Arthur Miller

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the director with a similar name, see Arthur Hiller.
For other people named Arthur Miller, see Arthur Miller (disambiguation).
Arthur Miller
Born Arthur Asher Miller
(1915-10-17)October 17, 1915
Harlem (Manhattan), New York, United States
Died February 10, 2005(2005-02-10) (aged 89)
Roxbury, Connecticut, United States
  • Playwright
  • Essayist
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Michigan
Notable works
Notable awards


Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005)[1][2] was a prolific American playwright, essayist, and prominent figure in twentieth-century American theatre. Among his most popular plays are All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953) and A View from the Bridge (1955, revised 1956). He also wrote the several screenplays and was most noted for his work on The Misfits (1961). The drama Death of a Salesman is often numbered on the short list of being among the finest American plays in the 20th century alongside Long Day's Journey into Night and A Streetcar Named Desire.[3]

Miller was often in the public eye, particularly during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. During this time, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama; testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee; and was married to Marilyn Monroe. He received the Prince of Asturias Award and the Praemium Imperiale prize in 2002 and Jerusalem Prize in 2003,[4] as well as Dorothy and Lillian Gish Lifetime Achievement Award and the Pulitzer Prize [5]


Early life[edit]

Arthur Asher Miller was born on October 17, 1915, in Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan, the second of three children of Augusta (Barnett) and Isidore Miller. His father was an Austrian Jewish immigrant, and his mother was born in New York, to Austrian Jewish parents.[2][6][7] His father owned a women's clothing manufacturing business employing 400 people. He became a wealthy and respected man in the community.[8] The family, including his younger sister Joan, lived on West[9] 110th Street in Manhattan and owned a summer house in Far Rockaway, Queens. They employed a chauffeur.[10] In the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the family lost almost everything and moved to Gravesend, Brooklyn.[11] As a teenager, Miller delivered bread every morning before school to help the family.[10] After graduating in 1932 from Abraham Lincoln High School, he worked at several menial jobs to pay for his college tuition.[11][12]

At the University of Michigan, Miller first majored in journalism and worked for the student paper, the Michigan Daily. It was during this time that he wrote his first play, No Villain.[13] Miller switched his major to English, and subsequently won the Avery Hopwood Award for No Villain. The award brought him his first recognition and led him to begin to consider that he could have a career as a playwright. Miller enrolled in a playwriting seminar taught by the influential Professor Kenneth Rowe, who instructed him in his early forays into playwriting;[14] Rowe emphasized how a play is built in order to achieve its intended effect, or what Miller called "the dynamics of play construction".[15] Rowe provided realistic feedback along with much-needed encouragement, and became a lifelong friend.[16] Miller retained strong ties to his alma mater throughout the rest of his life, establishing the university's Arthur Miller Award in 1985 and Arthur Miller Award for Dramatic Writing in 1999, and lending his name to the Arthur Miller Theatre in 2000.[17] In 1937, Miller wrote Honors at Dawn, which also received the Avery Hopwood Award.[13]

In 1938, Miller received a BA in English. After graduation, he joined the Federal Theater Project, a New Deal agency established to provide jobs in the theater. He chose the theater project despite the more lucrative offer to work as a scriptwriter for 20th Century Fox.[13] However, Congress, worried about possible Communist infiltration, closed the project in 1939.[11] Miller began working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard while continuing to write radio plays, some of which were broadcast on CBS.[11][13]

In 1940, he married Mary Grace Slattery.[1] The couple had two children, Jane and Robert (born May 31, 1947). Miller was exempted from military service during World War II because of a high-school football injury to his left kneecap.[11]

Early career[edit]

In 1940 Miller had his first play provided; The Man Who Had All the Luck won the Theatre Guild's National Award.[18] The play closed after four performances with disastrous reviews.[19]

In his book Trinity of Passion, author Alan M. Wald conjectures that Miller was "a member of a writer's unit of the Communist Party around 1946," using the pseudonym Matt Wayne, and editing a drama column in the magazine The New Masses.[20]

In 1947, Miller's play All My Sons, the writing of which had commenced in 1941, was a success on Broadway (earning him his first Tony Award, for Best Author) and his reputation as a playwright was established.[21] Years later, in a 1994 interview with Ron Rifkin, Miller said that most contemporary critics regarded All My Sons as "a very depressing play in a time of great optimism" and that positive reviews from Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times had saved it from failure.[22]

