Máedóc of Ferns

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Máedóc of Ferns
Enniscorthy St. Aidan's Cathedral East Aisle Fifth Window Saint Aidan Detail 2009 09 28.jpg
Stained glass window of Máedóc in Enniscorthy Cathedral
Bishop of Ferns
Born c. 558
County Cavan
Died 31 January 632(632-01-31)
Ferns
Honored in
Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Major shrine Enniscorthy
Feast 31 January
Attributes A hive of bees[1]
Patronage Ferns; Templeport in County Cavan; Llawhaden
Not to be confused with Saint Aidan of Lindisfarne

Saint Máedóc (fl. 6th & 7th century), also known as Mogue and Aidan (Irish: Áedan; Welsh: Aeddan; Latin: Aidanus and Edanus), was an Irish saint, founder and first bishop of Ferns in County Wexford and a patron of other churches, such as Rossinver in County Leitrim and Drumlane in County Cavan.

Name[edit]

"Aidan" is a diminutive form of the Celtic name Aodh, Aedh, or Aed, originally Oed in Old Irish and Udd in Old Welsh.[1] The name meant "fire" and is related to the god of the underworld in Irish mythology,[citation needed] although it was also used as a form of the Latin name Dominus.[1] It was formerly often anglicized as Hugh.[1] "Madoc" and "Mogue" are other pet forms of Aodh, formed from the Celtic diminutive suffix -og and the Irish affectionate prefix mo-,[1] meaning something like "my dear little Aedh". In some Welsh sources, he appears as Aeddan Foeddog or Foeddawg; the epithet Foeddog is merely a mutated reduplication of his name: Aeddan Maedoc.[1]

Life[edit]

He was born at Inisbrefny (an island in Templeport Lake) then in the area known as Magh Slécht, now the parish of Templeport, County Cavan, about 558.[2] In the Welsh genealogies of the saints, Aeddan is called the son of Gildas or Aneurin, sons of Caw, king of Strathclyde;[1] Irish sources instead make him a son of Sedna, a chieftain of Connaught, and his wife, Eithne.[1][3] These separate origins, his work in Wales, the extraordinary span of Aidan's activity, and the appearance of two dates of death has led some scholars—such as Sabine Baring-Gould—to propose that the existing stories of Maedoc are a conflation of two separate Aeds, one Welsh and one Irish, who served as bishop of Ferns a generation apart.[1][4][5] Still other inconsistencies seem to be related to confusion of these Aeds with Aed mac Bricc, who preceded them and possibly participated in the cursing of Tara with Saint Ruadhán.[1]

Irish legend says that the "Bell of St. Mogue" was given to the infant on his birth by St. Kilian,[6] who was also credited with his baptism. When a youth, Aedan was a hostage of Áed mac Ainmuirech of the Cenél Conaill, High King of Ireland. Ainmire was so impressed with Aedan that he told him he could stay or go. Aedan said he would go, but only if the other hostages were also released, whereupon Ainmire let them all return home.[7] He studied at the great school of Saint Finnian at Clonard Abbey. While at Clonard, Aedan made friends with Molaise, who would later found the monastery of Devenish Island on the River Erne.

By this point, many began to come to the young man desiring to become his disciples. Instead of indulging them, he fled from Ireland to Wales to study under St. David. (Welsh legends, meanwhile, simply place his upbringing with David and go into great detail concerning attempts on his life by David's steward.[1]) Along with Saint Cadoc, he was said to have exterminated an army of Saxons or Irishmen by rolling stones upon their camp in a narrow valley.[1] He was listed in the Welsh triads as one of David's three most faithful disciples. He returned to Ireland in 570, landing on the coast of Wexford with hives of bees, which he had been told were scarce on the island.[1] He landed as some locals were plundering another group of strangers and his quick response impressed the local chieftain, who granted him lands for religious communities.[1] He then settled at Brentrocht in Leinster.

