List of World Heritage in Danger

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A photograph of a fourteen-pointed, silver star with a hole in the middle all attached to a floor above which is draped a purple cloth
The Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered the birthplace of Jesus, is one of several sites to have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year.

The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,[nb 1] which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested".[1] The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures.[2] Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.

In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties. In the case of cultural sites, gradual changes due to geology, climate or environment can also be potential dangers.[3]

Before a property is inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, its condition is assessed and a potential programme for corrective measures is developed in cooperation with the State Party involved. The final decision about inscription is made by the committee. Financial support from the World Heritage Fund may be allocated by the committee for listed properties. The state of conservation is reviewed on a yearly basis, after which the committee may request additional measures, delete the property from the list if the threats have ceased or consider deletion from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List.[3] Of the two Former UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Dresden Elbe Valley was delisted after placement on the List of World Heritage in Danger while the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was directly delisted.[4][5] As of 2012, there are 38 entries (17 natural, 21 cultural) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.[6] Some sites have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year, such as the Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. Many of the listed sites are located in the developing world with 17 in Africa (of which 5 are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 9 in Asia,[nb 2] 8 in the Americas and 4 in Europe.[nb 3][7] The majority of the endangered natural sites (12) are located in Africa.[8]

In some cases, danger listing has sparked conservation efforts and prompted the release of funds, resulting in a positive development for sites such as the Galápagos Islands and Yellowstone National Park, both of which have subsequently been removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Despite this, the list itself and UNESCO's implementation of it have been the focus of criticism.[9][10] In particular, States Parties and other stakeholders of World Heritage Sites have questioned the authority of the Committee to declare a site in danger without their consent.[11] Until 1992, when UNESCO set a precedent by placing several sites on the danger list against their wishes, States Parties would have submitted a programme of corrective measures before a site could be listed.[12] Instead of being used as intended, the List of World Heritage in Danger is perceived by some states as a black list and according to Christina Cameron, Professor at the School of Architecture, Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage, University of Montreal, has been used as political tool to get the attention of States Parties.[13][14] The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that UNESCO has referenced the List of World Heritage in Danger (without actually listing the site) in a number of cases where the threat could be easily addressed by the State Party.[15] The Union also argues that keeping a site listed as endangered over a long period is questionable and that other mechanisms for conservation should be sought in these cases.[16]

Currently listed sites[edit]

Table legend
Name; as listed by the World Heritage Committee[17]
Location; at city or provincial level and country name, with coordinates; column sorts by state[nb 4]
Criteria; the site was listed under
Area; in hectares and acres if provided by UNESCO
Year (WHS); the year the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List
Endangered; the year the site appeared on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Reason; threats to the site which prompted UNESCO to list it as in danger
  * Trans-border site
Name Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs
Abu Mena Foundations of ruined buildings in a desert location. EgyAbusir,
 Egypt
30°50′30″N 29°39′50″E / 30.84167°N 29.66389°E / 30.84167; 29.66389 (Abu Mena)
Cultural:
(iv)
7002182000000000000182 (450) 1979 2001 Cave-ins in the area caused by the clay at the surface, which becomes semi-liquid when met with "excess water" [18][19]
[20]
Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves Sand dunes in the desert, offroad vehicles and mountains in the distance. Niger1Arlit Department,
 Niger
18°17′N 8°0′E / 18.283°N 8.000°E / 18.283; 8.000 (Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
70067736000000000007,736,000 (19,120,000) 1991 1992 Military conflict and civil disturbance in the region as well as a reduction of wildlife population and degradation of the vegetation cover [21][22]
