Jesús Malverde image
|Angel of the Poor, Generous Bandit, The Narco Saint|
|Honored in||Folk Catholicism|
|Patronage||drug dealers, outlaws, bandits|
Jesús Malverde (pronounced: [xeˈsus malˈβeɾ.ðe]), sometimes known as the "generous bandit", "angel of the poor", or the "narco-saint", is a folklore hero in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. He is celebrated as a folk saint by some in Mexico and the United States, particularly among those involved in drug trafficking. He is not recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
The existence of Malverde a.k.a. 'El Rey de Sinaloa' is not historically verified, but according to local legends he was a bandit killed by the authorities on May 3, 1909. Accounts of his life vary – sometimes he was a railway worker, while others claim he was a construction worker. There is also no agreement on the way he died, being hanged or shot.
Since Malverde's supposed death, he has earned a Robin Hood-type image, making him popular among Sinaloa's poor highland residents. The outlaw image has caused him to be adopted as the "patron saint" of the region's illegal drug trade, and the press have thus dubbed him "the narco-saint." However, his intercession is also sought by those with troubles of various kinds, and a number of supposed miracles have been locally attributed to him, including personal healings and blessings.
A series of three Spanish-language films have been released under the titles Jesus Malverde, Jesus Malverde II: La Mafia de Sinaloa, and Jesus Malverde III: Infierno en Los Angeles. They all feature tales of contemporary Mexican drug trafficking into California, with strong musical interludes during which the gangsters are shown at home being serenaded by Sinaloan accordion-led Norteño bands singing narcocorridos.
Spiritual supplies featuring the visage of Jesús Malverde are available in the United States as well as in Mexico. They include candles, anointing oils, incense, sachet powders, bath crystals, soap and lithographed prints suitable for framing.
"Always & Forever" is a dramatic stageplay that features Malverde as a prominent character. The play examines various aspects of Mexican-American culture, such as quinceañeras, banda music, and premiered in April 2007 at the Watts Village Theater Company in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. A revival production opened in May 2009 at Casa 0101 Theatre in another Los Angeles neighborhood, Boyle Heights.
A Malverde bust is featured in AMC's Breaking Bad television series, in the episode entitled "Negro Y Azul".
A popular Mexican hip-hop artist performs under the pseudonym Jesús Malverde.
- Park, Jungwon; Sujeto Popular entre el Bien y el Mal: Imágenes Dialécticas de “Jesús Malverde”. University of Pittsburgh
- Penhaul, Karl. "Gang triggerman honored with'Scarface' hat." CNN. April 16, 2009. Retrieved on April 16, 2009.
- grupo reforma
- The Oregonian: Hidden Powerhouses Underlie Meth's Ugly Spread 10/23/2004
- Castillo, E. Eduardo, Associated Press (2007-12-07). "Mexican company launches beer in honor of unofficial drug saint". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Esquivel, Manuel; Jesús Malverde" (Jus Ed., Mexico, 2008) – contains the best research about Jesus Malverde.ISBN 978-607-412-010-3
- Quinones, Sam; True Tales from Another Mexico: the Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino and the Bronx (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2001) – Includes the definitive story on Jesus Malverde.
- Wald, Elijah, Narcocorrido: A Journey into the Music of Drugs, Guns, and Guerrillas. ISBN 0-06-050510
- "Without God or Law: Narcoculture and belief in Jesús Malverde." James H. Creechan and Jorge de la Herran-Garcia. 2005. Religious Studies and Theology 24:53.
- Pacific News, "Jesus Malverde-Saint of Mexico's Drug Traffickers May Have Been Bandit Hung in 1909"
- Portland Mercury, "Our Blessed Saint of Narcotics?"
- Washington Post, "Time Zones: An Hour at the Feet of a Mexican Narco-Saint--In the Eerie Twilight, Frenetic Homage To a Potent Symbol"
- International Herald Tribune, "Mexican Robin Hood figure gains a kind of notoriety abroad"
- Mexican Robin Hood Figure Gains a Kind of Notoriety in U.S. - New York Times
- Photos by Jorge Uzon: The Chapel of Jesus Malverde in Culiacan, Sinaloa