In 1948, Miller built a small studio in Roxbury, Connecticut. There, in less than a day, he wrote Act I of Death of a Salesman. Within six weeks, he completed the rest of the play,[13] one of the classics of world theater.[11][23] Death of a Salesman premiered on Broadway on February 10, 1949 at the Morosco Theatre, directed by Elia Kazan, and starring Lee J. Cobb as Willy Loman, Mildred Dunnock as Linda, Arthur Kennedy as Biff, and Cameron Mitchell as Happy. The play was commercially successful and critically acclaimed, winning a Tony Award for Best Author, the New York Drama Circle Critics' Award, and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It was the first play to win all three of these major awards. The play was performed 742 times.[11]

The Critical Years[edit]

In 1956, a one-act version of Miller's verse drama A View from the Bridge opened on Broadway in a joint bill with one of Miller's lesser-known plays, A Memory of Two Mondays. The following year, Miller revised A View from the Bridge as a two-act prose drama, which Peter Brook directed in London.[24] A French-Italian co-production Vu du pont, based on the play, was released in 1962.

In June 1956, Miller left his first wife Mary Slattery and on June 29 he married Marilyn Monroe.[1] Miller and Monroe had met in April 23, 1951, when they had a brief affair, and had remained in contact since then.[1][11]

Miller began work on The Misfits, starring his wife. Miller later said that the filming was one of the lowest points in his life; shortly before the film's premiere in 1961, the pair divorced.[1][13] 19 months later, Monroe died of a possible drug overdose. Miller's future wife Inge Morath worked as a photographer documenting the film's production. The film proved to be the last appearances for both Monroe and Clark Gable, and one of the last for Montgomery Clift.

Monroe in her final completed film, The Misfits (1961)

Miller married photographer Inge Morath on February 17, 1962 and the first of their two children, Rebecca, was born September 15, 1962. Their son Daniel was born with Down syndrome in November 1966; he was institutionalized and excluded from the Millers' personal life at Arthur's insistence.[25] The couple remained together until Inge's death in 2002. Arthur Miller's son-in-law, actor Daniel Day-Lewis, is said to have visited Daniel frequently, and to have persuaded Arthur Miller to reunite with his adult son, Daniel.[26]

HUAC Controversy[edit]

In 1952, Elia Kazan appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC); unwilling to risk his promising career in Hollywood for the Communist cause that he had come to despise, Kazan named eight members of the Group Theatre, including Clifford Odets, Paula Strasberg, Lillian Hellman, J. Edward Bromberg, and John Garfield,[27] who in recent years had been fellow members of the Communist Party.[28] After speaking with Kazan about his testimony Miller traveled to Salem, Massachusetts to research the witch trials of 1692.[1] The Crucible, in which Miller likened the situation with the House Un-American Activities Committee to the witch hunt in Salem in 1692,[29][30] opened at the Beck Theatre on Broadway on January 22, 1953. Though widely considered only somewhat successful at the time of its initial release, today The Crucible is Miller's most frequently produced work throughout the world[1] and was adapted into an opera by Robert Ward, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1962. Miller and Kazan were close friends throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, but after Kazan's testimony to the HUAC, the pair's friendship ended, and they did not speak to each other for the next ten years.[28] The HUAC took an interest in Miller himself not long after The Crucible opened, denying him a passport to attend the play's London opening in 1954.[13] Kazan defended his own actions through his film On the Waterfront, in which a dockworker heroically testifies against a corrupt union boss.

