GAS6

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Growth arrest-specific 6
Protein GAS6 PDB 1h30.png
PDB rendering based on 1h30.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols GAS6 ; AXLLG; AXSF
External IDs OMIM600441 MGI95660 HomoloGene638 GeneCards: GAS6 Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2621 14456
Ensembl ENSG00000183087 ENSMUSG00000031451
UniProt Q14393 Q61592
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000820 NM_019521
RefSeq (protein) NP_000811 NP_062394
Location (UCSC) Chr 13:
113.82 – 113.86 Mb
Chr 8:
13.47 – 13.49 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Growth arrest-specific 6, also known as GAS6, is a human gene coding for the Gas6 protein. It is similar to the Protein S with the same domain organization and 43% amino acid identity. It was originally found as a gene upregulated by growth arrested fibroblasts.

Function[edit]

GAS6 is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation[1] The presence of Gla needs a vitamin K-dependent enzymatic reaction that carboxylates the gamma carbon of certain glutamic residues of the protein during its production in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Interactions[edit]

GAS6 has been shown to interact with AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, MerTK and TYRO3.[2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: GAS6 growth arrest-specific 6". 
  2. ^ Mark MR, Chen J, Hammonds RG, Sadick M, Godowsk PJ (Apr 1996). "Characterization of Gas6, a member of the superfamily of G domain-containing proteins, as a ligand for Rse and Axl". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (16): 9785–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.16.9785. PMID 8621659. 
  3. ^ Nagata K, Ohashi K, Nakano T, Arita H, Zong C, Hanafusa H et al. (Nov 1996). "Identification of the product of growth arrest-specific gene 6 as a common ligand for Axl, Sky, and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (47): 30022–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.47.30022. PMID 8939948. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Maree AO, Jneid H, Palacios IF, Rosenfield K, MacRae CA, Fitzgerald DJ (2007). "Growth arrest specific gene (GAS) 6 modulates platelet thrombus formation and vascular wall homeostasis and represents an attractive drug target.". Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (26): 2656–61. doi:10.2174/138161207781662948. PMID 17897008. 
  • Varnum BC, Young C, Elliott G, Garcia A, Bartley TD, Fridell YW et al. (1995). "Axl receptor tyrosine kinase stimulated by the vitamin K-dependent protein encoded by growth-arrest-specific gene 6.". Nature 373 (6515): 623–6. doi:10.1038/373623a0. PMID 7854420. 
  • Stitt TN, Conn G, Gore M, Lai C, Bruno J, Radziejewski C et al. (1995). "The anticoagulation factor protein S and its relative, Gas6, are ligands for the Tyro 3/Axl family of receptor tyrosine kinases.". Cell 80 (4): 661–70. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90520-0. PMID 7867073. 
  • Manfioletti G, Brancolini C, Avanzi G, Schneider C (1993). "The protein encoded by a growth arrest-specific gene (gas6) is a new member of the vitamin K-dependent proteins related to protein S, a negative coregulator in the blood coagulation cascade". Mol. Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4976–85. PMC 360142. PMID 8336730. 
  • Saccone S, Marcandalli P, Gostissa M, Schneider C, Della Valle G (1996). "Assignment of the human GAS6 gene to chromosome 13q34 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics 30 (1): 129–31. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.0027. PMID 8595896. 
  • Li R, Chen J, Hammonds G, Phillips H, Armanini M, Wood P et al. (1996). "Identification of Gas6 as a growth factor for human Schwann cells". J. Neurosci. 16 (6): 2012–9. PMID 8604045. 
  • Mark MR, Chen J, Hammonds RG, Sadick M, Godowsk PJ (1996). "Characterization of Gas6, a member of the superfamily of G domain-containing proteins, as a ligand for Rse and Axl". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (16): 9785–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.16.9785. PMID 8621659. 
  • Goruppi S, Ruaro E, Schneider C (1996). "Gas6, the ligand of Axl tyrosine kinase receptor, has mitogenic and survival activities for serum starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts". Oncogene 12 (3): 471–80. PMID 8637702. 
  • Nagata K, Ohashi K, Nakano T, Arita H, Zong C, Hanafusa H et al. (1997). "Identification of the product of growth arrest-specific gene 6 as a common ligand for Axl, Sky, and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (47): 30022–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.47.30022. PMID 8939948. 
  • Loeser RF, Varnum BC, Carlson CS, Goldring MB, Liu ET, Sadiev S et al. (1997). "Human chondrocyte expression of growth-arrest-specific gene 6 and the tyrosine kinase receptor axl: potential role in autocrine signaling in cartilage". Arthritis Rheum. 40 (8): 1455–65. doi:10.1002/1529-0131(199708)40:8<1455::AID-ART14>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 9259426. 
  • Marcandalli P, Gostissa M, Varnum B, Goruppi S, Schneider C (1997). "Identification and tissue expression of a splice variant for the growth arrest-specific gene gas6". FEBS Lett. 415 (1): 56–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01094-6. PMID 9326368. 
  • Goruppi S, Yamane H, Marcandalli P, Garcia A, Clogston C, Gostissa M et al. (1997). "The product of a gas6 splice variant allows the release of the domain responsible for Axl tyrosine kinase receptor activation". FEBS Lett. 415 (1): 59–63. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01093-4. PMID 9326369. 
  • Nakano T, Ishimoto Y, Kishino J, Umeda M, Inoue K, Nagata K et al. (1997). "Cell adhesion to phosphatidylserine mediated by a product of growth arrest-specific gene 6". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (47): 29411–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.47.29411. PMID 9367994. 
  • Prieto AL, Weber JL, Lai C (2000). "Expression of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinases Tyro-3, Axl, and mer in the developing rat central nervous system". J. Comp. Neurol. 425 (2): 295–314. doi:10.1002/1096-9861(20000918)425:2<295::AID-CNE11>3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 10954847. 
  • Angelillo-Scherrer A, de Frutos P, Aparicio C, Melis E, Savi P, Lupu F et al. (2001). "Deficiency or inhibition of Gas6 causes platelet dysfunction and protects mice against thrombosis". Nat. Med. 7 (2): 215–21. doi:10.1038/84667. PMID 11175853. 
  • Sun WS, Misao R, Iwagaki S, Fujimoto J, Tamaya T (2003). "Coexpression of growth arrest-specific gene 6 and receptor tyrosine kinases, Axl and Sky, in human uterine endometrium and ovarian endometriosis". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 8 (6): 552–8. doi:10.1093/molehr/8.6.552. PMID 12029073. 
  • Sasaki T, Knyazev PG, Cheburkin Y, Göhring W, Tisi D, Ullrich A et al. (2003). "Crystal structure of a C-terminal fragment of growth arrest-specific protein Gas6. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation by laminin G-like domains". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (46): 44164–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207340200. PMID 12218057. 
  • Ito M, Nakashima M, Nakayama T, Ohtsuru A, Nagayama Y, Takamura N et al. (2003). "Expression of receptor-type tyrosine kinase, Axl, and its ligand, Gas6, in pediatric thyroid carcinomas around chernobyl". Thyroid 12 (11): 971–5. doi:10.1089/105072502320908303. PMID 12490074. 
  • Shankar SL, O'Guin K, Cammer M, McMorris FA, Stitt TN, Basch RS et al. (2003). "The growth arrest-specific gene product Gas6 promotes the survival of human oligodendrocytes via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway". J. Neurosci. 23 (10): 4208–18. PMID 12764109.