Nishapur

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For the administrative subdivision, see Nishapur County.
"Neyshabur" redirects here. For the village in Isfahan Province, see Neyshabur, Isfahan.
Nishapur
نیشابور
Neyshabur
Plaster tile from Old city of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur Mausoleum Omar Khayyam Mausoleum
Nature of North Nishapur Nature of North Nishapur
Mausoleum of Kamal-ol-Molk Wooden Mosque of Nishapur
Cornice plaster from Old city of Nishapur
Official seal of Nishapur
Seal
Nickname(s): Sassanid and Umayyed era: Abarshahr (Upper Cities), Little Damascus (by Ibn Battuta[1]
Nishapur is located in Iran
Nishapur
Nishapur
Coordinates: 36°12′48″N 58°47′45″E / 36.21333°N 58.79583°E / 36.21333; 58.79583Coordinates: 36°12′48″N 58°47′45″E / 36.21333°N 58.79583°E / 36.21333; 58.79583
Country  Iran
Province Razavi Khorasan
County Nishapur County
Foundation 3rd century
Municipality of Nishapur 1931
Government
 • Mayor of Nishapur Mohammad-Hassan Zarandi
 • Governor of Nishapur Esfandiar Jalayeri
Elevation 1,250 m (4,100 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total City of Nishapur : 239,185[2] Nishapur County : 433,105[3] Urban areas of Nishapur County : 270,301
  2 Census
Demonym Nishapuri
Time zone IRST (UTC+03:30)
Website Neyshaboor, Rowzaneh,Neyshabur Day

Nishapur or Nishabur About this sound pronunciation  (Persian: نیشابور‎, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nīshābūr, and Neyshābūr from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur",[4] or "Perfect built of Shapur"),[5] is a city in the Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Mount Binalud. It had an estimated population of 239,185 as of 2011 and its county 433,105. Nearby are the turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia.

The city was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I as a Sasanian satrapy capital. Nishapur later became the capital of Tahirid dynasty and was reformed by Abdullah Tahir in 830, and was later selected as the capital of Seljuq dynasty by Tughril in 1037. From the Abbasid era to Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran, the city evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center within the Islamic world. Nishapur, along with Merv, Herat and Balkh were one of the four great cities of Greater Khorasan and one of the greatest cities in the middle ages, a seat of governmental power in eastern of caliphate, a dwelling place for diverse ethnic and religious groups, a trading stop on commercial routes from Transoxiana and China, Iraq and Egypt. The city reached the height of its prosperity under the Samanids in the 10th century, but was destroyed by Mongols in 1221, and further ruined by other invasions and earthquakes in the 13th century. After that time, a much smaller settlement was established just north of the ancient town, and the once bustling metropolis lay underground—until a team of excavators from the Metropolitan Museum of Art arrived in the mid-20th century. They worked at Nishapur between 1935 and 1940, returning for a final season in the winter of 1947–48.[6] What remains of old Nishapur region is a 3500 hectares "Kohandejh" area, south of the current city of Nishapur.

History[edit]

Pre-History & Archaeology[edit]

Little archaeology has been done on this vast and complicated site. George Curzon remarked that Nishapur had been destroyed and rebuilt more times than any other city in history,[7] an evocative statement whether or not it is statistically true. The Metropolitan Museum of Art undertook excavations from 1935 that were interrupted in 1940. Searching largely for museum-worthy trophies that they shared with the government of the Shah, the Metropolitan's publications were limited to its own Nishapur ceramics. The site of Nishapur has been ransacked for half a century since World War II, to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art.

Shadiyakh (in Persian: شادیاخ, a contracted form of شادی کاخ, Shadi-Kakh or Palace of Happiness) was one of the main palaces of old Nishapur up to the 9th century AD, which became more important and populated after that. Some notable people like Attar lived there. Attar's tomb is nowadays in that area. This palace was perhaps completely ruined in the 13th century.

Middle Ages[edit]

Nishapur occupies an important strategic position astride the old Silk Road that linked Anatolia and the Mediterranean Sea with China. On the Silk Road, Nishapur has often defined the flexible frontier between the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. The town derived its name from its reputed founder, the Sassanian king Shapur I, who is said to have established it in the 3rd century CE. Nearby are the turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. It became an important town in the Khorasan region but subsequently declined in significance until a revival in its fortunes in the 9th century under the Tahirid dynasty, when the glazed ceramics of Nishapur formed an important item of trade to the west. For a time Nishapur rivaled Baghdad or Cairo: Toghrül, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037 and proclaimed himself sultan there, but it declined thereafter, as Seljuk fortunes were concentrated in the west. In the year 100 0CE, it was among the 10 largest cities on earth.[8] After the husband of Genghis Khan's daughter was killed at Nishapur in 1221, she ordered the death of all in the city (~1.7 million), and the skulls of men, women, and children were piled in pyramids by the Mongols. This invasion and earthquakes destroyed the pottery kilns. In 1979, the 15th World Scout Jamboree was scheduled to be held in Nishapur, but it was cancelled because of the uprising against the Shah of Iran led by AyatollahKhomeini .

