Károly Grósz

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Károly Grósz
GroszKaroly.jpg
General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party
In office
May 22, 1988 – October 7, 1989
Preceded by János Kádár
Succeeded by End of communist rule
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary
In office
June 25, 1987 – November 24, 1988
Preceded by György Lázár
Succeeded by Miklós Németh
Personal details
Born (1930-08-01)August 1, 1930
Miskolc, Hungary
Died January 7, 1996(1996-01-07) (aged 65)
Gödöllő, Hungary
Nationality Hungarian
Political party Hungarian Communist Party,
Hungarian Working People's Party,
Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party,
Workers' Party
The native form of this personal name is Grósz Károly. This article uses the Western name order.

Károly Grósz [ˈkaːroj ˈɡroːs] (August 1, 1930 – January 7, 1996) was a Hungarian communist politician, who served as the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party from 1988 to 1989.

Early career[edit]

Grósz was born in Miskolc, Hungary. He joined the Communist Party in 1945 at the age of 14. The Communists took full power in 1949, and Grósz rose through the party ranks, becoming an important party leader in his native region. He functioned as head of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda in the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County branch of the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP) since 1954. He also held the position during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, when he banned local journals from coverage of events and forced to remove Kossuth Coat of Arms from letterhead of local newspaper Észak-Magyarország. On 4 November 1956, after the revolution was crushed, Grósz was appointed head of the local party apparatus of the ruling communist party.

In 1974 he was appointed head of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda of the governing Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. In 1979 Grósz was elected first secretary of the party committee of his home county. In 1984 he returned to national prominence as the head of the party committee in Budapest. At the next Party Congress in 1985, he became a member of the Politburo. In 1987, he was appointed Prime Minister of Hungary (Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary - the second most powerful position after that of General Secretary) to succeed György Lázár, who had filled the post for more than eleven years. The appointment of the younger and more energetic Grósz was acclaimed both at home and abroad. As the country was facing economic troubles and growing discontent, the aging party leader János Kádár decided to resign, although originally he had planned to remain in office until 1990. In May 1988 a party conference was convened, which elected Károly Grósz as general secretary of the party at Kádár's recommendation on May 22, 1988.

Leader of Hungary[edit]

Grósz remained prime minister until 24 November 1988, when he was succeeded by Miklós Németh, a representative of the radical reformer faction. He advocated moderate and measured changes in the political and economic spheres with the aim to accomplish a careful reform of socialism without touching the latter's foundations. He liked to call this a "model change" (i.e. reforms and refinements within the Communist framework), as opposed to a total "system change", i.e. the replacement of Communism by a Western-style system.

As 1989 wore on, Grósz was increasingly sidelined by the radical reformers within the party, including Németh, Rezső Nyers, Gyula Horn and Imre Pozsgay. He tried to slow down, stop or reverse the radical changes advocated by his adversaries that were aimed at establishing a Western-type political system and market economy in Hungary. He opposed the rehabilitation of the executed Imre Nagy, Prime Minister during the 1956 revolution. In order to prevent Nagy's political rehabilitation, Grósz gave a speech before the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party on 1 September 1989, where he provided some information on the former prime minister's alleged NKVD ties, however the committee decided not to publish the charges.[1]

Grósz's fate was sealed when he agreed to meet with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu to discuss what to do with a large number of ethnic Hungarians who had fled Romania. Many of Grósz' party colleagues thought he trusted Ceaușescu too much. He lost a good deal of authority as a result, and his standing never really recovered.[2]

In the summer of 1989, he became a member of a four-man collective presidency of the MSZMP, chaired by Nyers, who now outranked him. However, he opposed the radical reformers' drive to reorganize the party as a Western European-style social democratic party. He remained general secretary until October 7, when the party reorganized itself as the Hungarian Socialist Party.

Later life[edit]

The communist ("hardline") faction, led by Grósz, was defeated at the congress and refounded itself in December 1989 as a new Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, with Grósz as its first acting chairman (later renamed Workers' Party and the 'Communist Workers' Party'). The party failed to win parliamentary representation in the first multiparty election in the newly formed Republic of Hungary. These elections took place on 25 March and 8 April 1990.[3]

On 7 January 1996, he died of kidney cancer at age 65 in Gödöllő, Hungary.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Johanna Granville, "Imre Nagy aka 'Volodya' – A Dent in the Martyr's Halo?", Cold War International History Project Bulletin, Spring, 1995.
  2. ^ Sebetsyen, Victor (2009). Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42532-2. 
  3. ^ www.electionresources.org/hu; ipu.org (Inter-Parliamentary Union)
  4. ^ "Karoly Grosz, 65, Is Dead; Began Hungarian Reforms". The New York Times. Reuters. 9 January 1996. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
Political offices
Preceded by
György Lázár
Prime Minister of Hungary
1987–1988
Succeeded by
Miklós Németh
Party political offices
Preceded by
János Kádár
General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party
1988–1989
Succeeded by
party dissolved