Ancient City of Aleppo City view with a wall and a mosque. Aleppo Governorate,  Syria
36°14′0″N 37°10′0″E / 36.23333°N 37.16667°E / 36.23333; 37.16667 (Ancient City of Aleppo)
Cultural:
(iii)(iv)
7002350000000000000350 (860) 1986 2013 Syrian Civil War, currently held partly by Rebels and Government.Incessant bombing runs by the government,and mortar and gunfire by rebels endangers foundations. [23]
Ancient City of Bosra An old amphitheatre. Daraa Governorate,  Syria
32°31′5″N 36°28′54″E / 32.51806°N 36.48167°E / 32.51806; 36.48167 (Ancient City of Bosra)
Cultural:
(i)(iii)(vi)
1980 2013 Syrian Civil War, held by government. [24]
Ancient City of Damascus Ruins of a stone building with columns and without roof. Damascus Governorate,  Syria
33°30′41″N 36°18′23″E / 33.51139°N 36.30639°E / 33.51139; 36.30639 (Ancient City of Damascus)
Cultural:
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
700186000000000000086 (210) 1979 2013 Syrian Civil War, rebel gunfire and mortar shelling,followed by aircraft bombings by government endangers foundations. [25]
Ancient Villages of Northern Syria Ruins of a stone church without roof.  Syria
36°20′3″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417 (Ancient Villages of Northern Syria)
Cultural:
(iii)(iv)(v)
700412290000000000012,290 (30,400) 2011 2013 Syrian Civil War, some held by rebels. Reports of looting and demolitions by Islamist groups. [26]
Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) A series of three arched gates made of simple stones. They appear to be the only part that has survived from a larger building. IraqSalah ad Din,
 Iraq
35°27′24″N 43°15′45″E / 35.45667°N 43.26250°E / 35.45667; 43.26250 (Ashur)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
700170000000000000070 (170) 2003 2003 A planned reservoir that would have partially flooded the site was suspended in the wake of the Iraq War by the new administration; lack of adequate protection [27][28]
Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery Ruins of a stone church with the highest point located at the apsis. GeorImereti,
 Georgia
42°15′44″N 42°42′59″E / 42.26222°N 42.71639°E / 42.26222; 42.71639 (Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery)
Cultural:
(iv)
70007870000000000007.87 (19.4) 1994 2010 Major reconstruction project that will lead to irreversible interventions and undermine the authenticity and integrity of the site [29][30]
Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System Underwater image of a green stone like object with patterns on the surface resembling a brain. BelBelize, Stann Creek and Toledo
 Belize
17°19′N 87°32′W / 17.317°N 87.533°W / 17.317; -87.533 (Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
700496300000000000096,300 (238,000) 1996 2009 Mangrove cutting and excessive development [31][32]
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone Ruins of former buildings in a desert setting consisting of low walls with a fishnet pattern. PerLa Libertad,
 Peru
8°6′40″S 79°04′30″W / 8.11111°S 79.07500°W / -8.11111; -79.07500 (Chan Chan Archaeological Zone)
Cultural:
(i), (iii)
7002600000000000000600 (1,500) 1986 1986 Natural erosion [33][34]
Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem Birthplace of Jesus. Pal
 Palestine
31°42′16″N 35°12′27″E / 31.70444°N 35.20750°E / 31.70444; 35.20750 (Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem)
Cultural:
(iv), (vi)
70002980000000000002.98 (7.4) 2012 2012 Damage due to water leaks. [35][36]
Comoé National Park A photograph of a white vehicle with luggage on top driving across a river with green trees in the background all under a clear blue sky. CotZanzan,
 Côte d'Ivoire
9°10′N 3°40′W / 9.167°N 3.667°W / 9.167; -3.667 (Comoé National Park)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
70061150000000000001,150,000 (2,800,000) 1983 2003 Civil unrest, poaching and lack of effective management mechanisms [37][38]
Coro and its Port A street with single-storied colorful houses VenFalcón,
 Venezuela
11°25′N 69°40′W / 11.417°N 69.667°W / 11.417; -69.667 (Coro and its Port)
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
7002107000000000000107 (260) 1993 2005 Damage to a great number of structures due to heavy rain between November 2004 and February 2005 as well as the construction of a new monument, a beach walkway and an entrance gate to the city in the buffer zone which could have considerable impact on the value of the site [39][40]
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din A fortress of grey stone. Homs and Latakia Governorates,  Syria
34°46′54″N 36°15′47″E / 34.78167°N 36.26306°E / 34.78167; 36.26306 (Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din)
Cultural:
(ii)(iv)
70009000000000000009 (22) 2006 2013 Syrian Civil War, once held by Al-Nusra Front and other Islamist groups,reclaimed by SAA and Hezbollah fighters.Reports of damages and looting caused by Islamist groups was released by government. [41]
Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley
A large niche in a rock with the outline of a human figure.
