List of members of the 20 July plot

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Main article: 20 July plot
Carl Wentzel appearing before Judge Roland Freisler at the Volksgerichtshof ("People's Court"), 1944

On 20 July 1944, Adolf Hitler and his top military associates entered the briefing hut of the Wolf's Lair military headquarters, a series of concrete bunkers and shelters located deep in the forest East Prussia, not far from the epic World War I Battle of Tannenberg.[1] Suddenly there is an enormous explosion, which kills three officers, a stenographer and injures everyone else.[1] This totally unexpected assassination attempt was the work of Claus von Stauffenberg, an aristocratic and handicapped colonel from the North African theater of war.[1]

The bomb plot was a carefully planned coup d'état attempt against the Nazi regime, orchestrated by a group of disillusioned army officers.[1] Their plan was to assassinate Hitler, seize power in Berlin, establish a new pro-Western government and save Germany from the total defeat.[1]

Immediately after arresting and executing the plot leaders in Berlin, the Gestapo, the secret police force of Nazi Germany, began arresting people involved or even suspected of being involved.[2] The opportunity was also used to eliminate other Nazi critics remaining.[2] In total, an estimated 7,000 people were arrested of which approximately 4,980 were executed, some slowly strangled with piano wire on Hitler's insistence.[3] Among those executed were two field marshals, nineteen generals, twenty-six colonels, two ambassadors, seven diplomats, one minister, three secretaries of state, as well as the head of the Berlin police.[3] This is a list of people who is known by name to have been a member of the coup attempt.


A[edit]

  • Colonel Otto Armster (1891–1957), Head of the counterintelligence ("Abwehr") station in Vienna; arrested on 23 July 1944 and held captive until the end of the war. Liberated but was later arrested and imprisoned by NKVD until 1955.

B[edit]

C[edit]

  • Oscar Caminecci, farmer
  • Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, Chief of German Military Intelligence (1887–1945); hanged at Flossenburg concentration camp, 9 April 1945. No evidence found directly linking him to the plot, but was known to be closely associated with many of the conspirators.[6]
  • Walter Cramer, Industrialist; hanged at Plötzensee Prison, 14 November 1944

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

  • General Baron Alexander von Falkenhausen, Military Commander of Belgium and Northern France (1878–1966); freed by American troops from Niederhorf on 4 May 1945, before Gestapo could carry out death sentence; imprisoned until 1951 for war crimes[6]
  • General Erich Fellgiebel, Chief of the Military Signals (1886–1944); in charge of cutting off communications on 20 July, hanged on 4 September 1944
  • Colonel (General Staff) Eberhard Finckh, Chief Quartermaster to Günther Blumentritt (1899–1944); executed by hanging 30 August 1944
  • Professor Max Fleischmann
  • Reinhold Frank, Lawyer (1896-1945); executed by hanging 23 January 1945
  • Ehrengard Frank-Schultz
  • Colonel (General Staff) Baron Wessel von Freytag-Loringhoven, (1899–1944), who provided the explosives for the plot
  • Walter Frick, Salesman
  • Colonel General Friedrich Fromm (1888–1945). Aware of the conspiracy, betrayed and executed conspirators, including Stauffenberg, on 20 July. Arrested on orders of Himmler the next day, and executed by firing squad for "cowardice" on 19 March 1945[9]
  • Joseph-Ernst Graf Fugger von Glött (1895-1981): designated to be administrator of Bavaria; arrested on 3 September 1944 by the Gestapo; convicted to 3 years in prison; Unlike the majority of conspirators, Fugger von Glött was sentenced to penal servitude rather than execution. He was freed by American troops in April 1945. after the war one of the founders of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria and delegate in different parliaments.


G[edit]

