International Socialist Bureau

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The International Socialist Bureau (French: Bureau Socialiste Internationale) was the permanent organization of the Second International, established at the Paris congress of 1900. Before this there was no organizational infrastructure to the "Second International" beyond a series of periodical congresses, which weren't even given a uniform name. The host party of the next congress was charged with organizing it.

After the International Socialist Congress of Paris of 1900, a permanent Bureau was established which met periodically in between congresses. A permanent secretariat was also established in Brussels. There were in all 16 plenary meetings of the Bureau.

The membership of the bureau was fluid from meeting to meeting, each country sending one to three representatives at a time. Many illustrious figures of the socialist movement, and several future heads of state or government were members at one time or another.

All this information is taken from La Deuxième Internationale, 1889-1914: étude critique des sources, essai bibliographique by Georges Haupt

Plenary meetings[edit]

1st. Brussels; December 30, 1901[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. USA Arg.
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Alfred Léon Gérault-Richard Henry Hyndman; Harry Quelch Karl Kautsky; Paul Singer Cesarine Wojnarowska B. N. Krichevsky; Georgi Plekhanov Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra George D. Herron Achille Cambier

2nd. Brussels; December 29, 1902[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Arg. Austria
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Jean Jaurès; Bracke Henry Hyndman; Sam Woods Paul Singer Cesarine Wojnarowska; B.A. Jedrychovski B. N. Krichevsky; B. A. Guinzburg Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Alfred Léon Gérault-Richard Victor Adler

3rd. Brussels; July 20, 1903[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. USA Arg. Den.
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant Henry Hyndman; Hunter Watts Wilhelm Pfankuch; Richard Fischer Cesarine Wojnarowska B. A. Guinzburg Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Gaylord Wiltshire Patroni Peter Christian Knudsen

4th. Brussels; February 7, 1904[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Arg. Austria
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Bracke; Amilcare Cipriani Henry Hyndman; Harry Quelch Karl Kautsky; Paul Singer Rosa Luxembourg; Henryk Walecki Georgi Plekhanov Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Achille Cambier Victor Adler

5th Amsterdam; August 15, 1904[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. USA Arg. Austria Den. Italy Nor. Boh. Jp.
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Bracke; Amilcare Cipriani Henry Hyndman; Ernest Belfort Bax Karl Kautsky Rosa Luxembourg; Walecki Georgi Plekhanov Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Morris Hillquit Achille Cambier; Manuel Ugarte Engelbert Perner-storfer P. Knudsen Enrico Ferri Olav Kringen Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Sen Katayama

6th. Brussels; January 15, 1905[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Arg. Austria Lux.
Victor Serwy Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Bracke; Amilcare Cipriani; Jean Longuet Henry Hyndman Karl Kautsky; August Bebel Rosa Luxembourg Pavel Axelrod; Roubanovitch Achille Cambier Victor Adler Michel Welter

7th. Brussels; March 4–5, 1906[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Arg. Lux. Boh. Swiss Hung. Fin.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Jean Jaurès Henry Hyndman; J. Keir Hardie Karl Kautsky; August Bebel Jozef Kwiatek Roubanovitch Manuel Ugarte Michel Welter Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Jean Sigg Mano Buchinger Yrjo Sirola

Consultative members: Garske of the Workers party of Latvia and Lew of the Socialist Party of Armenia

8th. Brussels; November 10, 1906[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. SRs Rus. RSDRP Boh. Sweden Hungary
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele Édouard Vaillant Henry Hyndman; J. Keir Hardie Paul Singer; August Bebel Hermann Diamand Roubanovitch Georgi Plekhanov; Angelica Balabanov Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Hjalmar Branting Jacob Weltner; Max Grossmann

Consultative members Stanislas Kurski; Leo Bergman of the General Jewish Labour Bund; O. Braun of the Latvian Social Democrats

9th. Brussels; June 9, 1907[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. SRs Rus. RSDRP Boh. Ne. Lux. Austria Den.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Jean Jaurès; Jean Longuet Henry Hyndman; Bruce Glasier Paul Singer; August Bebel Hermann Diamand Roubanovitch Martov; Angelica Balabanov Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Michel Welter Victor Adler C. M. Olsen

Consultative members Stanislas Kurski; Leo Bergman of the General Jewish Labour Bund; O. Braun of the Latvian Social Demlcrats