AfgBamyan,
 Afghanistan
34°49′55″N 67°49′36″E / 34.83194°N 67.82667°E / 34.83194; 67.82667 (Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
7002159000000000000159 (390) 2003 2003 Fragile conservation state due to abandonment, military action and dynamite explosions; causing dangers such as risk of collapse of Buddha niches, further deterioration of cave murals, looting and illicit excavations. Destruction during the rule of Taliban due to their teachings that the statues are abominations to Islam. [42][43]
East Rennell Dugout Canoe in the Rennell Island lagoon, Solomon Islands. Solomon IslandRennell and Bellona Province,
 Solomon Islands
11°40′59″S 160°10′59″E / 11.68306°S 160.18306°E / -11.68306; 160.18306 (East Rennell)
Natural:
(ix)
700437000000000000037,000 (91,000) 1998 2013 Damage to the site due to logging and its effect on the local ecoystem [44]
Everglades National Park A large white bird with black wingtips and a long slightly curved beak is perched on a branch above grassland. United StatesFlorida,
 United States
25°19′N 80°56′W / 25.317°N 80.933°W / 25.317; -80.933 (Everglades National Park)
Natural:
(viii), (ix), (x)
7005592920000000000592,920 (1,465,100) 1979 1993–2007, 2010 Damage due to Hurricane Andrew and deterioration of water flow and quality due to agricultural and urban development (1993); continued degradation of the site resulting in a loss of marine habitat and decline in marine species (2010) [45][46]
[47]
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo Ruins of stone fortifications near water. PanColón Province,
 Panama
9°33′14″N 79°39′21″W / 9.55389°N 79.65583°W / 9.55389; -79.65583 (Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo)
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
1980 2012 Environmental factors, lack of maintenance and urban development [48][49]
Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works Industrial structure in a desert setting. ChilTarapacá,
 Chile
20°12′30″S 69°47′40″W / 20.20833°S 69.79444°W / -20.20833; -69.79444 (Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2005 2005 Fragile nature of structures due to lack of maintenance for 40 years; also damage, vandalism and some dismantling; looting [50][51]
Garamba National Park Bird's eye view of a river running through grassland interspersed by trees. DemOrientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
4°0′N 29°15′E / 4.000°N 29.250°E / 4.000; 29.250 (Garamba National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
7005500000000000000500,000 (1,200,000) 1980 1984–1992, 1996 Reduction of Northern White Rhinoceros population (1984); poaching of two white rhinos, killing of three rangers and no plan for corrective measures by the authorities (1996) [52][53]
[54]
Historical Monuments of Mtskheta A compact tall stone church with a circular tower above the apsis. GeorMtskheta-Mtianeti,
 Georgia
41°51′N 44°43′E / 41.850°N 44.717°E / 41.850; 44.717 (Historical Monuments of Mtskheta)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
1994 2009 Concerns about the preservation of the site [55][56]
Historic Town of Zabīd
White minaret and mosque.
YemAl Hudaydah,
 Yemen
14°12′N 43°19′E / 14.200°N 43.317°E / 14.200; 43.317 (Historic Town of Zabīd)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
1993 2000 Deteriorating state of historic buildings, inscribed on request of the State Party [57][58]
Kahuzi-Biega National Park
A gorilla in a shrub.
DemSouth Kivu
and Maniema,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°30′S 28°45′E / 2.500°S 28.750°E / -2.500; 28.750 (Kahuzi-Biega National Park)
Natural:
(x)
7005600000000000000600,000 (1,500,000) 1980 1997 Deforestation, hunting as well as war and civil strife [59][60]
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City
A montage of several pictures showing a western city near water.
United KingdomLiverpool
England,
 United Kingdom
53°24′24″N 2°50′40″W / 53.40667°N 2.84444°W / 53.40667; -2.84444 (Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002136000000000000136 (340) 2004 2012 Due to the proposed redevelopment of historic docklands known as Liverpool Waters [61][62]
Los Katíos National Park
List of World Heritage in Danger is located in Colombia
List of World Heritage in Danger
ColAntioquia and Chocó,
 Colombia
7°40′N 77°0′W / 7.667°N 77.000°W / 7.667; -77.000 (Los Katíos National Park)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
700472000000000000072,000 (180,000) 1994 2009 Deforestation, illegal fishing and hunting [63][64]
Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park A blank map of a rectangular-looking country with several rivers running through it. A location is marked in the north with a red dot. CenBamingui-Bangoran,
 Central African Republic
9°0′N 21°30′E / 9.000°N 21.500°E / 9.000; 21.500 (Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
70061740000000000001,740,000 (4,300,000) 1988 1997 Illegal grazing and poaching, deteriorating security situation [65][66]
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam A tall minaret in a river valley. At the top of the nearby mountains there are other, smaller structures. AfgGhōr,
 Afghanistan
34°23′48″N 64°30′58″E / 34.39667°N 64.51611°E / 34.39667; 64.51611 (Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
700170000000000000070 (170) 2002 2002 Lack of legal protection, lack of protection measure or management plan, poor condition of the site [67][68]
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo Stone church with various towers. SerbiaKosovo,
 Serbia
42°39′40″N 20°15′56″E / 42.66111°N 20.26556°E / 42.66111; 20.26556 (Medieval Monuments in Kosovo)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
70002880000000000002.88 (7.1) 2004 2006 Lack of legal protection and management; political instability and security [69][70]
Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve A chimpanzee in a tree. CotLola Prefecture,
 Côte d'Ivoire*
 Guinea*
7°36′N 8°23′W / 7.600°N 8.383°W / 7.600; -8.383 (Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
700418000000000000018,000 (44,000) 1981 1992 Iron ore mining concession on part of the World Heritage Site and influx of large number of refugees on the Guinean part of the site [71][72]
Niokolo-Koba National Park Bird's eye view of a river running through a forested plain. SenTambacounda Region
and Kédougou Region,
 Senegal
13°0′N 12°40′W / 13.000°N 12.667°W / 13.000; -12.667 (Niokolo-Koba National Park)
Natural:
(x)
7005913000000000000913,000 (2,260,000) 1981 2007 Degradation of property, low mammal population, management problems and impact of a proposed dam on the Gambia River [73][74]
Okapi Wildlife Reserve River lined by tropical vegetation. Many stones are found in the river. Dem Orientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°0′N 28°30′E / 2.000°N 28.500°E / 2.000; 28.500 (Okapi Wildlife Reserve)
Natural:
(x)
70061372625000000001,372,625 (3,391,830) 1996 1997 Looting of park facilities and killing of elephants as a result of an armed conflict in the area [75][76]
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls View over a city. A large building with a golden cuppola is located in the background. JerJerusalem District
(no nation named by UNESCO)[nb 5]
31°46′36″N 35°14′03″E / 31.77667°N 35.23417°E / 31.77667; 35.23417 (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
1981 1982 Uncontrolled urban development, general deterioration of the state of conservation due to tourism and lack of maintenance.Incessant bombings by terrorists,religious strife and disputes regarding territory are main factors. [77][78][79]
Rainforests of the Atsinanana
A river in a forested mountain area.
