Kerman

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For the administrative subdivisions, see Kerman Province and Kerman County. For the village in Mazandaran Province, see Kerman, Mazandaran. For the U.S. city, see Kerman, California.
Kerman کرمان
city
Ancient names: Kārmānia, Boutiā, Germānia
Ganj Ali Khan ancient square
Ganj Ali Khan ancient square
Official seal of Kerman کرمان
Seal
Nickname(s): ديار كريمان' (Persian for "Land of Karimans"), The City Of Stars
Kerman کرمان is located in Iran
Kerman کرمان
Kerman کرمان
Coordinates: 30°17′N 57°05′E / 30.283°N 57.083°E / 30.283; 57.083Coordinates: 30°17′N 57°05′E / 30.283°N 57.083°E / 30.283; 57.083
Country  Iran
Province Kerman
County Kerman
Bakhsh Central
Founded c. 3rd century A.D
Government
 • Mayor Abolghasem Seyfollahi
Area
 • city 185 km2 (85.16 sq mi)
Elevation 1,755 m (5,758 ft)
Population (2011Kiu)
 • city 734,441 [1]
 • Urban 821,374 [2]
 • Population Rank in Iran 10th
Demonym Kermani
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Postal code 761
Area code(s) +98 0341
Main language(s) Persian, Baluchi
Website www.kermancity.kr.ir/

Kerman (About this sound pronunciation ) (Persian: كرمان‎, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania)[3] is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,374, in 221,389 households, making it the 10th most populous city of Iran.[4]

It is the largest and most developed city in the Kerman Province and the most important city in South-East Iran. It is one of the largest cities of Iran in terms of area. Kerman is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritage. The city is home to many historic mosques and Zoroastrian fire temples. Kerman is also on the list of the recent world's 1000 cleanest cities. Kerman is also a former capital of Iran, a position that it held during several periods. It is located on a large, flat plain, 1,036 km (643 mi) south of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

History[edit]

Kerman was founded as a defensive outpost, with the name Behdesīr, by Ardeshir I, founder of the Sassanid Empire, in the 3rd century AD. After the Battle of Nahāvand in 642, the city came under Muslim rule. At first the city's isolation allowed Kharijites and Zoroastrians to thrive there, but the Kharijites were wiped out in 698, and the population was mostly Muslim by 725. Already in the eighth century the city was famous for its manufacture of cashmere wool shawls and other textiles. The Abbasid Caliphate's authority over the region was weak, and power passed in the tenth century to the Buyid dynasty, which maintained control even when the region and city fell to Mahmud of Ghazna in the late tenth century. The name Kerman was adopted at some point in the tenth century.[5]

The Masjid gate through which Agha Mohammad Khan entered the city.
Sassanid era horse head Found in Kerman

Kerman was under the Seljuk Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries, but remained virtually independent, conquering Oman and Fars.[6] When Marco Polo visited the city in 1271 it had become a major trade emporium linking the Persian Gulf with Khorasan and Central Asia.[7] Subsequently, however, the city was sacked many times by various invaders. Kerman expanded rapidly during the Safavid Dynasty. Carpets and rugs were exported to England and Germany during this period.[8]

In 1793 Lotf Ali Khan defeated the Qajars and in 1794 captured Kerman. But soon, he was besieged in Kerman for six months by Agha Mohammad Khan. When the city fell to Agha Mohammad Khan, angered by the popular support that Lotf Ali Khan had received, all the male inhabitants were killed or blinded, and a pile was made out of 20,000 detached eyeballs and poured in front of the victorious Agha Muhammad Khan.[9] The women and children were sold into slavery, and the city was destroyed over ninety days.

The present city of Kerman was rebuilt in the 19th century to the northwest of the old city, but the city did not recover to its former size until the 20th century.

Geography[edit]

Kerman
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
29
 
12
−4
 
 
27
 
14
−1
 
 
32
 
19
3
 
 
20
 
24
8
 
 
8.6
 
30
12
 
 
0.5
 
35
16
 
 
0.7
 
36
17
 
 
0.6
 
34
14
 
 
0.3
 
31
10
 
 
0.7
 
26
5
 
 
5.1
 
19
−1
 
 
18
 
14
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Organization

Kerman is located on a high margin of Kavir-e Lut (Lut Desert) in the central south of Iran. The city is surrounded by mountains. Kerman is also located along the Saheb Al Zman mountain .The city is 1,755 m (5,758 ft) above sea level that makes it the third capital city(of a province) in Iran with the highest Elevation. Winter has very cold nights in Kerman. Mountains in the South and South East Jftan Joopar and Plvar and Kerman have snow all year round. Kerman is located at latitude 30.29 and longitude 57.06 .

