|Kamal Al-Molk Mausoleum, Attar Mausoleum, Omar Khayyam Mausoleum, Abu Osman Maghrebi Mausoleum, Omar Khayyam Square & Abbasi Caravanserai of Nishapur, Amin Islami Mansion,Old Train Station of Nishapur,Nature of north nishapur(Baghrud),a 2012 residental apartment established in Nishapur|
|Nickname(s): Abarshahr, Turquoise Town, Little Damascus|
|Elevation||1,250 m (4,100 ft)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+03:30)|
Nishapur or Nishabur pronunciation (help·info) (Persian: نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nīshābūr, and Neyshābūr), is a city in the Razavi Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Mount Binalud, near the regional capital of Mashhad. Nishapur derived its name from its alleged founder, the Sasanian king Shapur.
The region's economy is largely agricultural, based on grain and cotton, and it is also the second industrial city in Khorasan Province, and it is one of the most prosperous localities in Iran, although somewhat blighted by drug smuggling from nearby Afghanistan. It had a population of 205,972 people according to 2006 census. The main east-west railway line through Iran passes through the town. The region is very prone to earthquakes, with the most recent significant ones occurring in 1986 and 1997.
The city always is remembered as one of the most important and biggest cities of the early Islamic period. It was one of the largest cities and home to many scientists, poets, Sufis and others in the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims - particularly some Sahaba- built large mosques in the city. Nishapur was one of the most important centers of knowledge and innovation during the Abbasid Caliphate.
What remains of old Nishapur region as an area of 3500 hectares "Kohandejh" area, south of the current city of Nishapur. The first archaeological research in Nishapur, began between the years 1935 and 1947, and has continued ever since.
Nishapur occupies an important strategic position astride the old Silk Road that linked Anatolia and the Mediterranean Sea with China. On the Silk Road, Nishapur has often defined the flexible frontier between the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. The town derived its name from its reputed founder, the Sassanian king Shapur I, who is said to have established it in the 3rd century CE. Nearby are the turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. It became an important town in the Khorasan region but subsequently declined in significance until a revival in its fortunes in 9th century under the Tahirid dynasty, when the glazed ceramics of Nishapur formed an important item of trade to the west. For a time Nishapur rivaled Baghdad or Cairo: Toghrül, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037 and proclaimed himself sultan there, but it declined thereafter, as Seljuk fortunes were concentrated in the west. In the year 1000CE, it was among the 10 largest cities on earth. After the husband of Genghis Khan's daughter was killed at Nishapur in 1221, she ordered the death of all in the city (~1.7 million), and the skulls of men, women, and children were piled in pyramids by the Mongols. This invasion and earthquakes destroyed the pottery kilns. In 1979, the 15th World Scout Jamboree was scheduled to be held in Nishapur, but it was cancelled because of the uprising against the Shah of Iran led by Khomeini Ayatollah.
Origin of Name: It seems to have been founded by the Sasanian Shapur I in the 3rd century CE, and possibly rebuilt by Shapur II in the following century. The name presumably stems from *nēv-šāpūr "fair, good city of Shapur."
Nishapur is also home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The poet and mathematician Omar Khayyám was born in Nishapur in 1048 and is buried a few miles outside the town, near the Imamzadeh Mahroq Mosque. The 12th century poet and mystic Farid al-Din Attar, another native of Nishapur, is also buried nearby. And Iran's greatest contemporary painter, Kamal-ol-molk is buried in the same place. Also Nishapur has been the hometown of famous people including:
- Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (one of Islam's greatest muhaddiths, whose collection of hadith, Sahih Muslim, is second in authenticity only to Muhammad al-Bukhari's Sahih al-Bukhari)
- Imam al-Hakim (another one of Islam's greatest muhaddiths and scholarly giants)
- Prof. Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (great contemporary Persian poet and writer and Persian literature Professor, who is famous for his literary criticism)
- Ostad Parviz Meshkatian (famous Musician, researcher, Santur player and composer).
- Heydar Yaghma (an illiterate worker who began telling poems and published them.)
- Haji Bektash Veli (Muslim mystic, humanist and philosopher)
- Saadat Khan or Wakil-i-Mutlaq, Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was the founder of the Awadh dynasty in north India in 18th century.
Popular culture 
Archaeology sites 
Little archaeology has been done on this vast and complicated site. George Curzon remarked that Nishapur had been destroyed and rebuilt more times than any other city in history, an evocative statement whether or not it is statistically true. The Metropolitan Museum of Art undertook excavations from 1935 that were interrupted in 1940. Searching largely for museum-worthy trophies that they shared with the government of the Shah, the Metropolitan's publications were limited to its own Nishapur ceramics. The site of Nishapur has been ransacked for half a century since World War II, to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art.
