Ma Lin (warlord)

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Ma Lin
馬麒
Ma Lin.jpg
General Ma Lin
Governor of Qinghai
In office
1931–1938
Preceded by Ma Qi
Succeeded by Ma Bufang
Personal details
Born 1873
Linxia County, Gansu
Died January 26, 1945
Qinghai
Nationality Hui
Political party Kuomintang
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Allegiance  Qing Dynasty
 China
Years of service 1890s–1945
Rank general
Commands General
Battles/wars Boxer Rebellion
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ma.

Ma Lin, (simplified Chinese: 马麟; traditional Chinese: 馬麟; pinyin: Mǎ Lín; Wade–Giles: Ma Lin; 1873 – January 26, 1945), chairman of the government of Qinghai (1931–38); brother of Ma Qi.[1] A Muslim born in 1873, Linxia County, Gansu, he mainly succeeded to the posts of his brother, being general of southeastern Gansu province, as well as councillor of the Qinghai provincial government and acting head of the Construction Bureau of Qinghai province. His father was Ma Haiyan.[2]

Career[edit]

Ma Lin's father Ma Haiyan fought in the Boxer Rebellion at the Battle of Langfang and died of natural causes in 1900.

Ma Lin assisted the Xidaotang in filing a lawsuit against Ma Anliang after his death in 1919, to gain recognition for them as a legitimate Muslim sect.[3]

His great nephew Ma Zhongying seized the city of Hezhou in the 1920s during a battle during the Muslim conflict in Gansu (1927–1930), and vanquished Ma Lin's army in combat, which was sent to retake the city.[4] Ma Lin defeated Ma Ting-hsiang (Ma Tingxiang).[5]

After his brother Ma Qi's death in 1931, Ma Lin succeeded him as Governor of Qinghai.[6] However, the real power was in his nephew General Ma Bufang's hands. (Ma Bufang was the son of Ma Qi).

During his administration over Qinghai, the Sino–Tibetan War broke out in 1932. Ma Lin's personal representative was Chao Pei-lei.[7]

Ma Lin held the position of Civil Governor, while Ma Bufang was military Governor. They feuded with and disliked each other. People did not admire Ma Bufang as much as his uncle Ma Lin, who was adored by the people.[8] Ma Lin worked in the governor's yamen during his reign. His secretary was named Feng.[9]

In 1936, during Autumn, Ma Bufang made his move to expel his uncle from power and replace him.[10] Ma Bufang made his position untenous and unbearable until Ma Lin resigned from power by making the Hajj to Mecca. Ma Lin's next position was to be part of the National Government Committee. In an interview Ma Lin was described as having "high admiration and unwavering loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek", and was interested in the progress of the anti Japanese war.[11]

He was reported to be pious and his family mosque was in good shape.[12] The new Yihewani (Ikhwan) sect was patronized and backed by Ma Lin and Ma Bufang to help modernize society, education, and reform old traditions.[13]

In 1942, Ma Lin was serving on the 36 seated State Council, the only other Muslim member was the Uyghur Masud Sabri.[14]

He went on a Hajj to Mecca.[15] 123 persons accompanied him, including the Imams Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing, who brought Salafi/Wahhabi ideology back to China, which the Yihewani Imams promptly rejected as heretical.[16] Ma Lin's nephew, Ma Bufang, the governor of Qinghai, persecuted the new Salafi Wahhabis.[17]

He died on January 26, 1945.

Ma Lin's eldest son Ma Burong defected to the Communists after 1949 and donated 10,000 Yuan to support Chinese troops in the Korean War.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jonathan Oliver Edmund Clubb (1968). Communism in China: as reported from Hankow in 1932. Columbia University Press. p. 110. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  3. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 334. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ Who's who in China; biographies of Chinese leaders. Shanghai: THE CHINA WEEKLY REVIEW. 1936. p. 185. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  6. ^ The China monthly review, Volume 67. J.W. Powell. 1933. p. 189. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  7. ^ The China monthly review, Volume 61. FJ.W. Powell. 1932. p. 142. Retrieved 2011-06-01. 
  8. ^ Violet Olivia Rutley Cressy-Marcks (1942). Journey into China. E.P. Dutton & co., inc. p. 292. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  9. ^ Ella Maillart (2003). Forbidden journey: from Peking to Kashmir (illustrated ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1985-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  10. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  11. ^ Hartford Seminary Foundation (1941). The Moslem World, Volumes 31-34. Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 183. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  12. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  13. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 222. ISBN 9004212396. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Howard L. Boorman, Richard C. Howard, Joseph K. H. Cheng (1970). Biographical dictionary of Republican China, Volume 3. Columbia University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-231-08957-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (July 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. JSTOR 189017. 
  16. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ BARRY RUBIN (2000). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. p. 79. ISBN 0-7656-1747-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. ^ 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆

External links[edit]