MadEastern Madagascar,
 Madagascar
14°28′S 49°42′E / 14.467°S 49.700°E / -14.467; 49.700 (Rainforests of the Atsinanana)
Natural:
(ix), (x)
7005479660000000000479,660 (1,185,300) 2007 2010 Illegal logging and hunting of endangered lemurs [80][81]
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve A river lined by tropical vegetation. Parts of trees are lying in the water. HonLa Mosquitia,
 Honduras
15°44′40″N 84°40′30″W / 15.74444°N 84.67500°W / 15.74444; -84.67500 (Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
1982 1996–2007, 2011 Logging, fishing and land occupation; poaching and the reduced capacity of the state to manage the site; largely due to the deterioration of law and to the presence of drug traffickers [82][83]
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara
Vault of a ramshackled possibly ruined building.
TanKilwa District,
 Tanzania
8°57′28″S 39°31′22″E / 8.95778°S 39.52278°E / -8.95778; 39.52278 (Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara)
Cultural:
(iii)
1981 2004 Continuing deterioration of the site due to various agents such as erosion or plants [84][85]
Salonga National Park River meandering through a wooded plain. DemÉquateur
and Bandundu Province,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°0′S 21°0′E / 2.000°S 21.000°E / -2.000; 21.000 (Salonga National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (ix)
70063600000000000003,600,000 (8,900,000) 1984 1999 Breakdown of civil order [86][87]
[88]
Samarra Archaeological City A photograph of a spiral minaret in an open plain with a large number of buildings in the background and a swerving road to the left IraqSalah ad Din,
 Iraq
34°12′N 43°52′E / 34.200°N 43.867°E / 34.200; 43.867 (Samarra Archaeological City)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
700415058000000000015,058 (37,210) 2007 2007 Security situation following the Iraq War and lack of state control for protection or management of the site [89][90]
Simien National Park Mountain landscape with deep precipices. EthAmhara Region,
 Ethiopia
13°11′N 38°4′E / 13.183°N 38.067°E / 13.183; 38.067 (Simien National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
700422000000000000022,000 (54,000) 1978 1996 Deterioration of population of Walia ibex [91][92]
Site of Palmyra Ruins of stone buildigns with columns. Homs Governorate,  Syria
34°33′15″N 38°16′0″E / 34.55417°N 38.26667°E / 34.55417; 38.26667 (Site of Palmyra)
Cultural:
(i)(ii)(iv)
69993600000000000000.36 (0.89) 1980 2013 Syrian Civil War, currently held by government. [93]
Timbuktu A street with a mud wall and a pyramid shaped mud building with sticks protruding from its wall. MalTimbuktu,
Timbuktu Region,
 Mali
16°46′24″N 2°59′58″W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v)
1988 2012 Threat of destruction by the Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine and Boko Haram.Some monuments are now pillaged and destroyed.Their reason is that Islam abhors the Sufi saints. [94][95]
Tomb of Askia A mud structure with sticks protruding from the wall. MalGao,
Gao Region,
 Mali
16°17′21.60″N 0°2′41.68″E / 16.2893333°N 0.0449111°E / 16.2893333; 0.0449111 (Tomb of Askia)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
70004240000000000004.24 (10.5) 2004 2012 Damaged by Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb and Ansar Dine.Reported destroyed by Ansar Dine when they captured Timbuktu. [95][96]
Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi Dome shaped house made of natural materials. UgandaKampala District,
 Uganda
0°19′45″N 32°33′12″E / 0.32917°N 32.55333°E / 0.32917; 32.55333 (Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi)
Cultural:
(i), (iii),
(iv), (vi)
700127000000000000027 (67) 2001 2010 Destruction of the Muzibu Azaala Mpanga, the main building of the site, by fire in March 2010 [97][98]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra A high mountain beyond grassland interspersed with trees. IndonesiaSumatra,
 Indonesia
02°30′S 101°30′E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
70062595124000000002,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 2011 Poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads through the site [99][100]
Virunga National Park Mountain landscape with trunks of trees or shrubs that appear to have burned. DemNorth Kivu
and Orientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
0°55′N 29°10′E / 0.917°N 29.167°E / 0.917; 29.167 (Virunga National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (x)
7005800000000000000800,000 (2,000,000) 1979 1994 Deforestation and poaching as a result of the influx of refugees due to the Rwandan Civil War [101][102]

Previously listed sites[edit]

There exist a number of sites that were previously listed as being in danger, but later removed from the list after improvements in management and conservation. The Everglades National Park was listed from 1993 to 2007 and again since 2010; the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve was listed from 1996 to 2007 and again since 2011. Both are therefore included in the list of currently listed sites (above).

