List of ecclesiastical works by Alfred Waterhouse

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Alfred Waterhouse (1830–1905) was a prolific English architect who worked in the second half of the 19th century. His buildings were largely in Victorian Gothic Revival style. Waterhouse's biographer, Colin Cunningham, states that between about 1865 and about 1885 he was "the most widely employed British architect".[1] He worked in many fields, designing commercial, public, educational, domestic, and ecclesiastical buildings.[1]

Waterhouse was born in Liverpool of Quaker parents. After being articled to P. B. Alley in Manchester, he took a ten-month tour of the Continent, then established his own practice in Manchester. Many of his early commissions came from Quakers and other nonconformist patrons. He came to national recognition when he won success in a competition for the design of Manchester assize courts. His next major public commissions in Manchester were for Strangeways Gaol and Manchester Town Hall. In 1865 he opened an office in London, which was followed by his first major commission in London, the Natural History Museum. Meanwhile he was also designing country houses. Here his major work was the rebuilding of Eaton Hall in Cheshire for the 1st Duke of Westminster, which was "the most expensive country house of the [19th] century".[1] He also designed educational buildings including schools and works for the universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Manchester, and Liverpool. In the commercial field, he designed banks, and offices for insurance and assurance companies, especially the Prudential Assurance Company, for whom he built 27 buildings.[1]

Waterhouse's success came from "a thoroughly professional approach rather than on brilliance or innovation as a stylist".[1] He paid particular attention to detail and, although he designed many major buildings, he still accepted smaller commissions.[1] Although most of his work was in the Gothic Revival style, he also employed other styles, including Romanesque and French Renaissance.[2] He used many building materials, but is noted for his use of red brick and terracotta. The use of these materials for many university buildings in the north of England is a major factor in their being termed "red brick universities".[1][3] In addition to his design work as an architect, Waterhouse was an assessor for about 60 architectural competitions. He was awarded the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1878 for his design for Manchester Town Hall, and was president of that institution from 1888 to 1891. He was gained international diplomas, and in 1895 was awarded an honorary LL.D by Manchester University. Waterhouse was also a painter, exhibiting 80 watercolours at the Royal Academy. He suffered a stroke in 1901, and died in his home at Yattendon, Berkshire, in 1905. His practice was continued by his son Paul, followed by his grandson, Michael, and his great-grandson. His estate at death amounted to over £215,000 (£19,550,000 as of 2014).[1][4]

Waterhouse designed new churches and restored older churches, although this was not a major field for his work. This list contains the ecclesiastical structures that have been designated as listed buildings in the National Heritage List for England. In addition to new and restored churches and chapels, and buildings related to them, it includes monuments and memorials in cemeteries and churchyards. Waterhouse's most notable designs in this field are the Grade I listed Eaton Chapel, Cheshire, built for the 1st Duke of Westminster,[5] and St Elisabeth's Church, Reddish, Greater Manchester, for William Houldsworth.[6]

Key[edit]

Grade Criteria[7]
Grade I Buildings of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important.
Grade II* Particularly important buildings of more than special interest.
Grade II Buildings of national importance and special interest.

Churches[edit]