Nishapur genocide by the Mongols[edit]

The Nishapur genocide by the Mongols took place at Nishapur in April 1221. The Mongol armies of Genghis Khan massacred 1,747,000 citizens.[9]

Nishapur is a Persian city (now located in Iran) and it was a cultural and trading center during the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran. Genghis Khan armies seiged Nishapur. During the siege an arrow shot by Nishapurians hit and killed the favorite son-in-law, Toquchar, which upset Khan's daughter badly. At the request of her revenge, that every last person in Nishapur was killed, Khan's troops, led by his youngest son, Tolui went on a rampage, killing everyone they found, including women, children, infants, and even dogs and cats. On further orders of Khan's daughter who was worried if the people were just wounded and still alive, the people of Nishapur were beheaded, and their skulls were piled in pyramids that were built later.[10]

Toponymy[edit]

Most historians believe The name Nishapur may derive from the name of Shapur I

Prehistory and antiquity[edit]

Sassanid Nishapur[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Chronicle[edit]

Culture[edit]

in UNESCO[edit]

Anthem[edit]

The special Anthem of Nishapur was unveiled for the first time on April 14, 2011,[11] an introduction and three parts,Frightening sound of bells,noted on three invasive and destructive in the history of Nishapur,and sound of percussion and wailing women represent the miseries caused by these attacks.[12][13]

Persian original UniPers alphabet English translation
ای پایتخت اول ایرانی من
ای آسمانت فرصتِ بارانی من
«فیروزه» ات نقش نگین مهربانی
اندیشه های مردمانت آسمانی
روییده در هر گوشه ات گل‌های احساس
خرداد «بینالود» تو سرشار «ریواس»
شرمنده از کردار خود «تاتار» و «چنگیز»
پاینده باشی ای «برشهر» هنرخیز
در کوچه باغت مانده رد پایی از ماه
گل کرده در چشمان تو نام «قدمگاه»
ey payetâkhte avvâle irânie mân
ey asemânat forsate bâaranie mâan
firuzeh at naghshe negine mehrabâni
andishe hâye mardomânat asemâni
rooiyedeh dar har gushe at gol hâye ehsâs
Khordade binalude to sarshare rivas
sharmande az kerdâre khod tatar o changiz
pâyandeh bâshi ey barshâhre honar khiz
dar kuche bâghat mande radde payy az mah
gol kardeh dar cheshmane to nâmeh ghadam gah
Oh! My Iranian first capital
Oh! your sky my rainy time
your Turquoise, pattern of kindness ring
Your People's thoughts Heavenly
Sprouting in every your corner Emotional flowers:
Khordad of your Binalud ful of rhubarb,
Tartar and Genghis ashamed of their actions

Museums[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

  • US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas.

Local and Cultural days[edit]

Local and Cultural days in Nishapur
Name Day Calendar
Farvardin (Hamal) 1 Nowruz Solar Hijri
Farvardin (Hamal) 13 Sizdah Be-dar,Day of Nature Solar Hijri
Farvardin (Hamal) 25 Respect day for Attar of Nishapur Solar Hijri
Ordibehesht(Thawr) 28 Respect day for Omar Khayyam Solar Hijri
Tir (Saratan) 10 Remembrance day for Imam Ali al-Ridha Solar Hijri
Mordad 2 Sympathy day for Victims of Boozhan flood Solar Hijri
Azar 30 Night of Yalda Solar Hijri
Bahman 29 Sympathy day for Victims of Nishapur train disaster Solar Hijri
Last Wednesday of Esfand Chaharshanbe Suri Festival Solar Hijri
Esfand 29 Celebrate the end of winter Solar Hijri
Muharram 10 Remembrance of Muharram Lular Hijri
Safar 20 Arba'een Lular Hijri
Rabi' al-awwal 17 Mawlid Lular Hijri
Rajab 25 Respect day for Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, death of Musa al-Kadhim Lular Hijri
Sha'aban 14 Borat Nights (3 nights) Lular Hijri
Shawwal 1 Eid al-Fitr Lular Hijri
Dhu al-Hijjah 18 Eid of Ghadir,Day of Visiting Sadaat Lular Hijri

Arts[edit]

About Arts in Nishapur, or Arts of Old Nishapur

Pottery[edit]

Bowl painted on slip under transparent glaze (Polychrome), Nishabur, 9th or 10th century. National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

