List of national parks of Madagascar

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Andohahela National Park park in southern Madagascar

The protected areas network of Madagascar is managed by the Madagascar National Parks Association (PNM-ANGAP). The network includes three types of protected areas: Strict Nature Reserves (IUCN category Ia), National Parks (IUCN category II) and Wildlife Reserves (IUCN category IV). At the 2003 IUCN World Parks Congress in Durban, the Malagasy President, Marc Ravalomanana, announced an initiative to more than triple the area under protection from approximately 17,000 km2 (6,600 sq mi) to over 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) (from 3% to 10% of Madagascar's area). This "Durban Vision", as it has been dubbed, involves broadening the definition of protected areas in the country and legislation has been passed to allow the creation of four new categories of protected area: Natural Parks (IUCN category II), Natural Monuments (IUCN category III), Protected Landscapes (IUCN category V), and Natural Resource Reserves (IUCN category VI). As well as allowing these new objectives for protected areas management, the new legislation also provides for entities other than PNM-ANGAP to manage protected areas. Other governmental agencies such as the forestry and fisheries departments now manage some sites in addition to PNM-ANGAP. It is planned that private and community-run parks and reserves will also be created within the next few years. In December 2005, the first extra 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) of the new Protected Areas System of Madagascar were granted protection status.

Protected Areas Network[edit]

Strict Nature Reserves (Réserves Naturelles Intégrales)[edit]

Name Photo Location[1] Date established[1] Area[1] Recreation Visitors (2013) Description[1][2][3]
Tsingy de Bemaraha Reserve Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve.jpg Melaky 1927 7005210953000000000210,953 acres (853.7 km2) N/A The area north of the Bemaraha National Park is reserved for scientific research and conservation of the highly endemic, diverse flora and fauna spanning the western coastal and inland transitional savanna ecosystems.
Betampona Reserve Varecia-1.JPG Atsinanana 1927 70037215000000000007,215 acres (29.2 km2) N/A This park is reserved for scientific research and conservation of the typical eastern lowland rainforest ecosystems. Many endemic plants with medicinal qualities are known to grow in this park, which shelters 93 bird species, of which 44 are endemic to Madagascar.
Tsaratanana Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Sofia 1927 7005120148000000000120,148 acres (486.2 km2) N/A This park is reserved for scientific research and conservation of mountainous lowland and high altitude rainforest, including the highly endemic wildlife on the slopes of Mount Maromokotro, the highest in Madagascar.
Zahamena Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Alaotra Mangoro, Analanjirofo, Atsinanana 1927 700454610000000000054,610 acres (221.0 km2) N/A The central portion of Zahamena National Park is reserved for the conservation of several endemic and highly endangered plant and animal species. It is also the watershed of the Alaotra area, the highest producing agricultural area of the country.

National Parks (Parcs Nationaux)[edit]