  •   Delisted as a World Heritage Site
Name Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs
Angkor Ruins of a large structure with five large towers at the top. Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia
13°26′N 103°50′E / 13.433°N 103.833°E / 13.433; 103.833 (Angkor)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
1992 1992–2004 Inscription initially limited to a three year period (1993–1995) during which effective legal protection, boundary and buffer zones were to be established and international conservation efforts were to be monitored and coordinated; At the time of inscription, Cambodia was UN-controlled following the civil war in the 1980s. [103][104]
[105]
Bahla Fort Walls of a stone fort and a tower. Bahla,  Oman
22°58′N 57°18′E / 22.967°N 57.300°E / 22.967; 57.300 (Bahla Fort)
Cultural:
(iv)
1987 1988–2004 Degradation of earth structures of the fort and of the oasis of Bahla [106][107]
[108][109]
Bam and its Cultural Landscape View over a large ruined city colored uniformly in a grey-brown tone. In the background there is a castle in overlooking the surrounding city. IranKerman,
 Iran
29°07′00.68″N 58°22′06.51″E / 29.1168556°N 58.3684750°E / 29.1168556; 58.3684750 (Bam and its Cultural Landscape)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
2004 2004–2013 Following the damage due to the 2003 Bam earthquake [110][111][112]
Butrint Ruins of an amphitheatre and other structures. Sarandë District,  Albania
39°45′N 20°01′E / 39.750°N 20.017°E / 39.750; 20.017 (Butrint)
Cultural:
(iii)
70033980000000000003,980 (9,800) 1992 1997–2005 Damages due to management and conservation [113][114]
[115]
Cologne Cathedral
A large gothic style cathedral of grey to black colored stone.
North Rhine-Westphalia,  Germany
50°56′29″N 6°57′29″E / 50.94139°N 6.95806°E / 50.94139; 6.95806 (Cologne Cathedral)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv)
1996 2004–2006 High-rise building plan near the cathedral threatening to inflict damage to the integrity of the property; delisted[nb 6] after the building plan was halted and a buffer zone introduced [116][117]
[118]
Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary Cormorants on a tree without leaves above some water. Biffeche,  Senegal
16°30′N 16°10′W / 16.500°N 16.167°W / 16.500; -16.167 (Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
700416000000000000016,000 (40,000) 1981 1984–1988, 2000–2006 Long term threat by construction plan for a down-stream dam (1984); delisted[nb 6] (1988) as water supply to the park was insured by the construction of a sluice and a management plan was being prepared; relisted[nb 7] (2000) due to environmental and economical threats posed by the introduced species Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes as well as issues with water management in the park [53][119]
[120][121]
[122][123]
Dresden Elbe Valley Dresden skyline in the Elbe Valley. Saxony,  Germany
51°03′N 13°49′E / 51.050°N 13.817°E / 51.050; 13.817 (Dresden Elbe Valley)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
70031930000000000001,930 (4,800) 2004 2006–2009 Construction plans for the Waldschlösschen Bridge in the core area of the cultural landscape; removed from the list of World Heritage Sites in 2009 after construction commenced at the end of 2007 [124][125]
Dubrovnik Marina in a city with churches and a fort. Dubrovnik-Neretva County,  Croatia
42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E / 42.64028; 18.10833 (Dubrovnik)
Cultural:
(i), (iii), (iv)
700197000000000000097 (240) 1979 1991–1998 Croatian War of Independence [126][127]
[128]
Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore Entrance gate to a fort flanked by two large towers. PakPunjab,
 Pakistan
31°35′25″N 74°18′35″E / 31.59028°N 74.30972°E / 31.59028; 74.30972 (Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii)
1981 2000–2012 Destruction of historic water tanks in 1999 to widen a road and deteriorating perimeter walls of the Garden, listed on request of the Pakistan government [129][130]
Galápagos Islands Landscape with little vegetation, rocks and an isthmus. Galápagos Province,  Ecuador
0°40′S 90°30′W / 0.667°S 90.500°W / -0.667; -90.500 (Galápagos Islands)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
700714066514000000014,066,514 (34,759,110) 1978 2007–2010 Various threats including insufficient prevention of possibilities for the introduction of alien species, insufficient resource allocation for conservation agencies and park management, presence of a large number of illegal immigrants, rapid uncontrolled growth of tourism, fishing over-capacity and sports fishing [131][132]
[133][134]
Group of Monuments at Hampi
Very high gate-like structure decorated with many niches.