When Miller applied in 1956 for a routine renewal of his passport, the House Unamerican Activities Committee used this opportunity to subpoena him to appear before the committee. Before appearing, Miller asked the committee not to ask him to name names, to which the chairman, Francis E. Walter (D-PA) agreed.[31]

While newsmen take notes, Chairman Dies of House Committee Investigating Un-American Activities reads and proofs his letter replying to Pres. Roosevelt's attack on the Committee, Oct. 26, 1938

When Miller attended the hearing, to which Monroe accompanied him, risking her own career,[1] he gave the committee a detailed account of his political activities. Reneging on the chairman's promise, the committee demanded the names of friends and colleagues who had participated in similar activities.[31] Miller refused to comply, saying "I could not use the name of another person and bring trouble on him."[31] As a result, a judge found Miller guilty of contempt of Congress in May 1957. Miller was sentenced to a $500 fine or thirty days in prison, blacklisted, and disallowed a US passport.[2] In 1958, his conviction was overturned by the court of appeals, which ruled that Miller had been misled by the chairman of the HUAC.[2]

Miller's experience with the HUAC affected him throughout his life. In the late 1970s he became very interested in the highly publicized Barbara Gibbons murder case, in which Gibbons' son Peter Reilly was convicted of his mother's murder based on what many felt was a coerced confession and little other evidence. City Confidential, an A&E Network series, produced an episode about the murder, postulating that part of the reason Miller took such an active interest (including supporting Reilly's defense and using his own celebrity to bring attention to Reilly's plight) was because he had felt similarly persecuted in his run-ins with the HUAC. He sympathized with Reilly, whom he firmly believed to be innocent and to have been railroaded by the Connecticut State Police and the Attorney General who had initially prosecuted the case.[32][33]

Later career[edit]

Miller in 1966

In 1964 Miller's next play was produced. After the Fall is a deeply personal view of Miller's experiences during his marriage to Monroe. The play reunited Miller with his former friend Kazan: they collaborated on both the script and the direction. After the Fall opened on January 23, 1964 at the ANTA Theatre in Washington Square Park amid a flurry of publicity and outrage at putting a Monroe-like character, called Maggie, on stage.[1] Robert Brustein, in a review in the New Republic, called After the Fall "a three and one half hour breach of taste, a confessional autobiography of embarrassing explicitness . . . there is a misogynistic strain in the play which the author does not seem to recognize. . . . He has created a shameless piece of tabloid gossip, an act of exhibitionism which makes us all voyeurs, . . . a wretched piece of dramatic writing."[34] That same year, Miller produced Incident at Vichy. In 1965, Miller was elected the first American president of PEN International, a position which he held for four years.[35] A year later, Miller organized the 1966 PEN congress in New York City. Miller also wrote the penetrating family drama, The Price, produced in 1968.[1] It was Miller's most successful play since Death of a Salesman.[36]

In 1969, Miller's works were banned in the Soviet Union after he campaigned for the freedom of dissident writers.[13] Throughout the 1970s, Miller spent much of his time experimenting with the theatre, producing one-act plays such as Fame and The Reason Why, and traveling with his wife, producing In The Country and Chinese Encounters with her. Both his 1972 comedy The Creation of the World and Other Business and its musical adaptation, Up from Paradise, were critical and commercial failures.[37][38]

Miller was an unusually articulate commentator on his own work. In 1978 he published a collection of his Theater Essays, edited by Robert A. Martin and with a foreword by Miller. Highlights of the collection included Miller's introduction to his Collected Plays, his reflections on the theory of tragedy, comments on the McCarthy Era, and pieces arguing for a publicly supported theater. Reviewing this collection in the Chicago Tribune, Studs Terkel remarked, "in reading [the Theater Essays] are exhilaratingly aware of a social critic, as well as a playwright, who knows what he's talking about."[39]

In 1983, Miller traveled to China to produce and direct Death of a Salesman at the People's Art Theatre in Beijing. The play was a success in China[36] and in 1984, Salesman in Beijing, a book about Miller's experiences in Beijing, was published. Around the same time, Death of a Salesman was made into a TV movie starring Dustin Hoffman as Willy Loman. Shown on CBS, it attracted 25 million viewers.[13][40] In late 1987, Miller's autobiographical work, Timebends, was published. Before it was published, it was well known that Miller would not talk about Monroe in interviews; in Timebends Miller talks about his experiences with Monroe in detail.[1]

During the early-mid 1990s, Miller wrote three new plays: The Ride Down Mt. Morgan (1991), The Last Yankee (1992), and Broken Glass (1994). In 1996, a film of The Crucible starring Daniel Day-Lewis, Paul Scofield, Bruce Davison, and Winona Ryder opened. Miller spent much of 1996 working on the screenplay to the film.[13] Mr. Peters' Connections was staged Off-Broadway in 1998, and Death of a Salesman was revived on Broadway in 1999 to celebrate its fiftieth anniversary. The play, once again, was a large critical success, winning a Tony Award for best revival of a play.[41]