Name Location Photograph Date Notes Grade
Cemetery chapel Ince-in-Makerfield, Wigan, Greater Manchester
53°31′54″N 2°37′03″W / 53.5318°N 2.6176°W / 53.5318; -2.6176 (Catholic Chapel, Ince Cemetery)
Alfred Waterhouse in Ince-in-Makerfield - geograph.org.uk - 1167523.jpg 1855–57 Roman Catholic chapel in stone with a slate roof. It is in Norman style, with a nave of four bays and a chancel apse.[8][9][10] II
Cemetery chapel Ince-in-Makerfield, Wigan, Greater Manchester
53°31′56″N 2°37′02″W / 53.5323°N 2.6173°W / 53.5323; -2.6173 (Anglican Chapel, Ince Cemetery)
Alfred Waterhouse in Ince-in-Makerfield - geograph.org.uk - 1167521.jpg 1855–57 Chapel in stone with a slate roof in Early English style, with a nave of three bays, a short chancel, a north porch, and a bellcote.[8][9][11] II
Kershaw Memorial, West Norwood Cemetery West Norwood, Lambeth, Greater London
51°25′56″N 0°05′55″W / 51.4323°N 0.0986°W / 51.4323; -0.0986 (Kershaw memorial, West Norwood)
1864c. 1864 Pink and grey granite memorial to James Kershaw.[12] II
St Martin's Church Brasted, Kent
51°16′47″N 0°06′15″E / 51.2796°N 0.1043°E / 51.2796; 0.1043 (St Martin's Church, Brasted)
St Martin's Church, Brasted, Kent - geograph.org.uk - 1224602.jpg 1864–65 A church with a core dating from the 13th century. Waterhouse restored it, largely rebuilt the exterior, and added a south chancel chapel and a north vestry.[13] II*
St John the Divine's Church Brooklands, Sale,
Greater Manchester
53°24′33″N 2°19′07″W / 53.4092°N 2.3187°W / 53.4092; -2.3187 (St John's Church, Brooklands)
1864–68 Waterhouse's first Anglican church, it is constructed in sandstone with a tiled roof in Gothic Revival style.[8][14][15] II*
West Memorial Hall Caversham, Reading, Berkshire
51°28′02″N 0°58′21″W / 51.4672°N 0.9724°W / 51.4672; -0.9724 (West Memorial Hall, Caversham)
West Memorial Hall, Gosbrook Road Caversham.jpg 1865–66 Built as a Baptist Free Church in red brick with blue brick decoration, a stone plinth and dressings, and a tiled roof. It is in Gothic Revival style, with a gable facing the road, and a stair turret on the right leading up to the gallery.[16] II
Congregational Church Besses o' th' Barn, Bury, Greater Manchester
53°32′34″N 2°17′24″W / 53.5428°N 2.2900°W / 53.5428; -2.2900 (Congregational Church, Besses o' th' Barn)
Besses URC - geograph.org.uk - 1137271.jpg 1863 In red brick with yellow and blue brick decoration and slate roofs.[1][8][17][18] II
St Seiriol's Church Penmaenmawr, Conwy, Wales
53°16′13″N 3°55′06″W / 53.2703°N 3.9182°W / 53.2703; -3.9182 (St Seiriol's Church, Penmaenmawr)
1867–68 A new church for English-speaking people in Early English style.[1][8][19] II
St Matthew's Church Blackmoor, Selborne, Hampshire
51°05′46″N 0°53′12″W / 51.0961°N 0.8868°W / 51.0961; -0.8868 (St Matthew's Church, Blackmoor)
Blackmoor - geograph.org.uk - 408234.jpg
1868 A new church for Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selborne. It is constructed in stone, and is in Gothic Revival style.[1][20] II*
Spreat Monument, Abney Park Cemetery Stoke Newington, Hackney, Greater London
51°33′53″N 0°04′38″W / 51.5646°N 0.0773°W / 51.5646; -0.0773 (Spreat Monument, Abney Park Cemetery)
1868–72 Monument to John Spreat and his wife in three stages with a pyramidal cap.[21] II
Eaton Chapel Eaton Hall, Cheshire
53°08′27″N 2°52′39″W / 53.1409°N 2.8776°W / 53.1409; -2.8776 (Eaton Chapel, Cheshire)
Eaton Chapel 5.jpg
1869–84 A chapel for the 1st Duke of Westminster in sandstone with a slate roof. It has a tall free-standing six-stage clock tower with a pinnacled spire joined to the body of the chapel in the lower two stages. The tower contains a ring of 28 bells. Inside the chapel are mosaics designed by Frederic Shields.[5][22][23] I
Buildings, St Matthew's Church Blackmoor, Hampshire
51°05′46″N 0°53′14″W / 51.096°N 0.8871°W / 51.096; -0.8871 (Lychgate and wall, Blackmoor)
1870c. 1870 These consist of a lychgate in Gothic style, a churchyard wall, and a shed.[24] II
Elworthy Memorial, West Norwood Cemetery West Norwood, Lambeth, Greater London
