Gondwana Rainforests

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Gondwana Rainforests of Australia
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Box Log Falls.jpg

Type Natural
Criteria viii, ix, x
Reference 368
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1986 (10th Session)
Extensions 1994
Gondwana Rainforests is located in Australia
Iluka Nature Reserve
Amaroo Flora Reserve (NSW)
Barrington Tops
Barrington Tops
Border Ranges National Park
Captains Creek Flora Reserve (NSW)
Cunnawarra National Park
Dorrigo National Park
Emu Vale
Fenwicks Scrub Flora Reserve
Gibraltar Range National Park
Gondwana Rainforests
Lamington National Park
Limpinwood Nature Reserve
Main Range National Park
Main Range National Park
Mallanganee National Park
Mebbin National Park
Mount Barney National Park
Mount Chinghee National Park
Mount Clunie National Park
Mount Hyland Nature Reserve
Mount Nothofagus National Park
Mount Royal National Park
Mount Seaview State Forest (NSW)
New England National Park
Nightcap National Park
Numinbah Nature Reserve
Oxley Wild Rivers National Park
Spicers Gap
Springbrook National Park
The Castles Flora Reserve (NSW)
Tooloom National Park
Toonumbar National Park
Washpool National Park
Werrikimbe National Park
Willi Willi National Park
Wilsons Peak Flora Reserve
Wollumbin National Park
Gondwana Rainforests (Australia)

The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, formerly known as the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves, are the most extensive area of subtropical rainforest in the world.[1] Collectively, the rainforests are a World Heritage Site with fifty separate reserves totalling 366,500 hectares (906,000 acres) from Newcastle to Brisbane, clustered around the New South Wales – Queensland border.[2]

The Gondwana Rainforests are so-named because the fossil record indicates that when Gondwana existed it was covered by rainforests containing the same kinds of species that are living today. Not all Gondwanan rainforests in Australia are located in the New South Wales – Queensland region; the largest Gondwanan rainforest in Australia is located in Tasmania's Tarkine wilderness. The number of visitors to the Gondwana rainforest reserves in New South Wales and Queensland is about 2 million per year.[1]

The World Heritage status of the region was created and negotiated initially in 1986, with the area extended in 1994, and carries the following inscription:[1]

The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia is a serial property comprising the major remaining areas of rainforest in southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales. It represents outstanding examples of major stages of the Earth’s evolutionary history, ongoing geological and biological processes, and exceptional biological diversity. A wide range of plant and animal lineages and communities with ancient origins in Gondwana, many of which are restricted largely or entirely to the Gondwana Rainforests, survive in this collection of reserves. The Gondwana Rainforests also provides the principal habitat for many threatened species of plants and animals.

— Brief synthesis of the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia as inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List .

The site was gazetted on the Australian National Heritage List on 21 May 2007[3] under the Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1), 2003 (Cth).[4]

Conservation value[edit]

The forests were inscribed to the World Heritage list in 1986, covering only the New South Wales sites of approximately 310,800 hectares (768,000 acres) and extended in 1994 to cover the Queensland sites of approximately 59,200 hectares (146,000 acres) which is a total of approximately 370,000 hectares (910,000 acres). The rainforest reserves have an extremely high conservation value, with more than 200 rare or threatened plant and animal species.[2]

Eight separate areas have been identified as having outstanding heritage significance to Australia and are included on the Australian National Heritage List.[3] The altitude of the reserves ranges from sea level to almost 1,600 m (5,200 ft).[5]

National Parks[edit]

The Queensland areas include Lamington National Park, Mount Chinghee National Park, Springbrook National Park, Mount Barney National Park and Main Range National Park.

The New South Wales areas include Barrington Tops National Park, Dorrigo National Park, Mount Warning National Park, New England National Park, Mebbin National Park, Nightcap National Park, Border Ranges National Park, Oxley Wild Rivers National Park, Washpool National Park, Willi Willi National Park and Werrikimbe National Park.[6]

The most heavily visited parts are Dorrigo National Park and the Natural Bridge section of Springbrook National Park.[5]

Australian National Heritage List sections[edit]

The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia are divided into sections for listing on the Australian National Heritage List, from north to south, as below:

Gondwana Rainforests of Australia
Section Park or reserve name State Image Area Coordinates Source(s)
km2 sq mi
Main Range group;
near Killarney
Acacia Plateau Flora Reserve Qld
Emu Vale State Forest (part) Qld
Gambubal State Forest (part) Qld
Gilbert State Forest (part) Qld
Goomburra State Forest (part) Qld
Main Range National Park Qld Queen Mary Falls3.jpg 184 71 27°48′57″S 152°15′56″E / 27.81583°S 152.26556°E / -27.81583; 152.26556 [7]
Spicers Gap Road Conservation Park Qld Moss's Well.jpg 28°04′35″S 152°23′26″E / 28.07639°S 152.39056°E / -28.07639; 152.39056 [7]
Spicers Gap State Forest (part) Qld
Teviot State Forest (part) Qld
Focal Peak group;
on the NSW—Qld border
Burnett Creek State Forest (part)
Captains Creek Flora Reserve (part)
Mallanganee National Park NSW 11 4.2 25°55′09″S 152°45′13″E / 25.91917°S 152.75361°E / -25.91917; 152.75361 [8]
Mount Clunie National Park (part) NSW 14 5.4 28°19′27″S 152°31′12″E / 28.32417°S 152.52000°E / -28.32417; 152.52000 [9]
Mount Nothofagus National Park (part) NSW 22 8.5 28°19′02″S 152°38′01″E / 28.31722°S 152.63361°E / -28.31722; 152.63361 [10]
Tooloom National Park (part) NSW White Beech - Tooloom.jpg 44 17 28°26′47″S 152°27′13″E / 28.44639°S 152.45361°E / -28.44639; 152.45361 [11]
Toonumbar National Park (part) NSW Toonumbar National Park Murray Scrub January 1995.jpg 149 58 28°29′16″S 152°43′33″E / 28.48778°S 152.72583°E / -28.48778; 152.72583 [12]
Shield Volcano group;
on the NSW—Qld border
on the McPherson and Tweed ranges
Amaroo Flora Reserve
Border Ranges National Park (part) NSW Brindle Creek Border Ranges National Park.jpg 317 122 28°21′35″S 152°59′10″E / 28.35972°S 152.98611°E / -28.35972; 152.98611 [13]
Lamington National Park Qld Ships Stern Lamington National Park.jpg 206 80 28°8′32″S 153°6′55″E / 28.14222°S 153.11528°E / -28.14222; 153.11528
Limpinwood Nature Reserve
Mebbin National Park (part)
Mount Chinghee National Park
Mount Warning National Park
Nightcap National Park (part)
Numinbah Nature Reserve
Springbrook National Park (part) Qld IMAG0310.jpg 62 24 28°08′24″S 153°16′27″E / 28.14000°S 153.27417°E / -28.14000; 153.27417 [14]
various Rabbit Board Reserves
along the Rabbit-proof fence
Wollumbin National Park NSW AU Mt Warning from Tweed.jpg 24 9.3 28°23′23″S 153°16′7″E / 28.38972°S 153.26861°E / -28.38972; 153.26861 [15]
Iluka Nature Reserve group;
on the coast at Iluka
Iluka Nature Reserve NSW
Washpool and Gibraltar Range group;
contiguous areas between Glen Innes and Grafton
Gibraltar Range National Park NSW
Washpool National Park NSW
New England group;
near Dorrigo
Cunnawarra National Park (part) NSW
Dorrigo National Park (part) NSW
Mount Hyland Nature Reserve (part) NSW
New England National Park (part) NSW N Eng NP (1).jpg 673 260 30°35′34″S 152°27′30″E / 30.59278°S 152.45833°E / -30.59278; 152.45833 [16]
Hastings–Macleay group;
southeast of Armidale
Mount Seaview Nature Reserve NSW
Oxley Wild Rivers National Park (part) NSW ParadiseRocks.jpg 1,452 561 30°59′47″S 152°00′36″E / 30.99639°S 152.01000°E / -30.99639; 152.01000 [17]
The Castles Flora Reserve NSW 30°59′55″S 152°20′5″E / 30.99861°S 152.33472°E / -30.99861; 152.33472 [18]
Werrikimbe National Park (part) NSW Werrikimbe.jpg 333 129 31°12′S 152°14′E / 31.200°S 152.233°E / -31.200; 152.233 [19]
Willi Willi National Park (part) NSW 299 115 31°10′43″S 152°29′27″E / 31.17861°S 152.49083°E / -31.17861; 152.49083 [20]
Barrington Tops group;
north of Dungog
Barrington Tops National Park (part) NSW Barrington lookout.jpg 765 295 32°3′10″S 151°29′37″E / 32.05278°S 151.49361°E / -32.05278; 151.49361 [21]
Mount Royal National Park (part) NSW Mount Royal - eucalytus forest 2.jpg 69 27 32°12′1″S 151°19′25″E / 32.20028°S 151.32361°E / -32.20028; 151.32361 [22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Gondwana Rainforests of Australia". Department of the Environment. Australian Government. Retrieved 31 August 2008. 
  2. ^ a b Reid, Greg (2004). Australia's National and Marine Parks: Queensland. South Yarra, Victoria: Macmillan Education Australia. p. 11. ISBN 0-7329-9053-X. 
  3. ^ a b "Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, Lismore, NSW, Australia". Australian Heritage Database: Department of the Environment. Australian Government. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "Determination regarding including World Heritage places in the National Heritage List". Special government gazette (PDF) (S.99). Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Commonwealth of Australia. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  5. ^ a b McGinley, Mark (9 December 2008). "Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves, Australia". Encyclopedia of Earth. United Nations Environment Programme: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  6. ^ "Gondwana Rainforests of Australia". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "Main Range National Park and Spicers Gap Road Regional Park Management Statement 2013". Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing. Government of Queensland. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "Mallanganee National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Mount Clunie National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Mount Nothofagus National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "Tooloom National Park: Park management". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  12. ^ "Toonumbar National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  13. ^ "Border Ranges National Park: Park management". NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. 
  14. ^ "Springbrook National Park — Nature, culture and history". The State of Queensland. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  15. ^ "Wollumbin National Park". NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (Environment.nsw.gov.au). 24 September 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "New England National Park: Park management". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  17. ^ "Oxley Wild Rivers National Park: Park Management". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  18. ^ "The Castles Flora Reserve (NSW)". Gazetteer of Australia online. Geoscience Australia, Australian Government. 
  19. ^ "Werrikimbe National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Willi Willi National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  21. ^ "Barrington Tops National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  22. ^ "Mount Royal National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 28°15′00″S 150°03′00″E / 28.250°S 150.050°E / -28.250; 150.050