Bellary district,  India
15°20′6″N 76°27′43″E / 15.33500°N 76.46194°E / 15.33500; 76.46194 (Group of Monuments at Hampi)
Cultural:
(i), (iii), (iv)
1986 1999–2006 Partial construction of two cable-suspended bridges within the protected archaeological areas of Hampi threatening the integrity and authenticity of the site [135][136]
[137]
Ichkeul National Park Forested coastal mountains. Bizerta,  Tunisia
37°10′N 9°40′E / 37.167°N 9.667°E / 37.167; 9.667 (Ichkeul National Park)
Natural:
(x)
700412600000000000012,600 (31,000) 1980 1996–2006 Construction of dams limiting the freshwater flow to the area and causing an increased salinity of the lake and the marshes as well as a decrease in the number of migrating bird populations [138][139]
[140]
Iguaçu National Park A large waterfall falling into a horseshoe shaped gorge. Paraná State,  Brazil
25°41′S 54°26′W / 25.683°S 54.433°W / -25.683; -54.433 (Iguaçu National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (x)
7005170086000000000170,086 (420,290) 1986 1999–2001 Illegally opened road ("Estrada do Colono", Portuguese for "Settler's Road") through the park, dams on the Iguazu River and helicopter flights. [88][141]
[142]
Kathmandu Valley Red-colored multi-storied building and tower like structure. Kathmandu Valley,    Nepal
27°42′14″N 85°18′31″E / 27.70389°N 85.30861°E / 27.70389; 85.30861 (Kathmandu Valley)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (vi)
7002167000000000000167 (410) 1979 2003–2007 Partial or substantial loss of the traditional elements of six out of seven monument zones and resulting general loss of authenticity and integrity of the whole property. [143][144]
[145]
Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor A town in rocky mountains next to a bay or lake. Bay of Kotor, Kotor and surrounding territory,  Montenegro
42°29′N 18°42′E / 42.483°N 18.700°E / 42.483; 18.700 (Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor)
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
1979 1979–2003 Damage following the earthquake from April 15, 1979 [146][147]
[148]
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
Hanging bridge over a river lined with tropical vegetation in a mountainous landscape.
Assam,  India
26°30′N 91°51′E / 26.500°N 91.850°E / 26.500; 91.850 (Manas Wildlife Sanctuary)
Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
700439100000000000039,100 (97,000) 1985 1992–2011 Poaching, damage to the park's infrastructure and decrease in the population of some species particularly the Greater One Horned Rhino following an invasion by militants of the Bodo tribe in 1992 [149][150]
[151]
Ngorongoro Conservation Area Bird's eye view over a largely unvegetated plain with a lake. In the distance a mountain range is visible. Arusha Region,  Tanzania
3°11′S 35°32′E / 3.183°S 35.533°E / -3.183; 35.533 (Ngorongoro Conservation Area)
Natural:
(iv), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
1978 1984–1989 Declining conservation status [53][152]
[153]
Plitvice Lakes National Park Turqois colored lakes among white rocks. Lika-Senj County,  Croatia
44°53′N 15°37′E / 44.883°N 15.617°E / 44.883; 15.617 (Plitvice Lakes National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix)
700419200000000000019,200 (47,000) 1979 1992–1997 Potential threat due to the Croatian War of Independence [154][155]
[156]
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras A village in the Batad rice terraces PhiIfugao,
 Philippines
16°55′N 121°3′E / 16.917°N 121.050°E / 16.917; 121.050 (Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (v)
7005500000000000000500,000 (1,200,000) 1995 2001–2012 Absence of systematic monitoring programme or a comprehensive management plan [157][158]
Royal Palaces of Abomey Stone wall and a simple hut with decorations of animals and plants in colored relief. Zou Department,  Benin
7°11′26″N 1°59′36″E / 7.19056°N 1.99333°E / 7.19056; 1.99333 (Royal Palaces of Abomey)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
700148000000000000048 (120) 1985 1985–2007 General state of deterioration due to the elements and inappropriate restoration which are in conflict with the authenticity of the site [159][160]
[161][162]
Rwenzori Mountains National Park Hills with grassland, trees and farmland in front of a mountain range. Bundibugyo, Kabarole and Kasese District,  Uganda
0°13′N 29°55′E / 0.217°N 29.917°E / 0.217; 29.917 (Rwenzori Mountains National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (ix)
700499600000000000099,600 (246,000) 1994 1999–2004 Security situation and lack of monitoring of a major part of the park [88][163]
[164]
Sangay National Park Forested mountain landscape. Chimborazo, Morona-Santiago and Tungurahua Province,  Ecuador
1°50′S 78°20′W / 1.833°S 78.333°W / -1.833; -78.333 (Sangay National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
7005271925000000000271,925 (671,940) 1983 1992–2005 Heavy poaching, illegal livestock grazing, encroachment and potential threat through a road construction project [165][166]
[167]
Srebarna Nature Reserve Lake in a landscape with low vegetation. Srebarna, Silistra Province,  Bulgaria
44°06′50″N 27°04′40″E / 44.11389°N 27.07778°E / 44.11389; 27.07778 (Srebarna Nature Reserve)
Natural:
(x)
7002638000000000000638 (1,580) 1983 1992–2003 Prevention of seasonal flooding and agricultural use causing a decline or disappearance of the water and passerine bird populations [168][169]