Climate[edit]

The city's many districts are surrounded by mountains which bring variety to Kerman's year round weather pattern, thus the northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate. The mean elevation of the city is about 1755 m above sea level.

Kerman city has a moderate climate and the average annual rainfall is 135 mm. Because it is located close to the Kavir-e lut, Kerman has hot summers and in the spring it often has violent sand storms. Otherwise, its climate is relatively cool.[8]

Geological characteristics[edit]

For the Iranian paleontologists, Kerman has always been considered a fossil paradise. Finding new dinosaur footprints in 2005 has now revealed new hopes for paleontologists to better understand the history of this area.[10][11]

Economy[edit]

Kerman's carpet

The economy of Kerman is mostly based on farming, notably nut farming and also mining. Sarchashmeh Copper mine is the second biggest copper mine in the world after the one located in Chile. Pistachio is an important source of economy in Kerman, with Kerman Province being the biggest producer of pistachio in Iran and all over the world.

Carpet weaving is one of the main industries of the city, and the carpets produced there are renowned internationally.[7] Carpet weaving is a very old tradition in Kerman. The oldest carpet discovered in Kerman, dates from about 500 years ago, which proves the precedence of weaving in this city.[12] Among the most famous Kerman carpet producers of the 19th & 20th centuries include Costigian, Ghastili and Dilmaghani,[13] the latter still in operation & considered an important connection of 19th and 20th century production of carpets in Kerman.[14] Cotton textiles and goats-wool shawls are also manufactured.[15]

A number of modern establishments such as textile mills and brickworks also have been constructed. The province's mineral wealth includes copper and coal.[7]

Culture[edit]

Kerman has an abundance of architectural relics of antiquity.

Kerman is among several cites in Iran with a strong cultural heritage, which is expressed in the local accent, poetry, local music, handicrafts and customs that Kerman has introduced to the world of culture.

The only anthropology Iran museum of Zoroastrians in the world, which showcases the ancient history of Zoroastrians, is in Kerman’s Fire Temple. The idea of launching the museum along with the library of Kerman’s Zoroastrian Society came to light in 1983, when the head of the society, Parviz Vakhashouri, and the former head of library, Mehran Gheibi, collected cultural heritage artifacts of Kerman’s Zoroastrian community. These two officials added many other objects to this collection.The museum was officially inaugurated during Jashn-e Tirgan in 2005 by Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO).

Jashn-e Tirgan or Tiregan is an ancient Iranian rain festival observed on July 1. The festivity refers to archangel Tir (literally meaning arrow) or Tishtar (lightning) who appear in the sky to generate thunder and lightning for providing the much needed rain.

Sadeh ceremony is celebrated every year in Kerman.

Also The archeological ancient area of Jiroft and Tappe Yahya Baft are located south of Kerman.Rayen Castle is also located on Rayen town,south east of Kerman.

Demography[edit]

Most of the population of Kerman are Persians and Shi'a Muslims. Baloch living in Kerman as the second largest ethnicity and are predominantly Sunni. But Kerman also has a small but culturally significant Zoroastrian minority.

The population of the city in 1996 was 385,000 and in 2006 was 515,414 and the current population is 621,374:including 312,873 male and 308,501 female.[16]

Population development[edit]

Some of these figures are estimates only, official census results are dedicated with (¹).[17]

Year Population
1896 ¹ 40,228
1906 55,000
1916 ¹ 52,154
1926 ¹ 55,048
1936 75,000
1946 ¹ 97,363
1956 ¹ 101,716
1966 ¹ 140,761
1976 ¹ 254,786
1986 310,000
1991 350,000
1996 ¹ 384,991
Year Population
2001 450,000
2006 ¹ 515,414
2011 ¹ 734,441

¹ official census results

Government[edit]

Politics in Kerman are influenced by the former President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, his brother and Vice President Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani and Hossein Marashi, both from the nearby Rafsanjan. Mohammad Javad Bahonar was born in Kerman, He was an Iranian scholar, Shiite theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran from 15 to 30 August 1981 when he was assassinated by Mujahideen-e Khalq (MEK).