51°25′56″N 0°05′55″W / 51.4323°N 0.0986°W / 51.4323; -0.0986 (Elworthy memorial, West Norwood)
1871–72c. 1871–72 Celtic cross and graveslab to the memory of F. T. Elworthy.[8][25] II
Caversham Baptist Free Church Caversham, Reading, Berkshire
51°28′03″N 0°58′21″W / 51.4676°N 0.9726°W / 51.4676; -0.9726 (Caversham Baptist Church)
1875–77 A Gothic-style church in brick with stone dressings and a tiled roof. At the southwest corner is a two-stage tower.[8][26] II
Memorial,
St Mary's Churchyard
Bury, Greater Manchester
53°35′38″N 2°17′52″W / 53.5940°N 2.2977°W / 53.5940; -2.2977 (Tomb chest, St Mary's, Bury)
1875–80c. 1875–80 A tomb chest to the memory of John Slagg and members of his family.[27] II
St Mary's Church Twyford, Hampshire
51°01′22″N 1°18′54″W / 51.0229°N 1.3151°W / 51.0229; -1.3151 (St Mary, Twyford)
The Church of St Mary the Virgin, Twyford - geograph.org.uk - 449493.jpg
1876–78 Constructed in knapped flint with red brick bands, stone dressings, and tiled roofs. The principal donor was Thomas Fairbairn.[1][28] II*
St Bartholomew's Church Reading, Berkshire
51°27′15″N 0°56′34″W / 51.4543°N 0.9427°W / 51.4543; -0.9427 (St Bartholomew, Reading)
St Bartholomew, Reading - geograph.org.uk - 1535050.jpg
1879 The first large-scale Gothic Revival church by Waterhouse. It is constructed in brick and has tiled roofs.[29] II
Heaton Park Congregational Church Greater Manchester
53°31′53″N 2°16′08″W / 53.5313°N 2.2689°W / 53.5313; -2.2689 (Heaton Park Congregational Church)
Heaton Park Congregational Church, Prestwich - geograph.org.uk - 497651.jpg 1881 Built in brick with slate roofs, in Gothic Revival style. It has since been converted into apartments.[30][31] II
St Andrew's Church Stanstead Abbots, Hertfordshire
51°47′27″N 0°00′34″E / 51.7908°N 0.0094°E / 51.7908; 0.0094 (St Andrew, Stanstead Abbots)
1881 Designed for T. F. Buxton of Easneye, this is a new church in Perpendicular style. It is a cruciform church with a southwest tower, faced in knapped flint with stone dressings and tiled roofs. The gates and gatepiers to the churchyard, together with the railings and a drinking fountain are listed at Grade II.[32][33][34] II*
St Elisabeth's Church Reddish,
Greater Manchester
53°26′17″N 2°09′48″W / 53.4380°N 2.1633°W / 53.4380; -2.1633 (St Elisabeth, Reddish)
St Elisabeths.JPG 1882–83 A new church commissioned by William Houldsworth, a local mill owner. It is constructed in red brick with stone bands and a tiled roof. It has a tower at the east end with a lead spire, and an apsidal chancel with a Lady Chapel to the south and a vestry to the north.[1][6][35] I
Lyndhurst Road Congregational Church Hampstead, Camden,
Greater London
51°33′10″N 0°10′11″W / 51.55287°N 0.1697°W / 51.55287; -0.1697 (Lyndhurst Hall, Hampstead)
Different sounds... - geograph.org.uk - 432857.jpg 1883–84 Built in purple brick with red brick and terracotta dressings in Romanesque style. It has a polygonal plan, and a hexagonal tiled roof with a central lantern. Since converted into use as recording studios for AIR.[1][36][37] II
St Ann's Church Manchester
53°28′54″N 2°14′45″W / 53.4817°N 2.2458°W / 53.4817; -2.2458 (St Ann, Manchester)
St Ann's Church, Manchester.jpg
1886–91 A Neoclassical church built in 1709–12, restored by Waterhouse.[38][39] I
Former Congregational Church Westminster,
Greater London
51°30′48″N 0°09′03″W / 51.5134°N 0.1507°W / 51.5134; -0.1507 (Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, Westminster)
Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, London.jpg
1888–91 Built as a Congregational church in red brick with terracotta dressings, with a steeple at the corner, then known as the King's Weigh-house chapel. It has a rectangular plan, with an oval gallery and roof. Later used as the Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family in Exile.[1][36][40] II*
St Peter and St Paul's Church Yattendon, Berkshire
51°28′02″N 1°12′13″W / 51.4672°N 1.2036°W / 51.4672; -1.2036 (St Peter and St Paul's Church, Yattendon)
St Peter and St Paul's church, Yattendon - geograph.org.uk - 987598.jpg 1896 Added the spire to a church dating from the 15th century.[41] I