Name Photo Location[1] Date established[1] Area[1] Recreation Visitors (2013)[4] Description[1][2][3]
Amber Mountain National Park Waterfall Montagne d Ambre MS5563.jpg Diana 1958 700444973000000000044,973 acres (182.0 km2) 10,770 The high altitude rain forest in Montagne d'Ambre National Park offers a cool, refreshing contrast to the hot plains surrounding the mountain. Countless waterfalls and streams cascade down the park's slopes and into its five lakes, providing drinking water for Antsiranana. The park is home to over 1,000 plant species and numerous lemur, amphibian and reptile species.
Andohahela National Park Andohahela NP.jpg Androy 1939 7005187849000000000187,849 acres (760.2 km2) 156 Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007. This park includes typical southern spiny forest and the world's only rainforest south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Over 1,000 plant species grow in the park, including the triangle palm, which is nearly extinct in the wild.
Andringitra National Park Andringitra, Madagascar by Effervescing Elephant-09.jpg Haute Matsiatra 1927 700476998000000000076,998 acres (311.6 km2) 3,156 Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007. This park offers spectacular vistas, strange rock formations, world class rock climbing and over 1,000 species of plants. The island's second tallest mountain, Imarivolanitra, lies within the park.
Ankarafantsika National Park Lake Ravelobe, Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar.jpg Boeny 2002 7005333592000000000333,592 acres (1,350.0 km2) 4,421 Containing dry deciduous forest, sandy savannas and numerous lakes and rivers, this park enjoys abundant animal diversity, particularly lemurs and birds.
Ankarana National Park Tsingy Ankarana Madagascar 16-07-2004.JPG Diana 1956 700445035000000000045,035 acres (182.3 km2) 12,643 This park contains limestone tsingy, dry deciduous forests, a sacred lake, and the largest network of caves and underground lakes and rivers anywhere in Africa.
Baie de Baly National Park Image-Schoodic2.jpg Boeny 1997 7005141200000000000141,200 acres (571.4 km2) 100 This park protects the unique ecosystem at the intersection of the marine reefs, the mangrove-lined coastal habitats and the dry deciduous forests of the northwest, providing refuge for species such as the dugong and the big-headed turtle. Over 86% of all waterfowl species in Madagascar are found in this park, where many of them have established colonies.
Isalo National Park Isalo National Park 02.jpg Ihorombe 1962 7005201490000000000201,490 acres (815.4 km2) 28,375 The most visited park in Madagascar, Isalo preserves a sandstone massif that has eroded over time to form dramatic and colorful canyons, plateaus and valleys. Seventeen rivers cut through the arid landscape, which is dotted with palms and inhabited by ringtail lemurs.
Kirindy Mitea National Park Red-tailed Sportive Lemur, Kirindy, Madagascar.jpg Menabe 1997 7005178410000000000178,410 acres (722.0 km2) unknown This park protects the unique wildlife of the hot and dry transitional landscape between the western and southern ecosystems. Although diversity of species id lower relative to the eastern rainforests, endemism is very high, constituting 100% of its reptiles and amphibians, 91% of mammals in the park, 70%, of bird species and 70% of the park's plant species.
Lokobe National Park Lokobe.jpg Diana 1913 70033763000000000003,763 acres (15.2 km2) N/A Extending over a portion of the island of Nosy Be and encompassing forest, coastal and marine ecosystems, this park protects one of the last examples of old growth coastal forest particular to the Sambirano area. Its status was changed from Strict Nature Reserve to National Park in June 2014.[5]
Mananara Nord National Park Rivière Mananara 3.jpg Analanjirofo 1989 7005355832000000000355,832 acres (1,440.0 km2) 100 Madagascar's first marine park comprises the marine ecosystems around a cluster of three islands; it was the first protected area to be included in the UNESCO global network of biosphere reserves. The coral reefs here are among the best in Madagascar.
Andasibe-Mantadia National Park Indri at Perinet 1.JPG Alaotra-Mangoro 1989 700438252000000000038,252 acres (154.8 km2) 25,684 Connected by a forest corridor to Zahamena National Park, Mantadia shelters the island's largest lemur, the critically endangered indry. A wide variety of rare orchids bloom in this high altitude rainforest.
Marojejy National Park Ambatotsondrona 03.jpg Sava 1952 7005148387000000000148,387 acres (600.5 km2) 1,362 Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007, Marojejy National Park protects the primary lowland coastal rainforest on and surrounding the sacred mountain of Marojejy. Numerous endemic bird species and 33% of all amphibian species found in Madagascar inhabit the park.
Masoala National Park, including Nosy Mangabe Reserve Lowland rainforest, Masoala National Park, Madagascar.jpg Sava, Analanjirofo 1997 7005594338000000000594,338 acres (2,405.2 km2) 2,480 Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007, Masoala contains four parcels of primary rainforest ranging from 1,300 meters to sea level and three adjacent marine parcels. Over 50% of all the plant and animal species found in Madagascar inhabit this park, which is the sole habitat of the endangered red ruffed lemur.
Midongy du sud National Park Image-Schoodic2.jpg Atsimo-Atsinanana 1997 7005474932000000000474,932 acres (1,922.0 km2) unknown Containing an especially high number of endemic medicinal plants, this mid to high altitude rainforest park also protects 14 endangered endemic animal species and groves of precious ebony and pallisander.
Ranomafana National Park River, Ranomafana National Park (4041897269).jpg Haute Matsiatra, Vatovavy-Fitovinany 1991 7005102798000000000102,798 acres (416.0 km2) 21,032 Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007, this park protects transitional rainforest between typical eastern and southern ecosystems, home to 115 bird species (30 unique to the park) and the golden bamboo lemur. The hot springs here have long been visited for their healing properties.
Sahamalaza National Park[2] Sakalava coast.jpg (marine) - Sofia 2007 700464247000000000064,247 acres (260.0 km2) unknown Description
Tsimanampetsotse National Park Pachypodium lamerei in Tsimanampetsotsa, Madagascar.jpg Atsimo-Andrefana 1927 7005106750000000000106,750 acres (432.0 km2) 1,186 This park protects Lake Tsimanampetsotsa, Madagascar's only saline lake. Between 75 and 90% of the flora and fauna in the park are endemic. The park is home to a blind cave-dwelling goby and a large colony of flamingos year-round.
Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park Tsingy de Bemaraha.jpg Melaky 1997 7005178756000000000178,756 acres (723.4 km2) 9,561 This park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1990. It contains the largest of Madagascar's limestone tsingy fields, as well as dry forest, bush, rainforest and savanna. The biodiversity contained in this park is among the richest of any protected natural area in the world: 87% of the plants and animals are endemic to Madagascar, and 45% are uniquely endemic to the region around the park.
Tsingy de Namoroka National Park Namoroka Tsingy.jpg Boeny 2002 700454924000000000054,924 acres (222.3 km2) unknown The dramatic landscapes preserved in this park include tsingy, canyons, caves and pools. Connected to the Bay de Baly National Park, Namoroka's status was changed from a Strict Nature Reserve to a National Park in 2002.
Zahamena National Park Image-Schoodic2.jpg Alaotra Mangoro, Analanjirofo, Atsinanana 1997 7005104526000000000104,526 acres (423.0 km2) unknown Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007, this eastern rainforest park is home to a rich diversity of endemic animal species, including 112 species of birds, 29 fish species, 62 different amphibian, and 46 reptiles. On the 48 species of mammals counted, 13 are lemurs.
Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park Zombitse National Park Madagascar baobab.jpg Atsimo-Andrefana 1997 700489719000000000089,719 acres (363.1 km2) 2,822 The dry, hot southwestern forests protected by this park are intercut with rivers that support a variety of endemic wildlife, including 47% of all endemic bird species in Madagascar.