In 1993, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[42] Miller was honored with the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award for a Master American Dramatist in 1998. In 2001 the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) selected Miller for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities.[43] Miller's lecture was entitled "On Politics and the Art of Acting."[44] Miller's lecture analyzed political events (including the U.S. presidential election of 2000) in terms of the "arts of performance," and it drew attacks from some conservatives[45] such as Jay Nordlinger, who called it "a disgrace," [46] and George Will, who argued that Miller was not legitimately a "scholar."[47]

In 1999, Miller was awarded The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the arts, given annually to "a man or woman who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of the world and to mankind’s enjoyment and understanding of life."[48] In 2001, Miller received the National Book Foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. On May 1, 2002, Miller was awarded Spain's Principe de Asturias Prize for Literature as "the undisputed master of modern drama." Later that year, Ingeborg Morath died of lymphatic cancer[49] at the age of 78. The following year Miller won the Jerusalem Prize.[13]

In December 2004, the 89-year-old Miller announced that he had been in love with 34-year-old minimalist painter Agnes Barley and had been living with her at his Connecticut farm since 2002, and that they intended to marry.[50] Within hours of her father's death, Rebecca Miller ordered Barley to vacate the premises, having consistently opposed the relationship.[51] Miller's final play, Finishing the Picture, opened at the Goodman Theatre, Chicago, in the fall of 2004, with one character said to be based on Barley.[52] It was reported to be based on his experience during the filming The Misfits,[53] though Miller insisted the play is a work of fiction with independent characters that were no more than composite shadows of history.[54]


Miller died of heart failure after a battle against cancer, pneumonia and congestive heart disease at his home in Roxbury, Connecticut. He had been in hospice care at his sister's apartment in New York since his release from hospital the previous month.[55] He died on the evening of February 10, 2005 (the 56th anniversary of the Broadway debut of Death of a Salesman), aged 89, surrounded by Barley, family and friends.[56][57] He is interred at Roxbury Center Cemetery in Roxbury.

Two months after Miller died Peter O'Toole called him a "bore"[58] andRoger Kimball went on record saying that Miller's artistic accomplishments were meager.[59]


Arthur Miller's career as a writer spanned over seven decades, and at the time of his death, Miller was considered to be one of the greatest dramatists of the twentieth century.[23] After his death, many respected actors, directors, and producers paid tribute to Miller,[60] some calling him the last great practitioner of the American stage,[61] and Broadway theatres darkened their lights in a show of respect.[62] Miller's alma mater, the University of Michigan, opened the Arthur Miller Theatre in March 2007. As per his express wish, it is the only theatre in the world that bears Miller's name.[63]

Christopher Bigsby wrote Arthur Miller: The Definitive Biography based on boxes of papers Miller made available to him before his death in 2005.[64] The book was published in November 2008, and is reported to reveal unpublished works in which Miller "bitterly attack[ed] the injustices of American racism long before it was taken up by the civil rights movement".[64]

Miller's papers are housed at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin.

Arthur Miller is also a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame. He was inducted in 1979.[65][66]


Stage plays[edit]

Radio plays[edit]

  • The Pussycat and the Expert Plumber Who Was a Man (1941)
  • Joel Chandler Harris (1941)
  • Captain Paul (1941)
  • The Battle of the Ovens (1942)
  • Thunder from the Mountains (1942)
  • I Was Married in Bataan (1942)
  • That They May Win (1943)
  • Listen for the Sound of Wings (1943)
  • Bernardine (1944)
  • I Love You (1944)
  • Grandpa and the Statue (1944)
  • The Philippines Never Surrendered (1944)
  • The Guardsman (1944, based on Ferenc Molnár’s play)
  • The Story of Gus (1947)


Assorted fiction[edit]

  • Focus (novel, 1945)
  • "The Misfits" (novella, 1957)
  • I Don’t Need You Anymore (short stories, 1967)
  • "Homely Girl" (short story, 1992, published in UK as "Plain Girl: A Life" 1995)
  • "The Performance" (short story)
  • Presence: Stories (short stories, 2007)