10th. Brussels; October 10, 1908[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Austria Pol. Rus. SRs Rus. RSDRP Rus. "SERP" Rus. "URP" Boh. Ne. Sweden Italy Den. Hung. Bulg. Arm. Lat. Bund.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Leon Furnemont; Louis de Brouckere Édouard Vaillant; Angele Roussel; Jean Longuet Henry Hyndman; Bruce Glasier Hermann Molkenbuhr Victor Adler Hermann Diamand; Karl Kautsky Roubanovitch Lenin Chaim Zhitlowsky Pereverzev Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Hendrick Van Kol Hjalmar Branting Garatti Thorvald Stauning Mano Buchinger Avramoff Varandian K. Sutte B. Nelin; G. Borski

11th. Brussels; November 7, 1909[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Boh. Ne. Lux. Austria Den. Hu. USA Arg. Swed. Bulg. Sp.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde Édouard Vaillant; Guesde; Jean Longuet Keir Hardie; Harry Quelch; G. H. Roberts Paul Singer; Hermann Molkenbuhr Hermann Diamand; Adolf Warski; Wronsky Roubanovitch; Lenin; C. Sutte Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Michel Welter Victor Adler P. Knudsen; Thorvald Stauning E. Garami Victor Berger; Kretlow Achille Cambier Hjalmar Branting Breitko Loukov Fabra Ribas

12th. Copenhagen; August 26–31, September 2–3, 1910[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Boh. Ne. Austria Den. Hu. USA Swed. Bulg. Rom. Serb. Turk. Fin. Nor.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde; Leon Furnemont Édouard Vaillant; Guesde; Jean Jaurès; Angele Roussel Ramsay MacDonald Friedrich Ebert; Hermann Molkenbuhr Hermann Diamand; Karl Kautsky Roubanovitch; Lenin; T. Medem Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Hendrick Van Kol; Pieter Jelles Troelstra Victor Adler; Engelbert Perner-storfer; Engelbert; Ferdinand Skaret P. Knudsen; Thorvald Stauning Mano Buchinger Daniel De Leon; Morris Hillquit; Victor Berger Hjalmar Branting; CGT Wickman Yanko Sakazov; G. Kirkov Racovsky Tucovic Varandian Yrjo Sirola; Vaino Tanner Einar Li; Magnus Nilssen

13th. Zurich; September 23–24, 1911[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Swiss. Austria Serb. Italy Hung. Boh. Turk.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde; Leon Furnemont Édouard Vaillant; Angele Roussel; Jean Longuet Harry Quelch Hermann Molkenbuhr; August Bebel Rosa Luxembourg; Hermann Diamand Georgi Plekhanov; Lenin Pieter Jelles Troelstra Sgragen; Karl Moor; Bruestein Victor Adler Tucovic Pompeo Ciotti Mano Buchinger Franc Soukup; Anton Nemec Saul Nahum

14th. Brussels; October 28–29, 1912[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Swiss. Austria Rom. Italy Hung. Boh. Turk. Swiss. Sw. Den.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde; Leon Furnemont Édouard Vaillant; Angele Roussel; Jean Longuet Harry Quelch; Bruce Glasier; F. W. Goldstone Hermann Molkenbuhr; Karl Kautsky; Hugo Haase Rosa Luxembourg; Hermann Diamand Georgi Plekhanov; Roubanovitch; Merkel Pieter Jelles Troelstra Sgragen; Karl Moor; Bruestein Victor Adler Racovsky G. Agnini; Angelica Balabanov E. Garami; J. Weltner Franc Soukup; B Kolar Saul Nahum Fritz Stunder Branting Carl Madsen; Thorvald Stuaning

15th. London; December 13–14, 1913[edit]

Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Swiss. Austria Rom. Italy Hung. Boh. USA Sw. Den. Nor. Arg.
Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde; Camille Huysmans; Louis Bertrand[disambiguation needed] Édouard Vaillant; Jean Jaurès; Jean Longuet "a large delegation from the British...parties" Hermann Molkenbuhr; Karl Kautsky; Friedrich Ebert Rosa Luxembourg; Hermann Diamand; Lapinski Tcheidze; Roubanovitch; Litvinov Vliegen Fritz Stunder Victor Adler Racovsky G. Agnini; Angelica Balabanov Mano Buchinger Franc Soukup; B Kolar Kate Richards O'Hare Branting Thorvald Stuaning Jacob Vidnes Ramon Saint-Marie