Aidan seems to have played a role in the king of Leinster's defeat over the Uí Néill High King Áed mac Ainmuirech of the Cenél Conaill at the Battle of Dún Bolg in 598, either (according to the hagiographers) through the intercession of his prayers[1] or (according to the poets of the Borúma Laigin) through a failed peace embassy followed by the successful idea to sneak Leinster's soldiers into the enemy camp inside food baskets.[8] The grateful King Brandubh then granted him Ferns in County Wexford,[6] where he established a monastery. The influence of Brandubh also convened a synod whereat Ferns was not merely constituted a see but its bishop Aedan was also given nominal supremacy over the other Leinster bishops as their Chief Bishop (Irish: Ard-Escop). He was noted for his benevolence and hospitality:[9] on one occasion, seeing them exhausted by their journey, he permitted beef to be given to a visiting delegation of British bishops during Lent and permitted them to excuse themselves with the claim that the slaughtered cow was merely "milk and vegetables in condensed form" whereas the whey and biscuits the other monks consumed had so many weevils as to occasion "conscientious scruples".[1] On another, he was pushed into a lake to see whether he would lose his temper; upon his meekly restoring himself, his tormenter confessed himself and apologized.[1] He was also credited with a large number of foundations in the region.

Following a defeat to the Uí Néill at Slaebre in 605, King Brandubh was assassinated by his kinsman and son-in-law Sarán Saebderc.[10]

Aeddan himself died on 31 January 632 on Lough Melvin's shore in County Leitrim. His relics are claimed by St. Edan's in Ferns. His stone tomb is inside the cathedral, although his remains are under it in the original cathedral crypt below. The Breac Maedoc (his shrine) dates from the 9th century and is an example of an early medieval reliquary. It was often used as a sacred object upon which to swear binding oaths. It was acquired by the National Museum of Ireland in the 1890s.[6]

Miracles[edit]

Many miracles are recorded of St. Maedoc, both in his childhood and during his sojourn in Wales.[2] The font at St Mogue's in Bawnboy is said to be made from part of a stone slab that miraculously floated the infant Aedan across the lake from Inis Breachmhaigh when no boat was available. During his sojourn in Wales, he was said to have broken a jug while fetching ale for his fellow monks; making the sign of the cross over the shards, however, it was repaired and he continued on his errand.[7] A yoke given to him by David's steward purposefully too small to fit the necks of his oxen miraculously accommodated them and permitted him to bring the necessary materials for Llandewi Velfrey.[1] Following his return to Ireland, a local begged him for some meal as he was grinding flour and, after receiving some, disguised himself as a blind man to come back and beg for more. Annoyed, the saint cursed him that the generations of his descendants would never lack for a blind member.[1] Another time, wolves devoured a calf at one of his monasteries; its mother being inconsolable, Aedan blessed the head of his cook and told him to offer it to the heifer, which licked him and thenceforth "loved him like a calf".[1] When asked by Saint Fintan Munnu to heal monks suffering under an epidemic, Aedan was said to have indulged him: first by curing the monks and then by permitting the sickness to resume when Saint Fintan changed his mind, considering the sickness to be good for their souls.[1] His hagiographers credited Aidan's curses with Brandubh's defeat of the Uí Néill; they further state that, when Sarán slew his father-in-law, he attempted to accommodate the saint only for Aidan to curse him that his right hand would wither to the stump. When Sarán begged for a penance, Aidan directed him to pray for forgiveness at Brandubh's tomb in Ferns; when Sarán did so, a voice from the crypt forgave him. He lost his hand regardless.[1] Miraculous blessings from Aidan were credited with King Brandubh's victory at Dún Bolg in 598; with the selection of his successor Dachua; and with the success of the Irish architect Gobban.[1]

Legacy[edit]

He is the patron saint of Hy Kinsellagh or Wexford;[citation needed] Ferns; and Templeport in County Cavan. His feast is commemorated in Bawnboy with prayerful visits to his church and to the island where he was born. Mogue is no longer used as a Christian name but the name Aidan is popular for boys in the West Cavan area.

