The word "macho" has a long history in Spain. "Macho" in Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin "masculus" meaning male. Macho men are to have bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership. "Ser macho" is something all boys are to aspire to.
During the mid 20th century, the term "machismo" began to be criticized by Americans and ridiculed in literature, television and film. The stereotypical Latino immigrant was described as an oversexed, overly aggressive, "macho" loser. During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 70s, the term began to be used by feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.
The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Spanish and Portuguese machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity, a concept similar to R. W Connell's Hegemonic masculinity, Presently in the sense that supposed feminine traits among males (or traits historically viewed as non-feminine among females, see marianismo) are to be deemed undesirable, socially reprovable or deviations. Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions . Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in societies or subcultures –, albeit it is associated with more misogynistic undertones, primarily in present views on the past.
Women can be said to be '"machistas", women who support the macho culture, mainly as a pejorative term used by other women who see themselves as more liberated or by pro-feminist men. In the culture of machismo, as well as in Western culture’s hypermasculinity, the idealized womankind is that submissive, conservative, "pure" and family-centered, the opposite of many, if not all, the characteristics of the macho gender role.
Currently the dominant discourse surrounds the negative aspects of machismo, which are similar to the Western culture concept of hypermasculinity and are seen as threats to females in Latin America and Iberian societies: accordingly machismo is among the supposed threats to LGBT people, and is connected to homophobia, so awareness of both as correlated social problems is a central part of local social movements' discourses.
"Caballerismo" or "Caballerosidad", is a Latin American understanding of manliness that focuses more on honour and chivalry. Latin American scholars have noted that positive descriptors of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerismo. Understandings of machismo in Latin American cultures are not all negative; they also involve the characteristics of honour, responsibility, perseverance and courage, related to both individual and group interaction. Studies show Latin American men understand masculinity to involve considerable childcare responsibilities, politeness, respect for women’s autonomy, and non-violent attitudes and behaviors In this way, machismo comes to signify both positive and negative understanding of Latin American male identity within the immigrant context. Therefore, machismo, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers
The word Caballerismo originates from Spanish word for horse and horseman—caballo and caballero. Caballerismo refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior. An English term that also stems from the original Latin root caballus. Like the English chivalric code, caballerismo developed out of a medieval sociohistorical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower. Thus, caballero referred to a land-owning colonial Spanish gentleman of high station who was master of estates and/or ranches
Criticism and Controversy 
Controversy Surrounding Colonial Connotations of Spanish/Portuguese instead of Latin American 
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There is controversy surrounding the concept of Machismo is originally from Spanish and Portuguese decent. The use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its promotion of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe Latin American masculinity. This is because Spain and Portugal historically colonized the area, thereby removal of the term Spanish and Portuguese is necessary and the use of Latino is required in order to become more politically correct. However, the word Machismo does resemble words in Spanish and Portuguese language which is the cause why it is often associated Spain and Portugal. In addition, by identifying the concept with European thought offers legitimacy to the concept of Machismo and subjugates the knowledge of Latin America
For example, the use of Caballebismo to signify only the positive characteristics of Machismo contains colonial connotations regarding the historical colonial power relations. This is because the origin of the word Caballerismo to signify a wealthy land owning Spaniard during the colonial era, exalts European culture in comparison to Machismo in Latin America
Consequences of a Singular Negative Depiction 
Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American Cultures; and are now focused on creating a balanced representation. They have repeatedly pointed out the positive characteristics consistent with machismo, or Caballarisimo: nurturance, protection of the family and its honor, dignity, wisdom, hard work, responsibility, spirituality, and emotional connectedness . Latin American Scholars propose there are really two different constructs within machismo, one positive construct and one negative construct. The negative construct of machismo is based on Western concept of hypermasculinity, and is predominant within mainstream discourse, without an acknowledgement towards its resemblance towards hypermasculinty. Caballarisimo's characteristics are exalted, while machismo’s characteristics are seen as predominately negative .
The other side of machismo, the positive side (Caballarismo), refers to a connection to family and chivalry. However, the focus on the negative aspects and avoidance of positive aspects of Machismo coincides with the concept of marginalization and powerlessness. This is because the focus on the negative and avoidance of the positive, creates a power dynamic that legitimizes Western Hegemonic masculinity as the correct masculinity and subjugates Machismo as “all that is wrong by man”. As a result, creating a sense of powerlessness within Latino male in their expression of their masculinity. For example through popular literature, Machismo is labeled as negative, while hypermasculinity is predominately ignored and not labeled. As a result, Western hypermasculinity is viewed more positively in comparison to Machismo.
