Jesús Malverde image
|Angel of the Poor, Generous Bandit, The Narco Saint|
|Venerated in||Folk Catholicism|
|Patronage||drug dealers, outlaws, bandits|
Jesús Malverde, possibly born as Jesús Juarez Mazo (1870-1909) (pronounced: [xeˈsus malˈβeɾ.ðe]), sometimes known as the "generous bandit", "angel of the poor", or the "narco-saint", is a folklore hero in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. He is a "Robin Hood figure" who was supposed to have stolen from the rich to give to the poor.
The existence of Malverde a.k.a. 'El Rey de Sinaloa' is not historically verified. According to Patricia L. Price, he is said to have been born Jesús Juarez Mazo, growing up under the rule of Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz, whose local supporter Francisco Cañedo ran Sinaloa. He is supposed to have become a bandit after the death of his parents, which he attributed to their poverty. His nickname Malverde (bad-green) was given by his wealthy victims, deriving from an association between green and misfortune. According to the mythology of Malverde's life, Cañedo derisively offered Malverde a pardon if he could steal the governor's sword (or in some versions his daughter). The bandit succeeded, but this only pushed Cañedo into hunting him down. He is supposed to have died in Sinaloa on May 3, 1909. Accounts of his death vary. In some versions he was betrayed and killed by a friend. In some he was shot or hanged by local police. His body was supposed to have been denied proper burial, being left to rot in public as an example.
Writer Sam Quinones says that there is no evidence that the Malverde of the legend ever lived, and that the story probably emerged by mixing material from the lives of two documented Sinaloan bandits, Heraclio Bernal (1855-1888) and Felipe Bachomo (1883-1916). Bernal was a thief from southern Sinaloa who later became an anti-government rebel. Cañedo offered a reward for his capture, and he was betrayed and killed by former colleagues. Bachemo was an indigenous Indian rebel from northern Sinaloa who was captured and executed.
Since Malverde's supposed death, he has earned a Robin Hood-type image, making him popular among Sinaloa's poor highland residents. His bones were said to have been unofficially buried by local people, who threw stones onto them, creating a cairn. Throwing a stone onto the bones was thus a sign of respect, and gave the person the right to make a petition to his spirit. His earliest alleged miracles involved the return of lost or stolen property. His shrine is in Culiacan, capital of Sinaloa. Every year on the anniversary of his death a large party is held at Malverde's shrine. The original shrine was built over in the 1970s, amid much controversy, and a new shrine was built on nearby land. The original site, which became a parking lot, has since been revived as an unofficial shrine, with a cairn and offerings.
The outlaw image has caused him to be adopted as the "patron saint" of the region's illegal drug trade, and the press have thus dubbed him "the narco-saint." However, his intercession is also sought by those with troubles of various kinds, and a number of supposed miracles have been locally attributed to him, including personal healings and blessings. Price says that "Narcotrafickers have strategically used Malverde's image as a 'generous bandit' to spin their own images as Robin Hoods of sorts, merely stealing from rich drug-addicted gringos and giving some of their wealth back to their Sinaloa hometowns, in the form of schools, road improvements, community celebrations."
Spiritual supplies featuring the visage of Jesús Malverde are available in the United States as well as in Mexico. They include candles, anointing oils, incense, sachet powders, bath crystals, soap and lithographed prints suitable for framing.
A series of three Spanish-language films have been released under the titles Jesús Malverde, Jesús Malverde II: La Mafia de Sinaloa, and Jesús Malverde III: Infierno en Los Ángeles. They all feature tales of contemporary Mexican drug trafficking into California, with strong musical interludes during which the gangsters are shown at home being serenaded by Sinaloan accordion-led Norteño bands singing narcocorridos.
"Always & Forever" is a stage-play that features Malverde as a prominent character. The play examines various aspects of Mexican-American culture, such as quinceañeras, banda music, and premiered in April 2007 at the Watts Village Theater Company in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. A revival production opened in May 2009 at Casa 0101 Theatre in another Los Angeles neighborhood, Boyle Heights.
A Malverde bust is featured in AMC's Breaking Bad television series, principally in the episode entitled "Negro Y Azul".
A popular Mexican hip-hop artist performs under the pseudonym Jesús Malverde.
- Park, Jungwon; Sujeto Popular entre el Bien y el Mal: Imágenes Dialécticas de “Jesús Malverde”. University of Pittsburgh
- Patricia L. Price, Dry Place: Landscapes of Belonging and Exclusion, pp.153-157.
- Penhaul, Karl. "Gang triggerman honored with'Scarface' hat." CNN. April 16, 2009. Retrieved on April 16, 2009.
- grupo reforma
- Quinones, Sam, True Tales from Another Mexico: The Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino, and the Bronx, UNM Press, 2001, p.227
- Quinones, Sam, Jesus Malverde, Frontline.
- Washington Post
- The Oregonian: Hidden Powerhouses Underlie Meth's Ugly Spread 10/23/2004
- Castillo, E. Eduardo, Associated Press (2007-12-07). "Mexican company launches beer in honor of unofficial drug saint". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Esquivel, Manuel; Jesús Malverde" (Jus Ed., Mexico, 2008) – contains the best research about Jesus Malverde.ISBN 978-607-412-010-3
- Quinones, Sam; True Tales from Another Mexico: the Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino and the Bronx (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2001) – Includes the definitive story on Jesus Malverde.
- Wald, Elijah, Narcocorrido: A Journey into the Music of Drugs, Guns, and Guerrillas. ISBN 0-06-050510-9
- "Without God or Law: Narcoculture and belief in Jesús Malverde." James H. Creechan and Jorge de la Herran-Garcia. 2005. Religious Studies and Theology 24:53.
- Pacific News, "Jesus Malverde-Saint of Mexico's Drug Traffickers May Have Been Bandit Hung in 1909"
- Portland Mercury, "Our Blessed Saint of Narcotics?"
- Washington Post, "Time Zones: An Hour at the Feet of a Mexican Narco-Saint--In the Eerie Twilight, Frenetic Homage To a Potent Symbol"
- International Herald Tribune, "Mexican Robin Hood figure gains a kind of notoriety abroad"
- Mexican Robin Hood Figure Gains a Kind of Notoriety in U.S. - New York Times
- Photos by Jorge Uzon: The Chapel of Jesus Malverde in Culiacan, Sinaloa