Shadiyakh (in Persian: شادیاخ, a contracted form of شادی کاخ, Shadi-Kakh or Palace of Happiness) was one of the main palaces of old Nishapur up to the 9th century AD, which became more important and populated after that. Some notable people like Attar lived there. Attar's tomb is nowadays in that area. This palace was perhaps completely ruined in 13th century AD.
ٍExcavations began in 2000 there and continued for around 2 years: buildings (possibly a palace), skeleton, equipments and other items were found there.
Recent incidents 
- In the Summer of 1987 (24.7.1987), a flood in Boojan village killed over 1,000 people and destroyed some villages.
- On February 18, 2004, in the Nishapur train disaster, a train carrying flammable goods derailed and caught fire near the town. Five hours later, during fire fighting and rescue work, a massive explosion destroyed the train and many nearby buildings. Around 300 people were said to have been killed, mainly fire and rescue workers but also the local governor and mayor and the heads of the fire and rail services.
Neyshabur Turquoise has been used for more than 2000 years and for this turquoise it is sometimes called "the turquoise land". Neyshabur turquoise and jewellery made from it are sold as souvenirs in Neyshabur and Mashhad resorts.
Rhubarb (Persian rivaas or rivand), a sour vegetable, grows at the foot of the eponymous Rivand Mountains (more recently, Turkified as Mount Binalud). Soft drinks made from the stems of the plant, such as "Sharbate rivaas" (in Persian:شربت ریواس) and "Khoshaabe rivaas" (in Persian:خوشاب ریواس), are sold at some Nishapur resorts as souvenirs.
This section includes Quotes about Nishapur or its global celebrities.
■«Nishapur ... pleasant town» «Nishapur ,is the best cities of the Great Khorasan.»—Hadith, source
If you wanted to travel to only one city in the world, I have no doubt that the city of Nishapur. I think the secret is all in the same universe—Jorge Luis Borges, source
■The only city that had the ability to parity with Cairo, was Nishapur .—Nasir Khosrow, source
■Nishapur is the site link of iran and Islam.The superior quality and Historical and Islamic position of Nishapur ,It requires a special look to be seen today—Mohammad Khatami, source
■Nishapur is Miniaturized Damascus—Ibn Batuta, source
■Two things make men free from sorrow Travel / Morning of Nishapur and Sleeping in Baghdad.—Middle eastern proverb, source
■this Nishapur on my view is greater iran compressed—Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani, source
■Renowned editors and authors of this city rising up, so that scholarsof this area will not be considered—Estakhri, source
Sister cities 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2011)|
- Kairouan, Tunisia
- Baghdad, Iraq
- Basra, Iraq
- Ghazni, Afghanistan
- Balkh, Afghanistan
- Herat, Afghanistan
- Merv, Turkmenistan
- Bukhara, Uzbekistan
- Samarqand, Uzbekistan
- Khiva, Uzbekistan
- Khojand, Tajikistan
- Kulob, Tajikistan
Famous people from Nishapur 
- Omar Khayyam - mathematician & poet
- Sheikh Attar - hagiographer & poet
- Abolghasem Sakhdari - wrestler
- Yaghoub Ali Shourvarzi - wrestler
- Saeed Khani - footballer
- Nishapur can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3076915" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
- "Iran Census" (in Persian).
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Nishapur|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nishapur|
- Nishapur Mayors (Persian)
- Nishapur governors (Persian)
- Ceramics of Nishapur and other centers
- World Gazetteer on Nishapur
- Neyshaburian e-newspaper (Persian)
- A useful weblog about Nishapur (Persian)
- wooden village website
- Nishapur Mathhouse
- Neyshabur bonyad (Persian)
- Elias Pirasteh, Neyshabur, Photo Set, flickr
- Ardavan Ruzbeh, When National Heritage is not an equal to the Emām-Jom'eh, a reportage on the demolition of a national monument, Madreseh-ye Golshan (مدرسه گلشن), in Nishabur, in Persian, Radio Zamāneh, May 29, 2008: Text, Audio.
- Hossein Davoudi, Dizbād: A Staircase to History, in Persian, Jadid Online, 2008, .
A Slide Show of Dizbād, by Hossein Davoudi, Jadid Online, 2008,  (5 min 39 sec).
Note: Dizbād is a small village between Mashhad and Neyshābūr, located at some 40 km distance from Mashhad.