Wildlife Reserves (Réserves Spéciales)[edit]

Name Photo Location[1] Date established[1] Area[1] Recreation Visitors (2013) Description[1][2][3]
Ambatovaky Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Analanjirofo 1958 7005148387000000000148,387 acres (600.5 km2) unknown Ambatovaky is the largest protected lowland rainforest after Masoala and the largest of Madagascar's special reserves. 75% of the 291 plant species here are endemic. The reserve harbors 11 species of lemurs, 110 bird species, 113 species of amphibian and 34 fish species.
Amber Forest Reserve Waterfall Montagne d Ambre MS5563.jpg Diana 1958 700411886000000000011,886 acres (48.1 km2) unknown The reserve adjoins the Amber Mountain National Park and serves to protect the wealth of biodiversity and endemism common to both areas, including 1,020 plant species, of which many have medicinal properties.
Ambohijanahary Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Menabe, Melaky 1958 700461159000000000061,159 acres (247.5 km2) unknown The park protects the highly threatened sclerophyllous forest in the transitional zone between the western and cental ecosystems. Altitudes vary from 200 to 900 meters above sea level, with dramatic variation in plant life following the increase in elevation.
Ambohitantely Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Analamanga 1982 700413838000000000013,838 acres (56.0 km2) unknown Ambohitantely protects the last remaining fragment of the forest that formerly covered the central highlands of Madagascar. This forest contains a blend of high altitude rainforest evergreen species interspersed with vegetation found in the mid-altitude sclerophyll forests to the west, including the threatened Manambe palm.
Analamazoatra Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Alaotra Mangoro 700438252000000000038,252 acres (154.8 km2) unknown This reserve is connected to Mantadia National Park, forming the larger Andasibe-Mantadia protected area that shelters aye-aye, over 100 species of orchids, numerous ferns and palms, and the indri.
Analamerana Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Diana, Sava 1956 700485746000000000085,746 acres (347.0 km2) unknown This is the only reserve protecting the habitat of the critically endangered Perrier's sifaka. The reserve also shelters the eight rarest bird species in the world in its tsingy and forested canyons, where three of the island's seven baobab species grow.
Andranomena Reserve Avenue of the Baobabs at Sunset.jpg Menabe 700415864000000000015,864 acres (64.2 km2) unknown Protecting the typical ecosystem of the Menabe region, this reserve's plant life is 80% endemic and includes the Grandidier's baobab and two other baobab species growing in their natural forest habitat. The Verreaux's sifaka and four other endangered lemur species inhabit the park.
Anjanaharibe-Sud Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Sava 1958 700479296000000000079,296 acres (320.9 km2) unknown This rainforest reserve ranges in altitude from 500 to 2,000 meters. It shelters immense plant and animal diversity, much of which is endemic, including 125 species of birds, 12 lemur species, 53 species of amphibians, 40 reptile species, 30 species of palms, and 300 fern species, of which four are found only within the reserve. This is the last habitat of Takhtajania, an angiosperm plant that evolved to its present state 120 million years ago.[6]
Bemarivo Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Melaky 1956 700428590000000000028,590 acres (115.7 km2) unknown The rivers, lakes and swamps of Bemarivo shelter 15 species of mammals, 20 species of reptile, six species of lemurs and three species of carnivores including the endemic fossa. Almost 47% of the reserve's 73 bird species are endemic to Madagascar, while another 30% are endemic to the Indian Ocean region.
Beza Mahafaly Reserve Lemur Catta Beza Mahafaly.JPG Atsimo-Andrefana 1978 70031483000000000001,483 acres (6.0 km2) unknown Beza Mahafaly contains the only protected gallery forest in Madagascar, which runs along the Sakamena River. A large portion of southwest Madagascar's radiated tortoise population lives in the park, alongside ring-tailed lemurs, sifaka, mouse lemurs and sportive lemurs.
Bora Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Sofia 1956 700411962000000000011,962 acres (48.4 km2) unknown The Bora forest represents the transitional ecosystem between the dry western forests and the eastern rain forests at the northern end of the island. Numerous bird species typically inhabiting either type of forest can be found here, of which 20 are endemic.
