, units were scrapped and disposed of for museum purposes. A single unit is still in service in the Ukrainian Naval Forces.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Foxtrots played a central role in some of the most dramatic incidents of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Navy deployed four Foxtrot subs to Cuba. US Navy destroyers dropped practice Depth Charges near Foxtrot subs near Cuba in efforts to force them to surface and be identified. Three of the four Foxtrot subs were forced to surface, one eluded US forces.
|B-94||Leningrad||October 3, 1957||December 28, 1957||December 25, 1958||Decommissioned for scrapping|
|B-95||Leningrad||February 2, 1958||April 25, 1958||September 30, 1959||Decommissioned for scrapping|
|B-36||Leningrad||April 29, 1958||August 31, 1958||September 30, 1959||Decommissioned for scrapping|
|B-37||Leningrad||remainder of list in progress||Decommissioned for scrapping|
Most saw service in the Soviet Navy. Foxtrots were also built for the Indian Navy (8 units, from 1967 to 1974), Libyan (6 units, from 1978 to 1980), and Cuban (6 units, from 1978 to 1983) navies. Some Soviet Foxtrots later saw service in the Polish, and Ukrainian navies.
- Soviet Navy (passed on to successor states)
- Russian navy (ex-Soviet Navy)
- Indian Navy Variants known as Kalvari class, now decommissioned (INS Kursura (S20) converted into a museum)
- Libyan Navy 6 units (2 left but probably abandoned)
- Cuban Navy 6 units
- Ukrainian Navy (ex-Soviet Navy) 1 unit - Zaporizhzhia (U-01)
- Polish Navy 2 units (ex-Soviet Navy)
- ORP Wilk (1987–2003)
- ORP Dzik (1988–2003)
Several Foxtrots are on display as museums around the world, including:
- B-39 at the Maritime Museum of San Diego in San Diego, California, United States.
- B-143 at the Seafront Maritime Theme Park in Zeebrugge, Belgium.
- B-413 at Kaliningrad, Russia.
- B-427 at the RMS Queen Mary in Long Beach, California, United States.
- U-475 Black Widow at Strood, Kent, United Kingdom
- Indian Foxtrot submarine INS Kursura S20 at the Rama Krishna Beach, Visakhapatnam, India.
In popular culture
- A Foxtrot made an appearance in seaQuest DSV in the episode "Whale Song", eco terrorist Max Scully was sinking whaling ships with a secondhand Foxtrot he purchased.
- In the Stargate SG-1 Season 4 premiere "Small Victories", the Replicators take over a Russian Foxtrot codenamed Blackbird.
- In the sci-fi miniseries The Triangle a Foxtrot sub is used for a search mission.
- In the Tom Clancy techno-thriller novel Red Storm Rising Foxtrots are used to strike at NATO convoys in the Atlantic.
- In the BBC Serial Drama Bugs, Series 1 Episode 4, a Foxtrot Submarine is used by the villain.
- Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 2, Yu. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4
- "Russian Navy". Fas.org. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- Navy decommissions last Kalvari Class submarine INS Vagli
- "Submarine forces (Libya), Submarines - Submarine forces". Janes. Nov 10, 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- Miller, David (2002). The Illustrated Directory of Submarines of the World. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 1-84065-375-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Foxtrot class submarines|
- HNSA Ship Page: Soviet B-413
- Foxtrot Class Submarines - Complete Ship List (English)