Colleges and universities[edit]

Sport[edit]

The city is home to many athletic teams in different fields. Sanat Mes Kerman FC is the major Soccer team of the city.They were promoted to Iran's top league, the IPL, in the 2005-06 season. The team is named after and sponsored by Kerman's copper industries.This team have a history participating in the AFC Champions League. Also many famous soccer players were born in Kerman.

Mes handball team is present in the top league. MES cycling team is present in the top league of cycling in the country. MES chess team is present in the first league of the country.

The city's baseball team known as the "Boshra Baseball Academy" won the country's baseball cup for the first time in 2013.[18]

In October 2013 Kerman was the host to the qualifying Group D of AFC U-19 Championship 2014.

Kerman sport venues[edit]

  • 35 000 seat dedicated MES soccer team Stadium (under construction)
  • Salimi Kia Stadium
  • Sports Complex of Imam Ali
  • Sirch Ski resort
  • Kerman Horseback Riding Club
  • International Kart racing track: This track is one of the most standard Kart racing tracks in Iran.
  • international Large track cycling (under construction)

Media[edit]

Kerman is the media center of the Kerman Province There are many newspapers that are published in the city,such as Kerman Emruz(Kerman Today),Bidari, and Hadis.Pasargad is also a weekly newspaper. Kerman has an 24hr active TV channel known as Kerman channel or The 5th channel. The city has also an active radio station.

Transportation[edit]

Kerman's Adineh Bus terminus
Boeing 747-400 of Iranian Mahan Air

Kerman is on the Tehran, Bandar Abbas and Zahedan route. Kerman Airport is counted as one of the main airports which has daily and weekly flights to Tehran, Ahwaz, Yazd, Esfahan, Bandar Abbas, Mashhad and Shiraz.[8] Also the Trans-Iranian Railway passes through this city.[8] Kerman's newly built Bus terminus named Adineh has been opened in May 2013.

Mahan Air Airlines[edit]

International company Mahan Air was established in Kerman and has its headquarters there . Kerman’s flights to the remotest parts of Iran and the world is doing by Mahan Air . This company was established in 1992 in Kerman, it has the highest reputation of quality among Iranians Airlines and is now in the list of the great airline companies in the region.

Metro[edit]

Kerman's Metro had been approved by the government cabinet and was meant to cover large parts of the metropolitan area in Kerman but, The project's operations were canceled due to several issues. Later then it was heard that a Tram project would replace the Metro project but, this project hasn't been launched yet.

Health[edit]

Kerman is one of the leading cities within Iran in the field of health and many people from neighboring provinces such as Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan visit the city for medical care. Kerman is in the list of recent world record of 1000 clean cities of world.

The city has several hospitals.The well known ones are: Afzali pour hospital, Doctor Bahonar hospital, Raziye Firoz Hospital and Mehregan Hospital.

Famous people from Kerman[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Surrounding municipalities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census". Sko.ir. August 16, 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  2. ^ "2011 Census". Amar.org.ir. August 16, 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  3. ^ Kerman can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3070237" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. 
  5. ^ A.H.T. Levi, "Kerman," in International Dictionary of Historic Places, ed. Trudy Ring, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1995-1996, vol. 4, p. 413.
  6. ^ "Kerman". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c Pourshariati, Parvaneh. "Kerman". Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group, Inc. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Iran Chamber Society: Iranian Cities: Kerman". Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  9. ^ Hasan Pir Nia, A. Eghbal Ashtiani, History of Persia (Tarikh-i Iran), ISBN 964-6895-16-6, Tehran, 2003, p.655
  10. ^ "Dinosaur Footprints Moulded In Kerman". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ "Kerman Rug (Iran): History". Caroun.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  13. ^ Nemati "Rugs as an Investment" 1980, p. 94
  14. ^ Hali Magazine 1993, p.74
  15. ^ "Travel in Kerman - Iran - History - WorldTravelGate.net®". Mideasttravelling.net. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  16. ^ "Cities in Iran: 2005 Population Estimates". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  17. ^ "Population development". Kermancity.kr.ir. August 16, 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  18. ^ "Kerman Baseball". Mehrnews.com. March 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 

External links[edit]