List of banana and plantain diseases

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This article is a list of diseases of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.).

Photo showing symptoms of the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)

Bacterial diseases[edit]

Bacterial diseases
Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas solanacearum (race 1)
Blood disease Pseudomonas spp.
Bugtok Pseudomonas solanacearum (race 2)
Finger tip rot (gumming) Pseudomonas spp.
Rhizome rot Erwinia carotovora

Erwinia chrysanthemi

Javanese vasular wilt Pseudomonas spp.
Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), Banana bacterial wilt, enset wilt Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

Fungal diseases[edit]

Fungal diseases
Anthracnose

Colletotrichum musae

Armillaria corn rot

Armillaria mellea
Armillaria tabescens

Black cross

Phyllachora musicola

Black leaf streak (BLS) or Black Sigatoka

Mycosphaerella fijiensis
Paracercospora fijiensis [anamorph]

Black root rot Rosellinia bunodes
Brown blotch Pestalotiopsis leprogena
Brown spot Cercospora hayi
Ceratocystis fruit rot

Ceratocystis paradoxa
Chalara paradoxa [anamorph]

Cigar-end

Verticillium theobromae
Trachysphaera fructigena

Cladosporium speckle Cladosporium musae
Corm dry rot Junghuhnia vincta
Cordana leaf spot

Cordana johnstonii
Cordana musae

Crown rot

Fusarium pallidoroseum
Colletotrichum musae
Verticillium theobromae
Fusarium spp.
Acremonium spp.

Cylindrocladium root rot Cylindrocladium spp.
Damping-off Deightoniella torulosa
Deightoniella fruit speckle, leaf spot and tip rot Deightoniella torulosa
Diamond spot Cercospora hayi

Fusarium spp.

Dwarf Cavendish tip rot

Nattrassia mangiferae
= Hendersonula toruloidea

Eyespot Drechslera gigantea
Fruit freckle (freckle)

Guignardia musae
Phyllosticta musarum [anamorph]

Fruit rot Botryosphaeria ribis
Fungal root-rot

Fusarium solani
Nectria haematococca [teleomorph]
Fusarium oxysporum
Rhizoctonia spp.

Fungal scald Colletotrichum musae
Leaf rust

Uredo musae
Uromyces musae

Leaf speckle Acrodontium simplex
Leaf spot Curvularia eragrostidis
Leaf spot Drechslera musae-sapientum
Leaf spot Leptosphaeria musarum
Leaf spot Pestalotiopsis disseminata
Main stalk rot Ceratocystis paradoxa
Malayan leaf spot Haplobasidion musae
Marasmiellus rot

Marasmiellus inoderma
= Marasmius semiustus

Moko Pseudomonas solanacearum (race 2)
Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Races 1, 2 and 4 - inc.Tropical Race 4 (TR4) and Subtropical Race 4

Peduncle rot

Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Fusarium pallidoroseum
Fusarium oxysporum
Verticillium theobromae

Pestalotiopsis leaf spot Pestalotiopsis palmarum
Phaeoseptoria leaf spot Phaeoseptoria musae
Pitting Pyricularia grisea
Pseudostem heart rot

Fusarium moniliforme
Gibberella fujikuroi [teleomorph]

Root & rhizome rot Cylindrocarpon musae
Sclerotinia fruit rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Septoria leaf spot

Mycosphaerella eumusae [sexual stage]
Septoria eumusae [anamorph]
A new species even more aggressive than Black Sigatoka and spreading in Asia and the Indian Ocean.

Sheath rot

Nectria foliicola
Mycosphaerella musicola
Pseudocercospora musae [anamorph]

Sooty mold Limacinula tenuis
Speckle Mycosphaerella musae
Squirter (black end disease) Nigrospora sphaerica
Stem-end rot Colletotrichum musae
Trachysphaera finger rot Trachysphaera fructigena
Tropical speckle

Ramichloridium musae
= Veronaea musae
= Periconiella musae

Verticillium tip rot Verticillium theobromae
Yellow Sigatoka Mycosphaerella musicola

Viral diseases[edit]

Viral diseases
Disease Viruses
Bract mosaic Banana bract mosaic virus
Abaca bract mosaic virus
Bunchy top Banana bunchy top virus
Abaca bunchy top virus
Mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus
Abaca mosaic virus
Streak Banana streak virus
Banana mild mosaic Banana mild mosaic virus
Banana virus X Banana virus X

Nematodes, parasitic[edit]

Nematodes, parasitic
Nematode root rot (burrowing nematode)

Radopholus similis

Root-knot

Meloidogyne arenaria
Meloidogyne incognita
Meloidogyne javanica

Root-lesion

Pratylenchus coffeae
Pratylenchus goodeyi
Pratylenchus brachyurus
Pratylenchus reniformia

Spiral nematode root damage

Helicotylenchus multicinctus
Helicotylenchus dihystera

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders[edit]

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Alligator skin Light abrasions on fruit peel caused by leaves or bracts
Blue disease Magnesium deficiency
Choke Low winter temperatures
Dwarfism Genetic mutation
Elephantiasis Unknown cause
Fruit chimera Genetic mutation
Fused fingers Genetic defect
Giantism Genetic mutation
Heart leaf unfurling disorder Unknown cause
High mat Unknown cause
Leaf edge chlorosis Unknown cause
Maturity bronzing Unknown cause
Rayadilla Zinc deficiency
Rosetting Nitrogen deficiency
Roxana Unknown cause
Spike leaf Low winter temperatures
Split peel Rapid filling of pulp of fruit
Taiwan marginal scorch Unknown cause
"Segmented Banana" Chilling injury to fruit

One of the less common plantain diseases is exostentialis clittellus referred to by most plantain and banana farmers as "segmented banana". This is a result of the peel forming tiny inter-fruit membranes which cause the banana to appear as though it has been sliced before it is peeled. This is generally a result of freezing the fruit, and occurs most commonly in fruit that is sold in large stores or supermarkets.

Yellow mat Unknown cause
Yellow pulp Delay in fruit filling, drought, excessive shading, magnesium deficiency, poor nutrition
Yellows Lack of water
Neer Vazhai Unknown etiology
Kottai Vazhai or seediness in Parthenocarpic Poovan banana Unknown etiology, probably due to BSV infection

References[edit]