Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad
According to Muslim historian Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī (871-957), Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad sailed over the Atlantic Ocean and discovered a previously unknown land (Ard Marjhoola). In his book Muruj adh-dhahab wa maadin aljawhar (The fields of gold and the mines of jewels), al-Mas'udi writes that Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad, from Delba (Palos de la Frontera) sailed into the Atlantic Ocean in 889 and returned with a shipload of valuable treasures. As with other theories suggesting Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact, this is a fringe theory with little or no support amongst mainstream scholars.
Ali al-Masudi, in The Book of Golden Meadows (947), wrote:
In the ocean of fogs [the Atlantic] there are many curiosities which we have mentioned in detail in our Akhbar az-Zaman, on the basis of what we saw there, adventurers who penetrated it on the risk of their life, some returning back safely, others perishing in the attempt. Thus a certain inhabitant of Cordoba, Khashkhash by name, assembled a group of young men, his co-citizens, and went on a voyage on this ocean. After a long time he returned back with booty. Every Spaniard knows this story.
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- Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu'di (Masoudi) (ca. 895?-957 CE),The Book of Golden Meadows, c. 940 CE
- Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing, p. 12. Signal Books. ISBN 1-904955-11-8.
- Ali al-Masudi (940). Muruj Adh-Dhahab (The Book of Golden Meadows), Vol. 1, p. 268.
- Professor Mohammed Hamidullah (Winter 1968). "Muslim Discovery of America before Columbus", Journal of the Muslim Students' Association of the United States and Canada 4 (2), p. 7-9.