Mas'ud I of Ghazni
|Mas'ud I bin Mahmud, Abu Sa'id Shihab al-Dawla|
|Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire|
|Birthplace||Ghazni (now in Afghanistan|
|Died||17 January 1041|
|Father||Mahmud of Ghazni|
|Religious beliefs||Sunni Islam|
|History of Greater Iran|
|Until the rise of modern nation-states|
|History of Afghanistan|
Mas'ud I seized the throne of the Ghaznavid Empire from his younger twin Mohammad who had been nominated as the heir upon the death of their father Mahmud of Ghazni. His twin was blinded and imprisoned. Hasanak vazir was also executed by his order.
He had proved himself a capable general during his father's time, annexing the provinces of Joorjistan, Tuburistan and the Persian portion for his father. He had been appointed governor of Rayy, Isfahan, Balkh and Herat. Upon his father's death he gathered his supporters at Nishapur, where his captured brother was delivered to him.
- 1031 Makran (now Balochistan)
- 1032 Bukhara was defended from the Seljuks who had captured it along with Samarkand from the Abbasids
- 1033 Soorsutty in Kashmir
- 1033 Black Plague
- 1034 Tuburistan
- 1034 Defeat at the hands of the Seljuk raiders in Khorasan. Battle of Nasa Plains.
- 1034-35 Marched an army to Amol to collect tribute. Mas'ud sacked Amul for four days and later burned it to the ground.
- 1036 Siwalik hills: captured the capital Hansy.
- 1037 Toghril Beg raids Balkh
- 1037 Transoxania captured
- 1037 Jakur Beg Seljuk attacks Balkh when Mas'ud comes to relieve Balkh, Toghril Beg moves and sacks Ghazni. He then marches upon Merv. Seljuk sues for peace and asks for a grant of land to settle in. Returning army's rearguard is attacked by a band of Seljuks. Defeats another band of them at Tous and Badwird.
- 1038 Tughril Beg captures Nishapur and crowns himself King.
- 1039 Attempts to fight Tughril Beg; advances through Badwird, Tedzen and Surukusk.
- 1040 The Seljuks withdraw and then defeat Mas'ud at the Battle of Dandanaqan.
- 1040 Prince Yezeedeyar dispatched to Ghur to quell uprising while Mas'ud withdraws and moves capital from Ghazni to Lahore.
During the course of the withdrawal, his army mutinied and a faction reinstated Mas'ud's brother Mohammad to the throne. Mohammad then had Mas'ud imprisoned at Giri, where he was killed either on the orders of Mohammad or Mohammad's son Ahmed.
- C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 296.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, (Columbia University Press, 1977), 20.
- 'Izz al-D in Ibn al-Althir, The Annals of the Saljuq Turks, transl. D.S. Richards, ed.Carole Hillenbrand, (Routledge, 2002), 35.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 91.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 19.
- C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 20.
- Ferishta, History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power