Lazăr Edeleanu (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈlazər edeˈle̯anu]; September 1, 1861, Bucharest - April 7, 1941) was a Romanian chemist of Jewish origin. He is known for being the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine at the University of Berlin and for inventing the modern method of refining crude oil.
Research Activity in England and Romania
After receiving his doctorate, Edeleanu worked for some time at the Royal College of Artillery in London as a lecturer and as an assistant to Professor Hodgkinson. During this period, he collaborated with C.F. Cross and E.J. Bevan to create a certain type of artificial fireproof silk. With R. Meldola he created oxazine-based dyes. Back in Romania, he was hired by the chemist Constantin I. Istrati as an assistant and then as a lecturer at the Faculty of Sciences in Bucharest's Organic Chemistry Department. In 1906 he was appointed Head of the Chemistry Laboratory at the Geology Institute, founded that year, and director of Vega Refinery near Ploesti, a refinery owned at that time by the German company Diskont). In 1907, along with Ion Tănăsescu, he co-organized the Petroleum Congress in Bucharest and co-authored a monograph on the physical and technical properties of Romanian crude oil.
His most significant invention, was the Edeleanu process (1908). It is a process in which petroleum is refined with liquid sulfur dioxide to selectively extract aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, etc.). The procedure was first applied experimentally in Romania at the Vega Refinery and later spread to France (notably Rouen), Germany, and subsequently throughout the world.
Research and Business in Germany
In 1910, Edeleanu settled in Germany where he founded a company called "Allgemeine Gesellschaft für Chemische Industrie". Due to the success of the name "Edeleanu", the company changed its name to Edeleanu GmbH in 1930. During the National Socialist regime it was bought by the Deutsche Erdöl-AG. Several ownership changes later it was acquired by Uhde GmbH in 2002, which is owned by the Thyssenkrupp trust. The name Edeleanu is still used for the refinery department until this day.
Lazăr Edeleanu returned to Romania where he died in Bucharest in April 1941.
By 1960, there were 80 Edeleanu facilities worldwide. The Edeleanu Method is still used today, in its many variations, and remains the basic process for manufacturing high quality oils.
Edeleanu obtained 212 patents for inventions in Romania, USA, Germany, France, Austria, Sweden, and Holland.
Prizes and Honors
- 1910 - Member of the Society of Natural Sciences in Moscow
- 1925 - Honorary Member of the Institution of Petroleum Technologists in London (1925)
- 1932 - Theophilus Redwood Medal for lifetime scientific achievement in analytic chemistry.
- The Romanian Jewish Community at www.romanianjewish.org
- FCER - Contribuţia evreilor din România la cultură şi civilizaţie
Editura Hasefer, 2004 p. 215-216 (Fed. of Jewish Communities in Romania - Contributions of Romanian Jews to culture and civilization, Hasefer Publ.House, Bucharest 2004, in Romanian 215-216)
- Allgemeine deutsche Biographie & Neue deutsche Biographie Bd.4,Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959
Magdalene Moureau.Gerald Brace Dictionnaire du petrole et d'autres sources d'energie –anglais- français Ed. Technip 2008
- E H J Rosenberg- The History of selective solvents
1st World Petroleum Congress, July 18–24, 1933, London, UK
- Dr.L.Edeleanu - Ludovic Marzec
in the Monit. Petr. Roumanie, obituary article - 1941
Lazăr Edeleanu Editura Stiinţifică şi enciclopedică Bucureşti,1982 (in Romanian)
- O.Păduraru -Bibliografia lucrărilor şi brevetelor în limba engleză de dr. L. Edeleanu
(Anglo-Rumanian Bibliography of works and brevets of dr L.Edeleanu), Bucureşti 1946.
- I.Drimuş, C. Tache - Lazăr Edeleanu, precursor al chimizării petrolului , (in Romanian) in Revista de chimie 1958
- Robert Treybal- Liquid extraction - McGraw Hill Book Co,1951 m first edition
- Avelino Sequeira - Lubricant base oil and wax processing CRC Press 1994
- Alan A.Comyns - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Named Processes in Chemical Technology - CRC Press 1999