The Catholic episcopal seat formerly located at Ferns (prior to its destruction) is now at St. Aidan's Cathedral in Enniscorthy, although the bishop resides at Wexford. The Anglican diocese is administered from Kilkenny, although St. Edan's Cathedral in Ferns remains the seat of Church of Ireland diocese (itself part of the United Dioceses of Cashel and Ossory). St. Edan's is located on the site (and partially includes the ruins) of the earlier Catholic cathedral, which was burnt down in 1575 by the O'Byrnes of Wicklow. It was ordered to be rebuilt by Queen Elizabeth I during her reign, but was only half rebuilt. It is now known as Europe's smallest Cathedral.[11] (St. Edan's does not necessarily celebrate his feast on its day, but rather on the nearest Sunday.[citation needed])

Aedan is credited as the founder of thirty churches and a number of monasteries. The first of these monasteries was on the island of his birth, now the site of 18th-century ruins and burial ground. (The clay or mortar from the ruins of the church is said to provide protection against fire or drowning and is kept by many local people in their homes.) Other monasteries include Drumlane (near Milltown in County Cavan); at Ferns in County Wexford; at Disert-Nairbre in County Waterford; and at Rossinver near the site of his death. The church of Llawhaden in Pembrokeshire, Wales, also commemorates him near the site of a ford he supposedly discovered while leading his oxen.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Baring-Gould, Sabine & al. The Lives of the British Saints: The Saints of Wales and Cornwall and Such Irish Saints as Have Dedications in Britain, Vol. I, pp. 122 ff. Chas. Clark (London), 1908. Hosted at Archive.org. Accessed 18 Nov 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Toke, Leslie. "St. Maedoc." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 22 Jan. 2014
  3. ^ He was a member of a branch of the Airgíalla called the Fir Lurg who were in the process of spreading southwards into Fermanagh and Cavan.[citation needed] The barony of Lurg in County Fermanagh was named after them.[citation needed] He was a first cousin of St. Dallán Forgaill and a fourth cousin of Saint Tigernach of Clones.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Baring-Gould notes some difficulties in the chronology, however, and proposes Aeddan might have been a grandson rather than son of Gildas.[1]
  5. ^ Leslie Toke, writing for the Catholic Encyclopedia, distinguishes these two Aeds but makes the Irish one the friend of David.[2]
  6. ^ a b c "The Breac Maedoc on loan from the National Museum of Ireland", Cavan County Museum
  7. ^ a b Plummer, Charles. "Life of Maedoc of Ferns", Bethada Naem nErren, Clarendon Press, Oxford, (1922)
  8. ^ Wiley, Dan M. Boroma, The Cycles of the Kings.
  9. ^ Webb, Alfred. "Saint Aedan, Maedoc or Mogue", A Compendium of Irish Biography, M.H. Gill & Son, Dublin (1878)
  10. ^ Annals of Ulster AU 605.1, 605.2; Annals of Tigernach AT 603.2, 603.3
  11. ^ Galloway, Peter (1992). The Cathedrals of Ireland. The Institute of Irish Studies. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-85389-452-3. 
  • Webb, Alfred (1878). "Wikisource link to Aedan, Saint". A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son. Wikisource
  • Templeport: Rev. Daniel Gallogy (1979)
  • Bawnboy and Templeport: Chris Maguire (1999)
  • Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  • McFall, T. H. C. "An Account of the History of Ferns Cathedral Church". Dublin: APCK, 1954 (Reprinted 1999 and 2000)

Further reading[edit]

  • Doherty, Charles (2002). "The Transmission of the Cult of St Máedhog". In P. Ní Chatháin and M. Richter. Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: Texts and Transmission. Dublin. 
  • Doherty, Charles. "Leinster, saints of (act. c.550–c.800)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed: 9 February 2009.