  • Major General Reinhard Gehlen, Chief of Intelligence-Gathering on the Eastern Front (1902-1979) avoided detection; survived.
  • Captain Ludwig Gehre (1895–1945); executed by hanging 9 April 1945.
  • Major General Rudolf von Gersdorff (1905–1980), Chief of Intelligence for Field Marshal Günther von Kluge, planned suicide bomb attack for 21 March 1943; hid explosives for 20 July 1944 plot. Avoided detection and survived.[10]
  • Eugen Gerstenmaier (1906–1986), Consistorial Councillor, subsequently Speaker of the Bundestag; sentenced to 7 years in prison. Survived.
  • Hans Bernd Gisevius (1904–1974), Diplomat, went into hiding, then fled to Switzerland (January 1945). Survived.
  • Erich Gloeden, Architect (born 23 August 1888 in Berlin); guillotined 30 November 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Elisabeth Charlotte Gloeden, wife of Erich Gloeden, guillotined 30 November 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Dr. Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (1884–1945), Mayor of Leipzig; arrested 12 August 1944 in Konradswalde; hanged 2 February 1945[7]
  • Fritz Goerdeler, Municipal Chamberlain and Treasurer of Königsberg; brother of Carl Goerdeler, hanged 1 March 1945[7]
  • Lieutenant Gereon Karl Goldmann (1916–2003) Franciscan priest, conveyed coded messages to the German delegation in Rome. Captured by British forces in Italy January 1944. Falsely accused and convicted of War Crimes but exonerated.
  • Nikolaus Gross, Journalist (1898–1945); executed by hanging 23 January 1945
  • Baron Karl Ludwig Freiherr von und zu Guttenberg (1902–1945) publisher of the White Pages from 1934, arranged the first meeting of Carl Goerdeler and Ulrich von Hassell in 1939, Counterintelligence under Admiral Canaris, arrested by the Gestapo after 20 July 1944, murdered 23–24 April 1945

H[edit]

J[edit]

  • Colonel Friedrich Gustav Jaeger (1895–1944); executed by hanging 21 August 1944.
  • Max Jennewein, technician
  • Professor Jens-Peter Jessen
  • Hans John, Lawyer (1911-1945); executed by firing squad 23 April 1945
  • Otto John (1909–1997), 20 July 1944 was in Spain, escaped to Britain. Survived.

K[edit]

  • Hermann Kaiser, grammar school teacher
  • Jakob Kaiser, CDU co-founder and Chairmen of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (DDR) (1888–1961), was member of the Resistance and close to the conspirators but was not directly involved in the plot. Went into hiding and survived.
  • Franz Kempner, Retired Ministry Official (Undersecretary of State)
  • Albrecht von Kessel, Diplomat, Mission Adviser at the Vatican
  • Otto Kiep, Envoy and Chief of the Reich Press Office (1886–1944), executed 23 August 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Georg Conrad Kißling, farmer
  • Lieutenant Colonel Bernhard Klamroth, executed 15 August 1944 by hanging, Plötzensee Prison
  • Major Hans Georg Klamroth (1898–1944); executed 26 August 1944 by hanging, Plötzensee Prison
  • Captain Friedrich Karl Klausing (1920–1944)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin, Diplomat (1890–1945) Executed 16 April 1945[5]
  • Lieutenant Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (1922-2013)
  • Major Gerhard Knaack
  • Dr. Hans Koch, lawyer (1893–1945); murdered by a Sonderkommando 24 April 1945.
  • Heinrich Körner, Union Leader
  • Lieutenant Commander Alfred Kranzfelder (1908-1944); executed by hanging 10 August 1944
  • Richard Kuenzer, Councillor
  • Major Joachim Kuhn, (1913–1994)
  • Elise Auguste Kutznitzki, née von Liliencron
  • Elizabeth Kuznitzky, (1978-1944), guillotined 30 November 1944, Plötzensee Prison

L[edit]

M[edit]

  • Hermann Maaß (1897-1944), Leading Social Democrat, executed 20 October 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Colonel Count Rudolf Graf von Marogna-Redwitz (1886-1944), executed 12 October 1944, Plötzensee prison
  • Karl Marks, Merchant
  • Michael Graf von Matuschka (1888-1944), District President; executed 14 September 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Colonel Joachim Meichßner, (1906-1944); executed 29 September 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Colonel Baron Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim (1905–1944); executed by firing squad at Bendlerblock 20 July 1944 on the order of General Fromm[18][19]
  • Lieutenant Colonel (General Staff) Karl Michel
  • Carlo Mierendorff, SPD (1897–1943)
  • Joseph Müller, Catholic Priest, Dissident but not connected to July 1944 Plot. Executed 11 September 1944, Brandenburg-Gőrden prison
  • Dr. Otto Müller, Prelate
  • Herbert Mumm von Schwarzenstein, Legation Councillor
  • Lieutenant Colonel Ernst Munziger
  • Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, lawyer (1907-1945); executed 23 January 1945.

