Ignition magneto

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For other uses, see Magneto (disambiguation).
Bosch magneto circuit, 1911
Simple low-tension magneto, for a single-cylinder engine
Armature of a high-tension magneto
Section through a high-tension magneto, with distributor

An ignition magneto, or high tension magneto, is a magneto that provides current for the ignition system of a spark-ignition engine, such as a petrol engine. It produces pulses of high voltage for the spark plugs. Historically, the terminology "tension" refers to the now common term "voltage."[1]

The use of ignition magnetos is now confined mainly to engines where there is no other available electrical supply, for example in lawnmowers and chainsaws. It is also widely used in aviation piston engines even though an electrical supply is usually available. In this case the magneto's self-powered operation is considered to offer increased reliability; in theory the magneto should continue operation as long as the engine is turning.

History[edit]

Firing the gap of a spark plug, particularly in the combustion chamber of a high-compression engine, requires a greater voltage (or higher tension) than can be achieved by a simple magneto.[2] The high-tension magneto combines an alternating current magneto generator and a transformer.[2] A high current at low voltage is generated by the magneto, then transformed to a high voltage (even though this is now a far smaller current) by the transformer.[2]

The first person to develop the idea of a high-tension magneto was Andre Boudeville, but his design omitted a condenser (capacitor); Frederick Richard Simms in partnership with Robert Bosch were the first to develop a practical high-tension magneto.[3]

Magneto ignition was introduced on the 1899 Daimler Phönix. This was followed by Benz, Mors, Turcat-Mery, and Nesseldorf,[4] and soon was used on most cars up until about 1918 in both low voltage (voltage for secondary coils to fire the spark plugs) and high voltage magnetos (to fire the spark plug directly, similar to coil ignitions, introduced by Bosch in 1903).[4]

Operation[edit]

In the type known as a shuttle magneto, the engine rotates a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet. In the inductor magneto, the magnet is rotated and the coil remains stationary.

On each revolution, a cam opens the contact breaker one or more times, interrupting the current, which causes the electromagnetic field in the primary coil to collapse. As the field collapses there is a voltage induced (as described by Faraday's Law) across the primary coil. As the points open, point spacing is such that the voltage across the primary coil would arc across the points. A capacitor is placed across the points which absorbs the energy stored in the primary coil. The capacitor and the coil together form a resonant circuit which allows the energy to oscillate from the capacitor to the coil and back again. Due to the inevitable losses in the system, this oscillation decays fairly rapidly.

On more advanced magnetos the cam ring can be rotated by an external linkage to alter the ignition timing.

A second coil, with many more turns than the primary, is wound on the same iron core to form an electrical transformer. The ratio of turns in the secondary winding to the number of turns in the primary winding, is called the turns ratio. Voltage across the primary coil results in a proportional voltage being induced across the secondary winding of the coil. The turns ratio between the primary and secondary coil is selected so that the voltage across the secondary reaches a very high value, enough to arc across the gap of the spark plug.

In a modern installation, the magneto only has a single low tension winding which is connected to an external ignition coil which not only has a low tension winding, but also a secondary winding of many thousands of turns to deliver the high voltage required for the spark plug(s). Such a system is known as an "energy transfer" ignition system. Initially this was done because it was easier to provide good insulation for the secondary winding of an external coil than it was in a coil buried in the construction of the magneto (early magnetos had the coil assembly externally to the rotating parts to make them easier to insulate—at the expense of efficiency). In more modern times, insulation materials have improved to the point where constructing self-contained magnetos is relatively easy, but energy transfer systems are still used where the ultimate in reliability is required such as in aviation engines.

Aviation[edit]

Because it requires no battery or other source of energy, the magneto is a compact and reliable self-contained ignition system, which is why it remains in use in many general aviation applications.

Since the beginning of World War I in 1914, magneto-equipped aircraft engines have typically been dual-plugged, whereby each cylinder has two spark plugs, with each plug having a separate magneto system. Dual plugs provide both redundancy should a magneto fail, and better engine performance (through enhanced combustion). Twin sparks provide two flame fronts within the cylinder, these two flame fronts decreasing the time needed for the fuel charge to burn, thereby burning more of the fuel at a lower temperature and pressure[citation needed]. As the pressure within a cylinder increases, the temperature rises; and if there is only a single plug, the unburnt fuel away from the original flame front can self-ignite, producing a separate unsynchronized flame front. This leads to a rapid rise in cylinder pressure, producing engine "knock". Higher octane fuel delays the time required for auto-ignition at a given temperature and pressure, reducing knock; so by burning the fuel charge faster, two flame fronts can decrease an engine's octane requirement. As the size of the combustion chamber determines the time to burn the fuel charge, dual ignition was especially important for the large-bore aircraft engines around World War II.

Impulse coupling[edit]

Because the magneto has low voltage output at low speed, starting an engine is more difficult.[5] Therefore some magnetos have an impulse coupling, a springlike mechanical linkage between the engine and magneto drive shaft which "winds up" and "lets go" at the proper moment for spinning the magneto shaft. The impulse coupling uses a spring, a hub cam with flyweights, and a shell.[5] The hub of the magneto rotates while the drive shaft is held stationary, and the spring tension builds up. When the magneto is supposed to fire, the flyweights are released by the action of the body contacting the trigger ramp. This allows the spring to unwind giving the rotating magnet a rapid rotation and letting the magneto spin at such a speed to produce a spark.[5]

Automobile[edit]

Some aviation engines as well as some early luxury cars have had dual-plugged systems with one set of plugs fired by a magneto, and the other set wired to a coil, dynamo, and battery circuit. This was often done to ease engine starting, as larger engines may be too difficult to crank at sufficient speed to operate a magneto, even with an impulse coupling. As the reliability of battery ignition systems improved, the magneto fell out of favor for general automotive use, but may still be found in sport or racing engines.[6][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Selimo Romeo Bottone (1907). Magnetos for Automobilists, how Made and how Used: A Handbook of Practical Instruction in the Manufacture and Adaptation of the Magneto to the Needs of the Motorist. C. Lockwood and son. 
  2. ^ a b c Cauldwell, O. (1941). Aero Engines: for Pilots and Ground Engineers. Pitman. p. 88. 
  3. ^ Kohli, P.L. (1993). Automotive Electrical Equipment. Tata McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-460216-0. 
  4. ^ a b G.N. Georgano, G.N. (1985). Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. London: Grange-Universal. 
  5. ^ a b c Kroes, Michael (1995). Aircraft Powerplants. New York: Glencoe. p. 180. 
  6. ^ Munday, Frank (2006). Custom Auto Electrickery: How to Work with and Understand Auto Electrical Systems. MBI Publishing Company. p. 59. ISBN 0-949398-35-7. 
  7. ^ Emanuel, Dave (1996). Small-block Chevy performance: modifications and dyno-tested combinations for high performance street and racing use. Penguin. p. 122. ISBN 1-55788-253-3.