Galaxy group

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A galaxy group[1] or group of galaxies[2] (GrG[3]) is an aggregation of galaxies made up less than 50 or so members and bound by gravity; collections of galaxies larger than groups that are first-order clustering are called galaxy clusters. The groups and clusters of galaxies can themselves be clustered, into superclusters of galaxies.

Our Milky Way Galaxy is part of a group of galaxies called the Local Group.[4]

Characteristics[edit]

Groups of galaxies are the smallest aggregates of galaxies. They typically contain no more than 50 galaxies in a diameter of 1 to 2 megaparsecs (Mpc).[NB 1] Their mass is approximately 1013 solar masses. The spread of velocities for the individual galaxies is about 150 km/s. However, this definition should be used as a guide only, as larger and more massive galaxy systems are sometimes classified as galaxy groups.[5]

Groups are the most common structures of galaxies in the universe, comprising at least 50% of the galaxies in the local universe. Groups have a mass range between those of the very large elliptical galaxies and clusters of galaxies.[6] In the local universe, about half of the groups exhibit diffuse X-ray emissions from their intracluster media. Those that emit X-rays appear to have early-type galaxies as members. The diffuse X-ray emissions come from zones within the inner 10-50% of the groups' virial radius, generally 50-500 kpc.[7]

Types[edit]

There are several subtypes of groups.

Compact Groups[edit]

Compact groups are small groups in closely grouped in a small area. They typically have around 5 galaxies in close proximity relatively isolated from other galaxies and formations.[8] The first discovered, Stephan's Quintet, was discovered in 1877.[9] Though Stephan's Quintet itself is a group of 4 and an unassociated foreground galaxy.[8] Astronomer Paul Hickson created a catalogue of such groups in 1982, the Hickson Compact Groups.[10]

Compact groups of galaxies readily show the effect of dark matter, as the visible mass is greatly less than that needed to dynamically bind the galaxies into a bound group. Compact galaxy groups are also not dynamically stable over Hubble time, thus showing that galaxies evolve by merger, over the timescale of the age of the universe.[8]

Fossil Groups[edit]

Main article: Fossil group

Fossil groups are the remains of older groups of galaxies, where the luminous galaxies have merged together to form an elliptical galaxy. Such systems still have an X-ray halo the size of the progenitor group, and can so be X-ray selected. Fossil groups may still contain unmerged dwarf galaxies, but the more massive members of the group have condensed into the central galaxy.[7][8]

Proto-Groups[edit]

Proto-groups are groups that are in the process of formation. They are the smaller form of protoclusters.[11] These contain galaxies and protogalaxies embedded in dark matter haloes that are in the process of fusing into group-formations of singular dark matter halos.[12]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ see 1022 m for distance comparisons

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bärbel Koribalski (2004). "The NGC 6221/15 Galaxy Group". 
  2. ^ Hartmut Frommert & Christine Kronberg. "Groups and Clusters of Galaxies with Messier objects". SEDS. 
  3. ^ "Object classification in SIMBAD". SIMBAD. November 2013. 
  4. ^ Mike Irwin. "The Local Group". Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  5. ^ UTK Physics Dept. "Groups of Galaxies". University of Tennessee, Knoville. Retrieved September 27, 2012. 
  6. ^ Muñoz, R. P.; Motta, V.; Verdugo, T.; Garrido, F.; Limousin, M.; Padilla, N.; Foëx, G.; Cabanac, R.; Gavazzi, R.; Barrientos, L. F.; Richard, J.; (11 December 2012). "Dynamical analysis of strong-lensing galaxy groups at intermediate redshift". Astronomy & Astrophysics (April 2013) 552: 18. arXiv:1212.2624. Bibcode:2013A&A...552A..80M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118513. A80. 
  7. ^ a b Mulchaey, John S. (22 September 2000). "X-ray Properties of Groups of Galaxies". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000) 38: 289-335. arXiv:astro-ph/0009379. Bibcode:2000ARA&A..38..289M. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.38.1.289. 
  8. ^ a b c d Paul Hickson (1997). "Compact Groups of Galaxies". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 35: 357-388. arXiv:astro-ph/9710289. Bibcode:1997ARA&A..35..357H. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.35.1.357. 
  9. ^ M. Stephan (April 1877). "Nebulæ (new) discovered and observed at the observatory of Marseilles, 1876 and 1877, M. Stephan". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 37: 334. Bibcode:1877MNRAS..37..334S. 
  10. ^ Hickson, Paul (April 1982). "Systematic properties of compact groups of galaxies". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 255: 382–391. Bibcode:1982ApJ...255..382H. doi:10.1086/159838. 
  11. ^ Yujin Yang (2008). Testing Both Modes of Galaxy Formation: A Closer Look at Galaxy Mergers and Gas Accretion. University of Arizona (ProQuest). p. 205. ISBN 9780549692300. 
  12. ^ C. Diener, S. J. Lilly, C. Knobel, G. Zamorani, G. Lemson, P. Kampczyk, N. Scoville, C. M. Carollo, T. Contini, J.-P. Kneib, O. Le Fevre, V. Mainieri, A. Renzini, M. Scodeggio, S. Bardelli, M. Bolzonella, A. Bongiorno, K. Caputi, O. Cucciati, S. de la Torre, L. de Ravel, P. Franzetti, B. Garilli, A. Iovino, K. Kovač, F. Lamareille, J.-F. Le Borgne, V. Le Brun, C. Maier, M. Mignoli, R. Pello, Y. Peng, E. Perez Montero, V. Presotto, J. Silverman, M. Tanaka, L. Tasca, L. Tresse, D. Vergani, E. Zucca, R. Bordoloi, A. Cappi, A. Cimatti, G. Coppa, A. M. Koekemoer, C. López-Sanjuan, H. J. McCracken, M. Moresco, P. Nair, L. Pozzetti, N. Welikala (9 October 2012). "Proto-groups at 1.8<z<3 in the zCOSMOS-deep sample". The Astrophysical Journal (March 2013) 765 (2): 11. arXiv:1210.2723. Bibcode:2013ApJ...765..109D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/109. 109.