Nishapur during the Islamic Golden Age, especially the 9th and 10th centuries, was one of the great centers of pottery and related arts.[14] Most of Ceramic artifacts discovered in Nishapur preserve in Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museums in Tehran and Mashhad. Ceramics produced at Nishapur showed links with Sassanid art and Central Asian.[15] Nowadays there are 4 Pottery workshop in Nishapur.[16]

Carpet-weaving[edit]

Weaving carpets and rugs common in the more than 470 villages in Nishapur County,the most important carpet Workshop located in the villages of: Shafi' Abad, Garineh Darrud Baghshan Kharv Bozghan Sayyed Abad Sar Chah Suleymani Sultan Abad and Eshgh Abad. Nishapur Carpet workshops weaved the biggest Carpets in the world, like carpets of : Sheikh Zayed Mosque,[17] Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque,[18] Armenian Presidential Palace, Embassy of Finland in Tehran, Mohammed Al-Ameen Mosque in Oman.[19]

Modern art of carpet in Nishapur began in 1946 after inauguration of a carpet-weaving workshop in a caravansary.

Turquoise masonry[edit]

Cutting and grinding Nishapur turquoise in Mashhad, Iran, 1973

For at least 2,000 years, Iran, known before as Persia, has remained an important source of turquoise, which was named by Iranians initially "pirouzeh" meaning "victory" and later after Arab invasion "firouzeh".[citation needed] In Iranian architecture, the blue turquoise was used to cover the domes of the Iranian palaces because its intense blue colour was also a symbol of heaven on earth.[citation needed]

This deposit, which is blue naturally, and turns green when heated due to dehydration, is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Nishapur, the 2,012-metre (6,601 ft) mountain peak of Ali-mersai, which is tens of kilometers from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone, and amongst the scree at the mountain's base. These workings, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula, are the oldest known.[20]

Tile[edit]

Tile working in Muhammad al-Mahruq Mosque,Nishapur

In many important historical or modern monuments and buildings the Art of Tiles are widely used in Nishapur,

Production of Textiles[edit]

Traditional Cloth Weaving[edit]

Wooden Arts[edit]

Felt-weaving[edit]

Painting[edit]

Calligraphy[edit]

Calligraphy Conference about Laylat al-Qadr in Nishapur,July 31, 2013

Statuary[edit]

Statue of Kamal-ol-molk on his grave

Wall Painting[edit]

Members of Red Crescent in village of Shur Rud,painting walls

Carving[edit]

People[edit]

Language[edit]

A hawza in Nishapur,a school that taught Arabic language as religious studies courses.Other schools in Nishapur taught Arabic as historical and religious language

Most people speak Farsi in Nishapur.

Khorasani Turkic, Kurdish and Arabic are also spoken.

Religion[edit]

Islam is first religion and Twelever Mahdist Shia is first Madhab in Nishapur.

Population[edit]

Scholars and famous people[edit]

Sorted by date

Education[edit]

Schools , Universities and colleges[edit]

Islamic Azad University of Nishapur is a main branch of Islamic Azad University. It was established in 1985 and has two faculties in IAUM, Agriculture, and Engineering faculty offers Bachelor, and Master degrees.

Libraries[edit]

Sport[edit]

Nishapur has one professional football team, Jahan Electric Nishapur, who compete in Razavi Khorasan's Provincial Leagues.

Sport centers[edit]

Enghelab Sports Complex is an indoor arena in Nishapur. The arena houses Nishapur's basketball, volleyball, and futsal teams.

Famous athletes[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Train[edit]

Nishapur train disaster[edit]

On 18 February 2004, runaway train wagons crashed into the village of Khayyam near Nishapur, causing an explosion and killing over 300 people. The entire village of Khayyam was destroyed.[citation needed]

Road 44[edit]

Road 44 is a highway that goes from Tehran to Mashhad and also passes Nishapur on the way.

Industry and Economy[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Power stations[edit]

Industrial Estates[edit]

Companies and factories[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Souvenir[edit]

Geography[edit]

Weather[edit]

Geology[edit]

Seismicity[edit]

Mass media[edit]

An IRIB center in Nishpaur.

Newspaper publishing[edit]

General publications in Nishapur includes the weekly and local newspapers. The first local newspaper of Khorasan province is Morning of Nishapur publishing since 1989,and Shadiakh since 2000,Khayyam Nameh since 2004,Nasim since 2006,Far reh Simorgh since 2010.[22]

Broadcasting[edit]

IRIB center of Mashhad covers news of Nishapur.

Printing[edit]

Two book publishers working in the city:Klidar & Abar Shahr.[23][24]

Administration[edit]

Left: Mohammad-Hassan Zarandi,Currently Mayor of Nishapur since March 9, 2013 ; right: Current Governor of Nishapur County since May 11, 2013.

Relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

  1. Afghanistan Ghazni, Afghanistan
  2. Iran Khoy, Iran
  3. Turkey Konya, Turkey
  4. Iraq Karbala, Iraq

Popular culture[edit]

US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas.

Recent incidents[edit]

  • On July 24, 1987, a flood in Boojan village killed over 1,000 people and destroyed some villages.
  • On February 18, 2004, in the Nishapur train disaster, a train carrying flammable goods derailed and caught fire near the town. Five hours later, during fire fighting and rescue work, a massive explosion destroyed the train and many nearby buildings. Around 300 people were said to have been killed, mainly fire and rescue workers but also the local governor and mayor and the heads of the fire and rail services.[25]

Souvenirs[edit]

The most important Nishapur souvenirs include turquoise and rhubarb.

Neyshabur Turquoise has been used for more than 2000 years and for this turquoise it is sometimes called "the turquoise land". Neyshabur turquoise and jewellery made from it are sold as souvenirs in Neyshabur and Mashhad resorts.

Rhubarb (Persian rivaas or rivand), a sour vegetable, grows at the foot of the eponymous Rivand Mountains (more recently, Turkified as Mount Binalud). Soft drinks made from the stems of the plant, such as "Sharbate rivaas" (in Persian:شربت ریواس) and "Khoshaabe rivaas" (in Persian:خوشاب ریواس), are sold at some Nishapur resorts as souvenirs.

Quotes[edit]

This section includes quotes about Nishapur or its global celebrities.

Nishapur ... pleasant town ... Nishapur, is the best cities of the Great Khorasan.

—Hadith, source

If you wanted to travel to only one city in the world, I have no doubt that the city of Nishapur. I think the secret is all in the same universe

—Jorge Luis Borges, source

The only city that had the ability to parity with Cairo, was Nishapur.

—Nasir Khosrow, source

Nishapur is the site link of iran and Islam.The superior quality and Historical and Islamic position of Nishapur, It requires a special look to be seen today

—Mohammad Khatami, source

Nishapur is Miniaturized Damascus

—Ibn Batuta, source

Two things make men free from sorrow Travel / Morning of Nishapur and Sleeping in Baghdad.

—Middle eastern proverb, source

this Nishapur on my view is greater iran compressed

—Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani, source

Renowned editors and authors of this city rising up, so that scholars of this area will not be considered

—Estakhri, source

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran - Volume 1 - Page 68
  2. ^ http://www.sko.ir/Sarshomari1390/Shahrhaye_IRAN.xls
  3. ^ http://www.khorasan.ir/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=lrFSbp8Zxwk%3d&tabid=8771&mid=14529
  4. ^ Honigmann, E.; Bosworth, C.E.. "Nīs̲h̲āpūr." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2013. Reference. 31 December 2013 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/nishapur-SIM_5930>
  5. ^ Nishapur can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3076915" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  6. ^ http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nish/hd_nish.htm
  7. ^ George N. Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, Vol. I, (Routledge, 2005), 262.
  8. ^ geography.about.com
  9. ^ DEATH BY GOVERNMENT
  10. ^ [http://www.hoaxorfact.com/Celebrities/genghis-khan-killed-1-748-000-people-at-nishapur-in-one-hour-hoax-analysis.html Genghis Khan Killed 1,748,000 People at Nishapur in One Hour - Hoax Analysis]
  11. ^ http://www.magiran.com/npview.asp?ID=2270609
  12. ^ http://www.rovzane.com/blog/show/%D9%BE%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%84-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C-%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AF-%D9%86%DB%8C%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%B1.html
  13. ^ http://551.ir/en/about-neyshabur/song-of-neyshabur
  14. ^ Nishapur: Pottery of the Early Islamic Period,Wilkinson, Charles K. (1973)
  15. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415980/Nishapur-pottery
  16. ^ http://incc.ir/fa/Lists/News/DispForm.aspx?ID=2589
  17. ^ http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/World/20070728/726654.html
  18. ^ http://www.omanet.om/english/Relegious/grandmosq.asp
  19. ^ Muscat
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference USGS was invoked but never defined
  21. ^ Repertoire On Wajid Ali Shah & Monuments of Avadh - Nawabs of Oudh & their Secularism
  22. ^ http://551.ir/images/stories/news/newspaper/farresimorq/farresimorq-46-2.jpg
  23. ^ http://www.klidar.ir/
  24. ^ http://www.abarshar.ir
  25. ^ news.bbc.co.uk

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
-
Capital of Seljuq Empire (Persia)
1037–1043
Succeeded by
Rey