N[edit]

  • Arthur Nebe, Head of the National Police, commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe B (1944-1945); executed 21 March 1945, Plötzensee prison
  • Wilhelm zur Nieden, Local Government Building Officer, shot by Gestapo 23 April 1945

O[edit]

  • Major (General Staff) Hans-Ulrich von Oertzen (1915-1944); committed suicide 21 July 1944
  • General Friedrich Olbricht (1880–1944) Executed on orders of Colonel General Fromm, 20 July 1944[18]
  • Major General Hans Oster (1888-1945); hanged at Flossenburg with Admiral Canaris, 9 April 1945[6]

P[edit]

Q[edit]

R[edit]

  • Cuno Raabe, Lawyer (1888–1971)
  • General Friedrich von Rabenau (1884-1945), executed 15 April 1945, Flossenbürg concentration camp
  • Lieutenant Colonel (General Staff) Karl Ernst Rathgens
  • Professor Adolf Reichwein (1898-1944) Leading Social Democrat, executed 20 October 1944, Plőtzensee prison
  • Colonel Baron Alexis Freiherr von Roenne, executed 12 October 1944, Plőtzensee prison
  • General Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (1891-1944), Wehrmacht's most celebrated commander, forced by Hitler to commit suicide 14 October 1944. Believed to have had knowledge of the plot even if not directly involved.

S[edit]

T[edit]

  • Lieutenant Colonel Gustav Tellgmann
  • Elisabeth von Thadden (1890-1944); headmistress of a boarding school, executed 8 September 1944 Plötzensee Prison, not connected to the 20 July plot.
  • Lieutenant General Fritz Thiele (1894-1944); executed 4 September 1944, Plötzensee prison
  • Major Busso Thoma (1899-1945); executed by hanging 23 January 1945, Plötzensee prison
  • General Georg Thomas (1890-1946); involved in earlier (1938-1939) plots but not 1944 plot. Arrested, sent to concentration camps but survived. Died in Allied custody in 1946.
  • General Karl Freiherr von Thüngen (1893-1944); executed by firing squad 24 October 1944
  • Lieutenant Colonel Gerd von Tresckow
  • Major General Henning von Tresckow (1901–1944), committed suicide 21 July 1944
  • Adam von Trott zu Solz (1909-1944); Legation Councillor, executed 26 August 1944, Plötzensee prison

U[edit]

V[edit]

  • Fritz Voigt, Police President of Breslau, executed 1 March 1945, Plötzensee prison
  • Lieutenant Colonel Hans-Alexander von Voss ; committed suicide 8 November 1944

W[edit]

  • General quartermaster of the army Eduard Wagner; committed suicide 23 July 1944
  • Colonel Siegfried Wagner (1894-1944), supplied a plane for von Stauffenberg; committed suicide 26 August 1944
  • Chaplain Hermann Josef Wehrle (1899-1944); executed 14 September 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Carl Wentzel, (1875–1944); executed 20 December 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Joachim von Willisen (1900-1983); Public official, arrested but lacking proof of involvement, released; survived
  • Josef Wirmer (1899-1944); Lawyer, executed 8 September 1944, Plötzensee Prison
  • Oswald Wiersich, Labour Union Leader, executed 1 March 1945, Plötzensee Prison
  • Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben (1881-1944); The highest ranking general actively involved; executed 8 August 1944, Plötzensee Prison

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e How Hitler's Bodyguard Worked 2015.
  2. ^ a b The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler 2015.
  3. ^ a b Shirer 1960, p. 1393.
  4. ^ a b c d e Shirer, p1393
  5. ^ a b Shirer, p1333
  6. ^ a b c Shirer, p1394
  7. ^ a b c d e Shirer, p1392
  8. ^ Shirer, p1330
  9. ^ Shirer, pp 1382–84, 1394
  10. ^ Shirer, p1326
  11. ^ Shirer, p1386
  12. ^ a b Shirer, p1391
  13. ^ Shirer, p1384
  14. ^ Shirer, p1398
  15. ^ de:Otto Hübener
  16. ^ Shirer, p1182
  17. ^ de:Wilhelm Graf zu Lynar
  18. ^ a b Shirer, p1387
  19. ^ Authentic signature: "Mertz", Order Valkyrie
  20. ^ Shirer, p197
  21. ^ Shirer, p1355
  22. ^ Shirer, pp1392
  23. ^ Shirer, pp1399-1400

Sources[edit]

Printed[edit]

  • Shirer, William (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0. 

Online[edit]