GM J platform

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Main article: List of GM platforms
J-body
Vauxhall Cavalier.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Production 1981–2005
Body and chassis
Class Compact (North America)
Mid-size (Global)
Layout FF layout
Body style(s) 2-door convertible
2-door coupe
2-door notchback sedan
3-door hatchback
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
5-door hatchback
Chronology
Predecessor GM H platform (RWD) (North America)
Successor GM2900 platform (Europe)
GM Delta (North America)

The J platform, or J-body, was General Motors' inexpensive front-wheel drive automobile platform from the 1980s and 1990s. The platform replaced the GM H platform. The J-platform is the only platform of GM to have a model in each of its "Original 5" United States passenger car divisions (Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac). The first J-body cars were the Chevrolet Cavalier, Pontiac J2000, and the Oldsmobile Firenza which entered production on March 23, 1981 as 1982 models.[1] The Cavalier was phased out at the end of 2004 in favor of the new Chevrolet Cobalt. The last surviving J-body car, the Mexican-built Pontiac Sunfire, ended production in June 2005. There are three generations of the J-body: 1982 to 1987 (or until 1988 or 1989 depending on the model), 1988 to 1994, and 1995 to 2005.

Except for cosmetic differences, engine upgrades and the discontinuation of certain models, the platform remained largely unchanged throughout the years.

Design of the J-body dated back to the mid-1970s. At that time, GM-controlled divisions in different parts of the world manufactured totally different rear-wheel drive C-segment cars - the Chevrolet Vega in America, the Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona in Europe, the Holden Torana in Australia and the Isuzu Florian in Japan. Due to the exterior dimensions, and engines offered were found to be in compliance with Japanese regulations, the platform was classed in the favorable "compact" designation, and competed with other Japanese made products sold in Japan at the time. Isuzu also supplied kits for Holden's J-car version, the Camira.[2]

It was decided that a common replacement would be developed to eliminate duplication of engineering effort and ensure parts interchangeability. When the Arab Oil Embargo forced CAFE mandates, and the fear of US$3.00 for a gallon of gasoline, the J-body was practically produced straight off the drawing board.

In continental Europe, the car was sold as the Opel Ascona. In Britain, it was sold as the Vauxhall Cavalier. No matter which badging they carried, European production occurred in plants in Germany, Belgium, and Britain.[3] It was generally well received but was narrowly beaten to the European Car of the Year accolade by the Renault 9.[4] At the time, it set new standards for performance and economy in this size of car in Europe; for instance, the 1.6 petrol engined Cavalier for the British market had a top speed of 105 mph, compared to the 101 mph top speed of the 2.0 petrol engined Ford Cortina - its key competitor.[3]

The fourth character in the Vehicle Identification Number for a J-body car is "J".

Iterations[edit]

Vehicle Name Years Produced Body Styles Notes
North American-produced nameplates
Buick Skyhawk

1987 Buick SkyHawk Custom.jpg

1982–1989 2-door sedan
4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
5-door station wagon
The 1989 Buick Skyhawk was the last Buick sold with a manual transmission for 22 years.
Cadillac Cimarron

Cadillac Cimarron 2 -- 07-01-2009.jpg

1982–1988 4-door sedan Shared most sheetmetal with Chevrolet Cavalier.
Chevrolet Cavalier

1st Chevrolet Cavalier sedan.jpg '88-'91 Chevrolet Cavalier Wagon.jpg 2003 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe -- NHTSA.jpg

1982–2005 2-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
5-door station wagon
Longest-produced and best-selling J-body.
Oldsmobile Firenza

Oldsmobile Firenza.jpg

Oldsmobile Firenza Cruiser Station wagon (4899054495).jpg

1982–1988 2-door sedan
4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
5-door station wagon
Pontiac J2000

Pontiac 2000

Pontiac 2000 Sunbird

Pontiac Sunbird

1987 Pontiac Sunbird Safari hf.jpg '91 Pontiac Sunbird Convertible (Cruisin' At The Boardwalk '12).JPG

1982 (J2000)

1983 (2000)

1984 (2000 Sunbird)

1985-1994 (Sunbird)

2-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
5-door station wagon
Pontiac Sunfire

Pontiac Sunfire convertible.jpg 2003-05 Pontiac Sunfire Sedan.jpg

1995–2005 2-door coupe
2-door convertible
4-door sedan
The Sunfire replaced the Sunbird as part of a major redesign of the J-platform for 1995.
Worldwide-produced nameplates
Chevrolet Monza

Chevrolet Monza 2.0 SLE 2-dr.jpg

1982-1996 2-door sedan
4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
Produced in Brazil, the Monza is a version of the Opel Ascona.
3-door hatchbacks have different (more upright) rooflines than the North American versions.
Daewoo Espero/Aranos

1995-1997 Daewoo Espero CD sedan 02.jpg

1990–1997 4-door sedan Only version of the J-platform using a body styled by Bertone
Holden Camira

1987 Holden JE Camira SLi 2000 sedan 01.jpg

1982–1989 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
The body of the Camira station wagon served as the basis for the European Ascona/Cavalier wagon.
Isuzu Aska

JJ120 ASKA irmscher.jpg

1983–1989 4-door sedan The Aska was sold as a Chevrolet in South America.

Opel Ascona C

Opel Ascona C front 20071004.jpg

Vauxhall Cavalier Mark II

1986 Vauxhall Cavalier SRI.jpg

1982-1988

Opel: 2-door sedan
4-door sedan
5-door hatchback

Vauxhall: 2-door sedan
2-door convertible
4-door sedan
5-door hatchback
5-door station wagon

The Ascona/Cavalier are badge-engineered vehicles, with the Opel sold in continental Europe and the Vauxhall sold in Great Britain.
Station wagon body panels are derived from the Holden Camira produced in Australia.
Toyota Cavalier

Toyota Cavalier 1.JPG

1995-2000 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
In a trade agreement between Toyota and GM, the Cavalier was imported into GM in return for the Geo-division cars for Chevrolet.
Toyota Cavaliers are right-hand drive with other detail changes to meet Japanese regulations.

In all cases, convertibles were not completed at the factory by General Motors; final assembly was subcontracted. In North America, this was done by American Sunroof Corporation (ASC). In Europe, it was done by Baur while convertibles for the German market were assembled by two different coachbuilders: Keinath and Hammond & Thiede. Brazilian convertibles made by Envemo and Sulam.

Approximately 10,150,000 GM J platform cars were sold across eleven marques on six continents from 1982 through 1997, not counting Daewoo Espero sales.[5][6][7][8] Consequently, it is the fifth best selling automobile platform in automotive history.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stark, Harry A, ed. (1982). Ward's Automotive Yearbook 1982. Ward's Communications, Inc. p. 73. 
  2. ^ "GM ties with two Japanese car makers". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Tokyo): 1. 1981-08-18. 
  3. ^ a b Hayward, Matthew (2011-06-28). "Vauxhall Cavalier Mk2: Vauxhall's new pragmatism...". AROnline. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  4. ^ "Previous winners". Car of the year. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  5. ^ Flammang, James Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc 1999)
  6. ^ "International 1st Gen Jbodies - First Generation Forum". j-body.org. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  7. ^ "Overview". Ascona. Archived from the original on 2012-03-30. 
  8. ^ "Chevrolet Monza". Chevy Wiki. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2012-02-16.