  • Situation Normal (1944) is based on his experiences researching the war correspondence of Ernie Pyle.
  • In Russia (1969), the first of three books created with his photographer wife Inge Morath, offers Miller's impressions of Russia and Russian society.
  • In the Country (1977), with photographs by Morath and text by Miller, provides insight into how Miller spent his time in Roxbury, Connecticut and profiles of his various neighbors.
  • Chinese Encounters (1979) is a travel journal with photographs by Morath. It depicts the Chinese society in the state of flux which followed the end of the Cultural Revolution. Miller discusses the hardships of many writers, professors, and artists as they try to regain the sense of freedom and place they lost during Mao Zedong's regime.
  • Salesman in Beijing (1984) details Miller's experiences with the 1983 Beijing People's Theatre production of Death of a Salesman. He describes the idiosyncrasies, understandings, and insights encountered in directing a Chinese cast in a decidedly American play.
  • Timebends: A Life, Methuen London (1987) ISBN 0-413-41480-9. Like Death of a Salesman, the book follows the structure of memory itself, each passage linked to and triggered by the one before.


  • Kushner, Tony, ed. Arthur Miller, Collected Plays 1944–1961 (Library of America, 2006) ISBN 978-1-931082-91-4.
  • Martin, Robert A. (ed.), "The theater essays of Arthur Miller", foreword by Arthur Miller. NY: Viking Press, 1978 ISBN 0-14-004903-7.
  • Steven R Centola, ed. Echoes Down the Corridor: Arthur Miller, Collected Essays 1944–2000, Viking Penguin (US)/Methuen (UK), 2000 ISBN 0-413-75690-4



The Arthur Miller Foundation[edit]

The Arthur Miller Foundation was founded to honor the legacy of Arthur Miller and his New York City Public School Education. The mission of the foundation is: Promoting increased access and equity to theater arts education in our schools and Increasing the number of students receiving theater arts education as an integral part of their academic curriculum.[67] Other initiatives include effecting the certification of new theater teachers and their placement in public schools, increasing the number of theater teachers in the system from the current estimate of 180 teachers in 1800 schools, supporting professional development of all certified theater teachers, providing teaching artists, cultural partners, physical spaces, and theater ticket allocations for students The Foundation's primary purpose is to provide arts education in the New York City School system. The current canceller of the foundation is Carmen Farina, a large proponent of the common core. Alec Baldwin, Ellen Barkin, Katori Hall, Dustin Hoffman, Scarlett Johansson, Tony Kushner, Michael Mayer, Jim McElhinney, Julianne Moore, Liam Neeson, Lynn Nottage, David O. Russell, Liev Schreiber all serve on the Master Arts Council. Son-in-law Daniel Day Lewis serves on the current board of directors.[68]

Quest to learn program[edit]

The Arthur Miller Foundation currently supports a pilot program in theater and film at the public school Quest to Learn in partnership with the Institute of Play. The model is being used as an in-school elective theater class and lab. The objective is to create a sustainable theater education model to disseminate to teachers at professional development workshop.[69]

Biographies and critical studies of Miller[edit]

  • File on Miller, Christopher Bigsby (1988)
  • Arthur Miller & Company, Christopher Bigsby, editor (1990)
  • Arthur Miller: A Critical Study, Christopher Bigsby (2005)
  • Remembering Arthur Miller, Christopher Bigsby, editor (2005)
  • Arthur Miller 1915–1962, Christopher Bigsby (2008, U.K.; 2009, U.S.)
  • The Cambridge Companion to Arthur Miller (Cambridge Companions to Literature), Christopher Bigsby, editor (1998, updated and republished 2010)
  • Arthur Miller 1962–2005, Christopher Bigsby (February 2011)

