The first Macedonian American immigrants came from the border regions in the north of what is today Greek Macedonia, primarily the regions near Kastoria (Kostur), Florina (Lerin), and the south-west of the Republic of Macedonia, notably around Bitola. In the first half of 20th century they were considered and identified as Bulgarians or as Macedonian Bulgarians. It is estimated that around 50,000 Macedonians emigrated to the United States between 1903 and 1906, but the outbreak of the Balkan Wars and World War I curtailed the flow. Around 20,000 remained in the U.S., and the rest returned home. The immigrants were predominantly peasants, with the remainder including craftsmen, workers, and intellectuals. Immigration restarted after the wars; most of the new immigrants were ethnic Macedonians from Greece, many of whom had been expelled from Greek Macedonia in the 1920s. Since the 1920s and 1930s the Macedonian language has been recorded in American censa. Around 50,000-60,000 Macedonians had emigrated to the US by the end of World War II.
The aftermath of the war led to a fresh round of Macedonian immigration, primarily from Greece, as a consequence of ethnic Macedonians being expelled by the post-war Greek government or otherwise encouraged to leave after the Greek civil war of 1946-49. 70,000 emigrated to Canada, Australia, the U.S., and other European countries. After Yugoslavia liberalized its emigration policies in 1960, another 40,000 Macedonians emigrated during the period 1960-77. Most have been economic migrants rather than political dissidents. At that time most of the Americans born of Macedonian Bulgarian descent have hardly any knowledge of Bulgaria and increasingly began to identify themselves simply as Macedonians.
^Illinois Historical Journal, Vol. 84 (Spring, 1991) The Bulgarian Colony of Southwestern Illinois, 1900-1920, D. E. CASSENS: "Bulgarians who settled in the tri-city area were overwhelmingly male and had come predominately from the Bulgarian-speaking parts of Macedonia".
^Emily Greene Balch, Our Slavic fellow citizens, Charities Publication Committee, New York, 1910, p.363: "I hope you are not making any racial distinctions between Bulgarians and Macedonians. I believe the Bulgarians who have come from Macedonia and registered on Ellis Island as Macedonians, which is bound to be confusing and inaccurate, for Macedonians may include Greeks, Vlachs, and even Turks. The distinction between the Bulgarians from Bulgaria and those from Macedonia is purely political".
^Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples Paul R. Magocsi, Multicultural History, pp. 287-292, University of Toronto Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8020-2938-8: "Whether they supported the idea of autonomy (IMRO) or annexation to Bulgaria (Supreme Committee), most articulate Slavs in Macedonia by the end of the nineteenth century considered themselves Bulgarians and therefore identified as Bulgaro-Macedonians."
^Macedonians in the USA, Politics. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, p. 692, edited by Stephan Thernstrom 1980, Belknap Press of Harvard University, Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher.
1 Poles came to the United States legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772-1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I.
2Russia is a transcontinental country in eastern Europe and northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.