Academics have noted that there are consequences of only having a negative definition for Latino masculinity in popular literature. Researchers have suggested that, according to Westernized views, machismo represents “all that is wrong in a man”. Latin Academics have used this argument to explain why Latino male youth struggle in academic institutions and have high rates of criminality. These are the same discourses that argue that Latino masculinity (machismo) is defined by violence, recklessness, and misogyny. According they link these expressions as contributing to a lack of interest in academics as well as behavioral struggles in schools for Latino males youth. However, this focus does not reveal the other social forces that drive Latin youth to struggle academically besides participating in criminal behavior.
Negative Depiction of Machismo in Popular Literature 
Throughout popular literature, the term has continued to be associated with the negative characteristics. For example, sexism, misogyny, chauvinism and hypermasculinity and hegemonic masculinity, Scholars characterize macho men as violent, rude, womanizing, and prone to alcoholism. Authors from a variety disciplines that typified macho men as domineering through intimidation, seducing and controlling women and children through violence and intimidation .
For example, in American literature, an example of machismo comes from Tennessee Williams' character Stanley Kowalski, the egotistical brother-in-law in A Streetcar Named Desire (play). In the play (and in the motion picture), Stanley epitomizes the tough guy stereotype alpha male (hypermasculine) socially and physically dominating and imposing his will upon his wife and her sister, Blanche Dubois. Bound up with Stanley's aggressive and occasionally misogynist views is a strong sense of pride and honor which leads to his hatred of Blanche. In the play A View from the Bridge by Arthur Miller, one of the main characters Eddie is a classic type who displays machismo. He wants to be the best of the men around him and when beaten, becomes very agitated and increasingly irrational. It is important to note the negative stereotypes depicted in American literature that is not representatives of the different layers of Machismo.
Indigenous influence on Mexican culture 
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In Nahuatl culture, the term macho (having nothing to do with the derivation from the Latin mascŭlus), means, translated into Spanish, ejemplar; in English, an example, "one who is worthy of imitation." The Nahuatl dictionary also states that the word macho means "enlightened one", or "one who had been made to learn". Therefore the pre-Columbian use of the word Macho had to do with wisdom and leadership that was worthy of imitation. Gender was not involved. When the Spanish came their use of the word macho was strictly masculine. Therefore, post Spanish invasion a new word, idea and concept was born: that a macho was a masculine leader, who was enlightened and worthy of imitation. It was always a positive term. The American English speaking culture has turned machismo into a negative thing exemplifying misunderstanding and contempt for Mexican culture. Therefore, in Mexico, the use of the word machi may provoke confusion if it is not used precisely or in context
See also 
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- Brown, Leslie Allison, and Susan Strega. Research as resistance: Critical, Indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches. Canadian Scholars Press, 2005.
- Me lanky, Bernadette (2012). Intervention Research: Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Funding. Springer Publishing Co. p. 68. ISBN 0826109578.
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- Gutmann, Matthew (1996). The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.
- Arciniega, M. G, Anderson, T. C, Tovar-Blank, Z. Tracey, T. (2008). Toward a Fuller Conception of Machismo: Development of Machismo and Callerismo Scale. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 55(1). 19-33. http://journals1.scholarsportal.info.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/tmp/17124529716537355464.pdf
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- Mignolo, Walter D. Local histories/global designs: Coloniality, subaltern knowledges, and border thinking. Princeton University Press, 2011.
- Adams, Carlos (2006). Machismo and Geographies of Hope. PhD dissertation. Program in American Studies, Washington State University
- Caravantes, E. (2006). Clipping Their Own Wings: The Incompatibility Between Latino Culture and American Education. Hamilton Books
- Anders, G. (1993). Machismo: Dead or alive? Hispanic, 3, 14–20.
- Ingoldsby, B. (1991). The Latin American Family: Familism vs. Machismo. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 1, 57-64.
- Mosher, D., & Tompkins, S. (1988). Scripting the macho man: Hypermas- culine socialization and enculturation. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 60–84.
- mhof, D. (1979). Macho: Sit on it. Miami, FL: 3L Graphics.
- Rémi, Siméon. Diccionario de la lengua náhuatl o mexicana. Siglo XXI Editores, S.A. de C.V., 2004. pp. 246, 258 ISBN 968-23-0573-X. Macho: distinguished, illustrious, ... as a passive voice of Mati: uel macho ó nouian macho, evident, well known, notorious; qualli ipam macho, he is good, well behaved.