Cap Sainte Marie Reserve P1220651bis02CP.jpg Androy 1962 70034324000000000004,324 acres (17.5 km2) unknown Also known as Cape Vohimena, this reserve protects the highly endangered radiated tortoise and the unique dwarf vegetation of this arid, desert-like region. Egg shell fragments of the extinct elephant bird litter the sand. Humpback whales migrate along the cape shore from August to November. The park's turtle population averages 3,000 turtles per square kilometer, one of the highest densities in the world.
Hatokaliosky Special Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Atsimo Andrefana unknown Hatokaliotsy is NOT a Special Reserve but a Site of Biological Interest.[7]
Kalambatritra Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Ihorombe, Anosy 1959 700469819000000000069,819 acres (282.5 km2) unknown Separated from the Midongy du Sud National Park by a 20 kilometer savanna corridor, the Kalambaritra Reserve is unique in encompassing the ecosystems of the eastern lowland rainforest, southern spiny forest and central temperate forests in a single park, as well as expanses of marshlands that protect numerous fish species. It is rich in bird, lemur and amphibian species; threatened lemurs include the collared brown lemur and the common brown lemur.
Kasijy Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Betsiboka 1956 700448927000000000048,927 acres (198.0 km2) unknown This reserve is distinguished by the diversity of the ecosystems protected on this flat, hot plain, including swamps, savannas, steppes, dry deciduous forests and dense temperate forests. Among the 67 species of birds found here, 43% are endemic to Madagascar and 34% are endemic to Madagascar, Comoros and the Mascarene Islands.
Mangerivola Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Atsinanana 1958 700432136000000000032,136 acres (130.0 km2) unknown The low, medium and high altitude rainforests protected within the Mangerivola Reserve are home to 100 bird species, of which 63 are endemic to Madagascar and 23 are endemic to the region. These endemic species include the Madagascan serpent eagle - one of the rarest birds in the world - and the one of the rarest owls, the endemic red owl. Half the chameleons found in the park are considered rare.
Maningoza Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Melaky 1956 700419521000000000019,521 acres (79.0 km2) unknown The dense dry forest of Maningoza is one of the best examples of this type of ecosystem, with 78% of its plant species endemic to Madagascar. It is one of the last examples of tropical dry forest on ironitic soil that formerly covered much of western Madagascar.
Manombo Reserve Manombo.jpg Atsimo-Atsinanana 1962 700413146000000000013,146 acres (53.2 km2) unknown The lowland rainforest of Manombo is home to a wide variety of animal species, of which 90% are endemic. It is the only protected area providing shelter to the endangered poisonous Bernhard's mantella frog, and hosts 52 species of endemic snails, the greatest diversity of any protected area in Madagascar. The reserve's flora include one of two species of the tree genus Allantospermum, the other being in Borneo; it is also the only protected habitat of the endemic Hintsia bijuga tree, formerly more widespread in the eastern rainforest.
Manongarivo Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Diana 1956 700480890000000000080,890 acres (327.4 km2) unknown The reserve protects a forest typical of the Sambirano area that shelters 11 plant species endemic to the reserve, as well as four types of lemur, 103 species of birds, 31 amphibian species, and 39 reptile species. The landscape of the reserve is dramatic. It ranges from 150 to 1,200 meters in altitude, encompassing low and high altitude dry deciduous forest growing over a stony massif of gneiss, granite and basalt that juts up abruptly to form mountains and cliffs.
Marotandrano Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Sofia, Alaotra-Mangoro 1956 7005104278000000000104,278 acres (422.0 km2) unknown The deep, narrow valleys of Marotandrano are covered in dense mid-altitude rainforest and shelter 140 species of birds (56 endemic), 19 species of amphibian, 16 reptile species and 12 species of lemurs, including the black-and-white ruffed lemur.
Pic d'Ivohibe Reserve Madagascar74.158.jpg Ihorombe 1964 70038532000000000008,532 acres (34.5 km2) unknown Connected to Andringitra National Park, Ivohibe reserve shelters 77 species of birds in its dense low and mid altitude rain forests. The rivers running down its peak and surrounding slopes provide irrigation to the farms of surrounding communities.
Tampoketsa Analamaitso Reserve Image-Schoodic2.jpg Sofia 1958 700442379000000000042,379 acres (171.5 km2) unknown One of the last examples of transitional forest between western and eastern forest ecosystems, Tampoketsa includes mid-altitude rainforest and dense dry deciduous forests. Almost half of the reserve's fauna is endemic, including 23 out of the park's 24 reptile species; the reserve also has unusually diverse snail and beetle populations.