16th. Brussels; July 29–30, 1914[edit]

Sec. Bel. Fr. Br. Ger. Pol. Rus. Ne. Swiss. Austria Rom. Italy Hung. Boh. Sw. Den. Arg.
Camille Huysmans Edward Anseele; Emile Vandervelde; Louis Bertrand Édouard Vaillant; Jean Jaurès; Jean Longuet; Guesde; Marcel Sembat Kier Hardie; Bruce Glasier; Dan Irving Hugo Haase; Karl Kautsky; Rosa Luxembourg Walecki Pavel Axelrod; Roubanovitch; Winter; O. Braun Troelstra R. Grimm; Karl Moor Victor Adler; Friedrich Adler Racovsky Angelica Balabanov; Morgari Mano Buchinger B. Nemec Branting Thorvald Stuaning Fabras; Corales

First World War[edit]

In autumn 1914, shortly after the occupation of most of Belgium by German troops, the executive committee decided to move the headquarters from Brussels to the Hague, with the approval of the Belgian Labor Party.[1] The all Belgian Executive Committee also unanimously decided to expand itself by adding three Dutch members, Troelstra, Van Kol and Albarda, with Vleigen and Wibaut as alternates.[2] Camille Huysmans, a Belgian, remained Secretary. This arrangement was approved by all of the affiliated parties, except the French party which decline to vote, believing that the International should have stayed "where it was and what it was".[3]

In the early months of the war the Executive Committee resisted efforts to call a full meeting of the Bureau, feeling that it would have been impossible to get delegates from certain countries together and feeling that an unrepresentative meeting might mean the dissolution of the International altogether.[4] In January and February 1915 the BSI attempted to hold a series of separate, one-on-one meetings with representatives of the parties in belligerent nations. The French refused to send a delegation to the Hague. The British were at first willing, but opted out after Arthur Henderson became a member of the War Cabinet. The Belgians were the first to send a delegation, and the German party met with the executive twice.[5][6]

The BSI was pointedly hostile to the Zimmerwald Conference. At a speech to the congress of the Dutch party Huysmans ridiculed the Zimmerwaldians for their impatience, as well as for the unrepresentative and "amateur" nature of the conference.[7] Huysmans later reportedly made special trips to Britain and France to dissuade socialists in those countries from attending the Kienthal Conference.[8] Partly in response to Zimmerwald and Kienthal, though, the Bureau arranged for a meeting of socialists from the neutral countries. Originally scheduled for June 23, 1916 this conference finally met at the Hague on July 30-August 2, 1916.[9] Consisting of nine delegates from Argentina, the United States (Algernon Lee), the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden, the conference passed a resolution expressing confidence in the Executive Committee and deprecating any effort to break up the official International[10]

In April 1917, after the March Revolution in Russia, Staunding of Denmark wrote to the BSI stating that if they were unable to summon a general conference of Socialist parties, it would be organized without them. Upon getting this appeal the Dutch members of the Executive Committee left for Stockholm. Huysmans soon joined them setting up the secretariat of the Bureau at the Trade Union House of the Swedish Socialist Party. On May 2 Huysmans and Engberg became the Secretariats representative in a new organization, the Dutch-Scandinavian Committee which attempted to convene a general socialist conference at Stockholm for the remainder of 1917, without success.[11]

In November 1918 Huysmans worked in concert with the committee appoint by the fourth Inter-Allied Socialist Conference for the convening of a socialist conference of the formerly belligerent nations. The final result of this was the Berne Conference of 1919.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parti ouvrier belge Memorandum on peace terms New York, G.H. Doran Company 1918 p.21
  2. ^ Fainsod, Merle International socialism and the World War New York, Octagon Books 1973 p.44
  3. ^ Huysmans, Camille, 1871-1968 The policy of the International; a speech of and an interview with the secretary of the International London, G. Allen & Unwin ltd 1916 pp.18, 20
  4. ^ Huysman, pp.20-21
  5. ^ Huysman, pp.22-23
  6. ^ Parti ouvrier belge p.22
  7. ^ Huysman, p.21
  8. ^ Fainsod p.87
  9. ^ American Labor Year book 1916 p.121
  10. ^ Fainsod p.101
  11. ^ Fainsod pp.126-7
  12. ^ Fainsod p.197

External links[edit]