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cunningham, Colin (2010) [2004], "Waterhouse, Alfred (1839–1905)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), retrieved 29 January 2012  ((subscription or UK public library membership required))
  2. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 14.
  3. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 247.
  4. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  5. ^ a b English Heritage. "Eaton Chapel north of Eaton Hall, Cheshire (1330615)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012 .
  6. ^ a b English Heritage. "Church of St Elisabeth, Reddish (1356851)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012 .
  7. ^ Listed Buildings, English Heritage, 2010, retrieved 26 August 2011 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Cunningham & Waterhouse 1992, pp. 207–275.
  9. ^ a b Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 210.
  10. ^ English Heritage. "Chapel approximately 117 metres to southwest of Lodge to Ince Cemetery, Wigan (1228334)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2012 .
  11. ^ English Heritage. "Chapel approximately 60 metres to southwest of Lodge to Ince Cemetery, Wigan (1287217)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 22 June 2012 .
  12. ^ English Heritage. "West Norwood Memorial Park tomb of James Kershaw (1263197)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 June 2012 .
  13. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Martin, Brasted (1346417)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012 .
  14. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St John the Divine, Trafford (1261946)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 June 2012 .
  15. ^ The Victorian Church, Saint John the Divine, Brooklands Road, Sale, retrieved 13 June 2012 
  16. ^ English Heritage. "West Memorial Hall, Reading (1321953)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012 .
  17. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 679–680.
  18. ^ English Heritage. "Besses United Reform Church, including all associated buildings on island site. Bury (1309378)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 June 2012 .
  19. ^ Church of St Seiriol, Penmaenmawr, Cadw, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  20. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Matthew, Selborne (1351142)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012 .
  21. ^ English Heritage. "Spreat Monument in Abney Park Cemetery (1253452)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012 .
  22. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 347–348.
  23. ^ Chapel, Eaton Estate, retrieved 25 June 2012 
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Churchyard boundary wall, with Lychgate and Service Building, Selborne (1174620)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 May 2012 .
  25. ^ English Heritage. "West Norwood Memorial Park tomb of F T Elworthy (1251235)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2012 .
  26. ^ English Heritage. "Caversham Baptist Free Church, Reading (1113562)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012 .
  27. ^ English Heritage. "Memorial to Slagg family to west of Church of St Mary, Bury (1250837)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2012 .
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Mary, Twyford (1302086)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 June 2012 .
  29. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Bartholomew, Reading (1113513)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 May 2012 .
  30. ^ English Heritage. "Heaton Park Congregational Church (1356841)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012 .
  31. ^ A New Beginning - Heaton Park, Congregational Federation, retrieved 26 June 2012 
  32. ^ Cherry & Pevsner 1977, p. 342.
  33. ^ English Heritage. "Parish Church of St Andrew, Stanstead Abbots (1067774)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012 .
  34. ^ English Heritage. "Railings, gates, gatepiers and drinking fountain at Parish Church of St Andrew, Stanstead Abbots (1078752)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012 .
  35. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 580–581.
  36. ^ a b Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 232.
  37. ^ English Heritage. "Lyndhurst Hall, Camden (1379404)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 29 June 2012 .
  38. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 275–276.
  39. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Ann, Manchester (1247612)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012 .
  40. ^ English Heritage. "Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, City of Westminster (1210923)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 19 May 2012 .
  41. ^ English Heritage. "Church of St Peter and St Paul, Yattendon (1288822)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 22 June 2012 .
Bibliography