Madureira was founded on August 8, 1914 as Fidalgo Madureira Atlético Clube. The businessmen Elísio Alves Ferreira, Manoel Lopes da Silva, Manuel Augusto Maia and Joaquim Braia, among others, in 1932, wanted to found a strong club in Madureira neighborhood. They contacted Uassir do Amaral, president of Fidalgo Madureira Atlético Clube at that time. In the same year, they tried to fuse Fidalgo and Magno Futebol Clube, but the partners of Fidalgo did not approve this. After several assemblies, on February 16, 1933, the team was named Madureira Atlético Clube, and the foundation date was determined to be August 8, 1914 (the same foundation date of Fidalgo Madureira Atlético Clube).
Madureira competed in the Federação Metropolitana de Futebol (Metropolitan Football Federation) state championship in 1939, winning the amateur competition and the Torneio Início, which is disputed by professional players.
Madureira Esporte Clube was founded on October 12, 1971, after Madureira Atlético Clube, Madureira Tênis Clube, and Imperial Basquete Clube fused. The foundation date was determined to be, again, August 8, 1914.
The club's colors, blue, purple and yellow, represent, respectively, Fidalgo Madureira Atlético Clube, Madureira Tênis Clube and Imperial Basquete Clube. Madureira's anthem was composed by Lamartine Babo, who also composed the anthems for the big clubs of Rio de Janeiro.