Others[edit]

Name Photo Location[1] Date established[1] Area[1] Recreation Visitors (2013) Description[1][2][3]
Mahavavy-Kinkony Complexe Mahavavy Kinkony-crop23.jpg province unknown Description
Montagne des Français Diego bay.JPG province unknown Description
Nosy Hara Marine and Coastal Protected Area Brookesia micra habitat.jpg province unknown Description
Nosy Tanikely Marine and Coastal Protected Area NosyTanikely.jpg province 22,051 Description

Private Reserves[edit]

Name Photo Location[1] Date established[1] Area[1] Recreation Visitors (2013) Description[1][2][3]
Berenty Reserve Berenty reserve.jpg Anosy unknown
Lemurs' Park Common Brown Lemur 2.JPG Analamanga 2000 unknown

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Madagasikara National Parks (2014). "Madagascar National Parks". Parcs-madagascar.com. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Madagascar Travel Guide". Travelmadagascar.org. 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Butler, Rhett (2012). "Parks in Madagascar". Wildmadagascar.org. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Office National du Tourisme de Madagascar (May 2014). "Le Site du Magazine Officiel du tourisme a Madagascar" (in French). Travelmadagascar.org. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  5. ^ "Nosy-Be: Le Parc National Lokobe est ouvert à l'écotourisme à partir du 28 juin 2014" (in French). Sobika.com. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  6. ^ http://anjanaharibe.marojejy.com/Pdf/TakhtajaniaEn.pdf
  7. ^ Madagascar: Revue de la Conservation et des Aires Protégées http://www.madagascar-library.com/r/1059.html