[170]
Timbuktu Pyramid shaped structure with many sticks sticking out of its walls. Circle and Region of Tombouctou,  Mali
16°46′24″N 2°59′58″W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v)
1988 1990–2005 Threat of sand encroachment [171][172]
[173]
Tipasa Several arches of a ruined building. Tipaza Province,  Algeria
36°33′24″N 2°23′00″E / 36.55667°N 2.38333°E / 36.55667; 2.38333 (Tipasa)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
700152000000000000052 (130) 1982 2002–2006 Inadequat maintenance affecting the integrity of the site and its buffer zone [174][175]
[176]
Wieliczka Salt Mine Large room with lamps hanging from the ceiling and sculptures or reliefs along the walls. Wieliczka, Wieliczka County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship,  Poland
49°58′45″N 20°03′50″E / 49.97917°N 20.06389°E / 49.97917; 20.06389 (Wieliczka Salt Mine)
Cultural:
(iv)
7002969000000000000969 (2,390) 1978 1989–1998 Humidity problem [153][177]
[178]
Yellowstone National Park
Large waterfall in a rocky mountain landscape.
Wyoming and small areas of Montana and Idaho,  United States
44°30′N 110°50′W / 44.500°N 110.833°W / 44.500; -110.833 (Yellowstone National Park)
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
7005898349000000000898,349 (2,219,870) 1978 1995–2003 Ascertained dangers to Yellowstone cutthroat trout as well as sewage leakage and waste contamination in parts of the park; potential threats to water quantity and quality, past and proposed mining activities, a proposed control programme to eradicate brucellosis in the bison herds [179][180]
[181]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
  2. ^ Includes the Jerusalem site
  3. ^ Includes two sites in Georgia
  4. ^ The Jerusalem site is not associated with a state by UNESCO and sorts as "Jerusalem".
  5. ^ Site proposed by Jordan. UNESCO has stated that "In line with relevant UN resolutions, East Jerusalem remains part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians."
  6. ^ a b From the List of World Heritage in Danger
  7. ^ On the List of World Heritage in Danger

References[edit]

General
Notes
  1. ^ "Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 6. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  2. ^ "List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention" (PDF). UNESCO. January 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  4. ^ "Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary: first site ever to be deleted from UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "Dresden is deleted from UNESCO’s World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  6. ^ "List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  7. ^ Timothy & Nyaupane 2009, p. 11
  8. ^ IUCN 2009, pp. 4–7
  9. ^ Chape, Spalding & Jenkins 2008, p. 87
  10. ^ Timothy & Nyaupane 2009, p. 83
  11. ^ IUCN 2009, pp. 2–3
  12. ^ Chape, Spalding & Jenkins 2008, p. 86
  13. ^ Thorsell, J. W.; Sawyer, Jacqueline (1992). World heritage 20 years later (illustrated ed.). IUCN. p. 23. ISBN 978-2-8317-0109-7. Retrieved 5 September 2011. 
  14. ^ IUCN 2009, p. 0
  15. ^ IUCN 2009, pp. 18–19
  16. ^ IUCN 2009, pp. 19–20
  17. ^ "List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  18. ^ "Abu Mena". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  19. ^ "Abu Mena–Threats to the Site (2001)". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 August 2010. 
  20. ^ 25th session 2001, p. 134
  21. ^ "Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  22. ^ 16th session 1992, p. 29
  23. ^ "Ancient City of Aleppo". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  24. ^ "Ancient City of Bosra". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  25. ^ "Ancient City of Damascus". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  26. ^ "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  27. ^ "Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  28. ^ 27th session 2003, pp. 123–124
  29. ^ "Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  30. ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 130–133
  31. ^ "Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  32. ^ 33rd session 2009, pp. 81–82
  33. ^ "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  34. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Tenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 6. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  36. ^ "Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route in Bethlehem, Palestine, inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List along with sites from Israel, Palau, Indonesia and Morocco". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  37. ^ "Comoé National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  38. ^ 27th session 2003, p. 30
  39. ^ "Coro and its Port". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  40. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 102–103
  41. ^ "Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  42. ^ "Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  43. ^ 27th session 2003, pp. 122–123
  44. ^ World Heritage Committee. "World Heritage Committee inscribes East Rennell on the List of World Heritage in Danger". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2013-08-13. 