Critical Articles

  • Radavich, David. "Arthur Miller's Sojourn in the Heartland." American Drama 16:2 (Summer 2007): 28–45.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Obituary: Arthur Miller". The Guardian (UK). February 11, 2005. p. 25. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  2. ^ a b c d "Arthur Miller Files". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved October 1, 2006. 
  3. ^ Harold Bloom, Tennessee Williams, Chelsea House Publishing.
  4. ^ Associates Press, "Citing Arts' Power, Arthur Miller Accepts International Prize." Los Angeles Times 4 Sept. 2002. Web.
  5. ^ "Arthur Miller; Bio; Awards." N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2015.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ BBC TV Interview; Miller and Yentob; 'Finishing the Picture,' 2004
  9. ^ Miller, Arthur (June 22, 1998) American Summer: Before Air-Conditioning. The New Yorker. Retrieved on October 30, 2013.
  10. ^ a b Garner, Dwight (June 2, 2009). "Miller: Life before and after Marilyn". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h The Times Arthur Miller Obituary, (London: The Times, 2005)
  12. ^ Hechinger, Fred M. "ABOUT EDUCATION; Personal Touch Helps", The New York Times, January 1, 1980. Accessed September 20, 2009. "Lincoln, an ordinary, unselective New York City high school, is proud of a galaxy of prominent alumni, who include the playwright Arthur Miller, Representative Elizabeth Holtzman, the authors Joseph Heller and Ken Auletta, the producer Mel Brooks, the singer Neil Diamond and the songwriter Neil Sedaka."
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Brief Chronology of Arthur Miller's Life and Works". The Arthur Miller Society. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006. 
  14. ^ For Rowe's recollections of Miller's work as a student playwright, see Kenneth Thorpe Rowe, "Shadows Cast Before," in Robert A. Martin, ed. (1982) Arthur Miller: New Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0130488011. Rowe's influential book Write That Play (Funk and Wagnalls, 1939), which appeared just a year after Miller's graduation, describes Rowe's approach to play construction.
  15. ^ Arthur Miller, Timebends: A Life. New York: Grove Press, 1987, pp. 226–227
  16. ^ "Arthur Miller Files (UM days)". University of Michigan. Retrieved September 24, 2006. 
  17. ^ "Arthur Miller and University of Michigan". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on September 13, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006. 
  18. ^ Royal National Theater: Platform Papers, 7. Arthur Miller (Battley Brothers Printers, 1995).
  19. ^ Shenton, Mark (March 14, 2008). "The man who HAS all the luck...". The Stage. The Stage Newspaper Limited. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2009. 
  20. ^ Wald, Alan M (2007). "7". Trinity of passion: the literary left and the antifascist crusade. NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 212–221. ISBN 978-0-8078-3075-8. Retrieved May 6, 2009. 
  21. ^ Bigsby, C. W. E. (2005). Arthur Miller: A Critical Study. Cambridge University Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-521-60553-3. 
  22. ^ Rifkin, Ron, "Arthur Miller", BOMB Magazine Fall, 1994. Retrieved on [July 18, 2012.]
  23. ^ a b "Obituary: Arthur Miller". BBC News (BBC). February 11, 2005. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  24. ^ Miller, Arthur (1988) Introduction to Plays: One, London: Methuen, p. 51, ISBN 0413175502.
  25. ^ Andrews, Suzanna (September 2007). "Arthur Miller's Missing Act". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 17, 2007. 
  26. ^ Scott, Paul (January 19, 2008). "The very strange life of reclusive superstar Daniel Day-Lewis". Daily Mail (London). p. 46. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  27. ^ Mills, Michael. "Postage Paid: In defense of Elia Kazan". Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  28. ^ a b "American Masters: Elia Kazan". PBS. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2006. 
  29. ^ For a frequently cited study of Miller's use of the Salem witchcraft episode, see Robert A. Martin, "Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Background and Sources", reprinted in James J. Martine, ed. (1979) Critical Essays on Arthur Miller, G. K. Hall, ISBN 0816182582.
  30. ^ "Are you now, or were you ever?". University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on September 10, 2006. Retrieved September 25, 2006. 
  31. ^ a b c "BBC On This Day". BBC. August 7, 1958. Retrieved October 14, 2006. 
  32. ^ "A Son's Confession DVD, Shows The First 48, A&E Shop". Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  33. ^ Stowe, Stacey (September 3, 2004). "Records on Exonerated Man Are Kept Off Limits to Press – New York Times". Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  34. ^ The Moral of Arthur Miller. The Weekly Standard (February 28, 2005). Retrieved on October 30, 2013.
  35. ^ Miller, Arthur (December 24, 2003). "A Visit With Castro". The Nation. Archived from the original on July 16, 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2006. 
  36. ^ a b "Arthur Miller Files 60s70s80s". University of Michigan. Retrieved October 14, 2006. 
  37. ^ Mel Gussow (April 17, 1974). "Arthur Miller Returns to Genesis for First Musical". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  38. ^ "UP FROM PARADISE – Review – Theater – New York Times". Retrieved January 11, 2009.  (subscription required)
  39. ^ Martin, Robert A. (1978) ed., The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller. Viking, ISBN 0670698016.
  40. ^ The Cambridge History of American Theatre: Post-World War II to the 1990s, page 296 (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  41. ^ "Tony Awards 1999". Retrieved October 28, 2006. 
  42. ^ "Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts". Retrieved December 18, 2011. 
  43. ^ Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website . Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  44. ^ Arthur Miller, "On Politics and the Art of Acting", text of Jefferson Lecture at NEH website.
  45. ^ Bruce Craig, "Arthur Miller's Jefferson Lecture Stirs Controversy," in "Capital Commentary", OAH Newsletter [published by Organization of American Historians], May 2001.
  46. ^ Nordlinger, Jay (April 22, 2002) "Back to Plessy, Easter with Fidel, Miller’s new tale, &c." National Review.
  47. ^ George Will, "Enduring Arthur Miller: Oh, the Humanities!", Jewish World Review, April 10, 2001.
  48. ^ The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, official website.
  49. ^ "NYTimes on Morath's death". The New York Times. January 12, 2003. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  50. ^ "At 89, Arthur Miller grows old romantically". The Daily Telegraph. December 11, 2004. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  51. ^ Leonard, Tom (February 18, 2005). "Miller's fiancée quits his home after ultimatum from family". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Arthur Miller creates a new work". Chicago: USA Today. October 10, 2004. Retrieved September 23, 2014. And in the play's sweetest moments, he's found a new romance — Kitty's tenderhearted secretary, played by Fisher, a union perhaps mirroring Miller's reported new relationship with Agnes Barley, a 34-year-old artist. 
  53. ^ Solomon, Deborah (September 19, 2004). "Goodbye (Again), Norma Jean". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  54. ^ Jones, Chris (February 12, 2005). "Arthur Miller (1915-2005) - The Shadow Of Marilyn Monroe. Decades later, a man still haunted.". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  55. ^ Siegel, Ed (February 12, 2005). "Boston Globe article on Miller's death". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  56. ^ AP. "Playwright Arthur Miller dies at age 89 – THEATER –". Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  57. ^ Leonardin, Tom (February 12, 2005). "Dramatist's last hours spent in home he shared with star". The Irish Independent. Retrieved December 18, 2011. 
  58. ^ O'Toole Slams 'Bore' Miller. Retrieved on October 30, 2013.
  59. ^ Kimball, Roger (February 28, 2005) Death of a Liberal God. National Review Online.
  60. ^ "Tributes to Arthur Miller". BBC. February 12, 2005. Retrieved November 9, 2006. 
  61. ^ "Legacy of Arthur Miller". BBC. February 11, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  62. ^ "Broadway lights go out for Arthur Miller". BBC. February 12, 2005. Retrieved November 9, 2006. 
  63. ^ "U-M celebrates naming of Arthur Miller Theatre". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007. 
  64. ^ a b c Alberge, Dalya (March 7, 2008). "Unseen writings show anti-racist passions of young Arthur Miller". The Times (London). Retrieved March 7, 2008. 
  65. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members". 
  66. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame Enshrines 51 Artists". New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  67. ^ Arthur Miller Foundation, summary report and legitimacy information,
  68. ^ The Arthur Miller Foundation,
  69. ^ Media Room, Hasty Pudding Institute of 1770,


  • Bigsby, Christopher (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Arthur Miller, Cambridge 1997 ISBN 0-521-55992-8
  • Martin Gottfried, Arthur Miller, A Life, Da Capo Press (US)/Faber and Faber (UK), 2003 ISBN 0-571-21946-2
  • Martin, Robert A. (ed.), "The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller", foreword by Arthur Miller. NY: Viking Press, 1978.
  • Moss, Leonard. Arthur Miller, Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980.

External links[edit]

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Victor E. van Vriesland
International President of PEN International
Succeeded by
Pierre Emmanuel