  45. ^ "Everglades National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  46. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Seventeenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  47. ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 82–83
  48. ^ "Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  49. ^ "Panamanian fortifications inscribed on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  50. ^ "Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  51. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 142–143
  52. ^ "Garamba National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  53. ^ a b c 8th session 1984, p. 18
  54. ^ 20th session 1996, p. 32
  55. ^ "Historical Monuments of Mtskheta". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  56. ^ 33rd session 2009, p. 139
  57. ^ "Historic Town of Zabid". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  58. ^ 24th session 2000, pp. 26–27
  59. ^ "Kahuzi-Biega National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  60. ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 19–20
  61. ^ "Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  62. ^ "World Heritage Committee places Liverpool on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  63. ^ "Los Katíos National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  64. ^ 33rd session 2009, p. 83
  65. ^ "Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  66. ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 18–19
  67. ^ "Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  68. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 55. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  69. ^ "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  70. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 157–158
  71. ^ "Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  72. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 26–28
  73. ^ "Niokolo-Koba National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  74. ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 41–43
  75. ^ "Okapi Wildlife Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  76. ^ 21st session 1997, p. 19
  77. ^ "Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  78. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 10–12. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  79. ^ "UNESCO replies to allegations". UNESCO. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  80. ^ "Rainforests of the Atsinanana". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  81. ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 57–58
  82. ^ "Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  83. ^ 20th session 1996, p. 29
  84. ^ "Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  85. ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 96–97
  86. ^ "Salonga National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  87. ^ 8th session 1984, p. 14
  88. ^ a b c 23rd session 1999, p. 29
  89. ^ "Samarra Archaeological City". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  90. ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 152–153
  91. ^ "Simien National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  92. ^ 20th session 1996, pp. 28–29
  93. ^ "Site of Palmyra". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 Aug 2011. 
  94. ^ "Timbuktu". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  95. ^ a b "Heritage sites in northern Mali placed on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  96. ^ "Tomb of Askia". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  97. ^ "Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  98. ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 103–105
  99. ^ "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  100. ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia’s Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  101. ^ "Virunga National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  102. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Eighteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 21, 51. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  103. ^ "Angkor". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  104. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 37–38, annex VI
  105. ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 66–67
  106. ^ "Bahla Fort". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  107. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twelfth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 19. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  108. ^ 28th session 2004, p. 64
  109. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Eleventh session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 7. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  110. ^ "Bam and its Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  111. ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 47–48
  112. ^ "World Heritage Committee removes the Iranian World Heritage site of Bam and its Cultural Landscape from danger listing". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  113. ^ "Butrint". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  114. ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 24–25
  115. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 31–32
  116. ^ "Cologne Cathedral". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  117. ^ 28th session 2004, p. 116
  118. ^ 30th session 2006, p. 46
  119. ^ "Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  120. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twelfth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 7, 16. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  121. ^ 24th session 2000, pp. 109–110
  122. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 15–16
  123. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 23–24
  124. ^ "Dresden Elbe Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  125. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 112–113
  126. ^ "Dubrovnik". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  127. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Fifteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 31. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  128. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-second session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 12–13. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  129. ^ "Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  130. ^ 24th session 2000, p. 26
  131. ^ "Galápagos Islands". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  132. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 70–71
  133. ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 68–69
  134. ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 34–35
  135. ^ "Group of Monuments at Hampi". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  136. ^ 23rd session 1999, pp. 32–33
  137. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 38–40
  138. ^ "Ichkeul National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  139. ^ 20th session 1996, pp. 31–32
  140. ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 25–26
  141. ^ "Iguaçu National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  142. ^ 25th session 2001, pp. 15–16
  143. ^ "Kathmandu Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  144. ^ 27th session 2003, pp. 64–65
  145. ^ 31st session 2007, p. 32
  146. ^ "Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  147. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Third session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 13. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  148. ^ 27th session 2003, p. 27
  149. ^ "Manas Wildlife Sanctuary". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  150. ^ 16th session 1992, p. 28
  151. ^ "Successful preservation of India's Manas Wildlife Sanctuary enables withdrawal from the List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  152. ^ "Ngorongoro Conservation Area". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  153. ^ a b "World Heritage Committee: Thirteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 14. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  154. ^ "Plitvice Lakes National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  155. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 24–25
  156. ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 10–11
  157. ^ "Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  158. ^ 25th session 2001, pp. 139–141
  159. ^ "Royal Palaces of Abomey". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  160. ^ "Royal Palaces of Abomey: Advisory Body Evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  161. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Ninth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 7. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  162. ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 21–22
  163. ^ "Rwenzori Mountains National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  164. ^ 28th session 2004, p. 55
  165. ^ "Sangay National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  166. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 25–26
  167. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 18–19
  168. ^ "Srebarna Nature Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  169. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 21–22
  170. ^ 27th session 2003, p. 15
  171. ^ "Timbuktu". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  172. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Fourteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 8. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  173. ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 20–21
  174. ^ "Tipasa". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  175. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 36–37. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  176. ^ 30th session 2006, p. 32
  177. ^ "Wieliczka Salt Mine". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  178. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-second session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 13. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  179. ^ "Yellowstone National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  180. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Nineteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  181. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 16–17

External links[edit]