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Noye's Fludde (Noah's Flood), Op. 59, is a 1957 opera by Benjamin Britten. The text is based on an edition by Alfred W. Pollard of an early 15th-century mystery play from the Chester Mystery Cycle. The opera is written to be performed by a cast primarily of amateurs, and Britten requested it be performed in a church or a large hall but not in a theatre.
Like a Baroque concerto grosso, the orchestra calls for a small concertino ensemble of professionals, consisting of string quintet, recorder, piano (four hands), organ, and timpani. The amateur ripieno orchestra calls for strings, recorders, bugles, hand-bells, and percussion. The audience, which Britten refers to as the "congregation", is invited to join in by singing along in the three hymns inserted into the original text.
The first performance was on 18 June 1958 in Orford Church, Suffolk, as part of the Aldeburgh Festival, with the English Opera Group and a local cast. Owen Brannigan sang Noye, and the conductor was Charles Mackerras.
- 1 Background
- 2 Roles
- 3 Synopsis
- 4 Creation
- 5 Performance history and reception
- 6 Selected recordings
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 External links
Chester mystery plays
English mystery or "miracle" plays, which originated in the late Middle Ages, were dramatised bible stories performed on Church Feast days in city squares and market places, generally by members of the city's craft guilds. The plays covered the full range of the biblical narrative, from the Fall of Lucifer to the Last Judgement. The cycle of Chester Mystery Plays is one of four that had survived into the 20th century; authorship of the Chester cycle is sometimes attributed to Ranulf Higden, otherwise known as Roger of Chester, a much-respected historian of the city, although there is little direct evidence for this. The plays were apparently revised by an unknown hand in late 15th century, into a format similar to that of contemporary French passion plays.
The story of Noah and the Flood, the third play in the cycle, was performed by the Guild of the Drawers of Dee, otherwise known as the water-carriers. A feature of this play, observed by the historian Rosemary Woolf, is the depiction of Noah's wife, and by implication women generally, as disobedient, obdurate and finally abusive—in contrast to the "grave and obedient" Noah, and his patient sons.
After the 16th century Reformation the Church grew less tolerant of mystery plays. A performance in Chester in 1575 is the last recorded from the city until the 20th century. The Chester cycle was then revived as part of the city's Festival of Britain celebrations in June 1951, under the supervision of Christopher Ede. This production was received enthusiastically, and was repeated the following year; thereafter it became a regular feature and tourist attraction.
By the late 1940s Benjamin Britten had established himself as a leading composer of English opera, with several major works to his credit. In 1947 he suggested to his librettist Eric Crozier that they should create a children's opera, based on a bible story. Crozier gave Britten a copy of Alfred W. Pollard's edition of the Chester mystery plays, as a possible source of material. Nothing came of this project immediately; instead, Britten and Crozier wrote the cantata Saint Nicolas (1948), the first of several works in which Britten combined skilled performers with amateurs; the cantata involves at least two children's choirs, and incorporates two congregational hymns sung by the audience. Britten also used this fusion of professional with amateur forces in The Little Sweep (1949), which forms the second part of his entertainment for children, Let's make an Opera that he devised with Crozier. Again, child singers (now doubling as actors) are used, and the audience sings choruses at appropriate points. By 1952 Britten's collaboration with Crozier was over,[n 1] but he used the Chester plays book as the source text for his Canticle II (1952), based on the story of Abraham and Isaac.
In April 1957 Boris Ford, Head of Schools Broadcasting at Associated Rediffusion (A-R), wrote to Britten, proposing a series of half-hour programmes. These would show Britten composing and rehearsing a work through to final performance, and would provide children "an intimate piece of musical education, by ... watching a piece of music take shape and in some degree growing with it". Britten was initially cautious; he found the idea interesting but, he warned Ford, he was at that time busy travelling, and had little time for writing. He was also anxious not to cover the same ground as he has with Let's Make an Opera a few years previously. However, he agreed to meet Ford to discuss the project further. On 11 July they met in London, together with Britten's amanuensis Imogen Holst. Britten told Ford that he had "for some months or a year vaguely been thinking of doing something with the [Chester] miracle plays". Following the meeting Britten agreed to write an opera for Associated Rediffusion's 1958 summer term of school programmes. The subject would be Noah and the Flood, based on the Chester text. Later, Ford and his script editor, Martin Worth, travelled to Aldeburgh, and with Britten looked at possible churches for the performance. Orford Church was chosen as, unlike most other churches in East Suffolk, its pews were not fixed, thus offering a more flexible performing space.[n 2]
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast, 18 June 1958
(Conductor: Charles Mackerras)
|The Voice of God||spoken role||Trevor Anthony|
|Mrs. Noye||contralto||Gladys Parr|
|Jaffett||tenor or treble||Michael Crawford|
|Mrs. Sem||girl soprano||Janette Miller|
|Mrs. Ham||girl soprano||Katherine Dyson|
|Mrs. Jaffett||girl soprano||Marilyn Baker|
|Mrs. Noye's Gossips||girl sopranos||Penelope Allen, Doreen Metcalfe, Dawn Mendham, Beverley Newman|
|The Raven||silent role||David Bedwell|
|The Dove||silent role||Maria Spall|
|Children's chorus of animals and birds; congregation|
Noye's Fludde opens with the congregation singing the hymn "Lord Jesus, think on me" as Noye enters. The spoken Voice of God announces the forthcoming destruction of the sinful world. God tells Noye to build an ark ("a shippe") that will provide salvation for him and his family. Noye agrees, and calls on the people and his family to help. His sons and their wives enter with tools and materials and begin work, while Mrs Noye and her Gossips (close friends) mock the project. The work continues, and the ark is completed.
Noye tries to persuade his wife to come into the ark: "Wyffe, in this vessel we shall be kepte", but she refuses, and they quarrel. The Voice of God foretells forty days and forty nights of rain, and tells Noye to fill the ark with animals of every kind. The animals enter, heralded by bugle fanfares, in groups from all parts of the church, singing or squeaking "Kyrie eleison!",[n 3] while Noye's sons and their wives provide a commentary. Noye orders his family to board the ark, and again Mrs Noye and the Gossips refuse, preferring to drink. The sons finally drag Mrs Noye on board, while the Gossips are swept away by the encroaching flood; she rewards her husband with a slap. Rain begins to fall, building to a great storm at the height of which the first verse of the naval hymn "Eternal Father, Strong to Save" is heard from within the ark, sung by the cast and animals. The congregation joins in the second and third verses of the hymn, during which the storm gradually subsides. When it is calm, Noye sends out a Raven (a child dancer, usually a boy), saying "If this foule come not againe/it is a signe soth to sayne/that dry it is on hill or playne." When the Raven fails to return, Noye knows that the bird has discovered dry land. He sends out a Dove (another child dancer, usually a girl), who eventually brings back an olive branch. Noah accepts this as a sign of deliverence, and thanks God.
The Voice of God instructs everyone to leave the ark. As they do, the animals sing "Alleluias" accompanied by bugle fanfares, and the cast sing a chorus of praise: "Lord we thanke thee through thy mighte". God then promises that he will never again destroy the earth with water, and provides a rainbow as a token of this promise. The rainbow appears to the sound of handbells. The cast begins the hymn "The spacious firmament on high", which crescendoes until the congregation joins in the last two verses, the final verse accompanied by a musical climax in which all the instruments participate. All the cast except Noye file out during that verse, leaving Noye alone to receive God's blessing and promise of no more vengeance: "And nowe fare well, my darling deare". After a final look at the ark, Noye leaves and walks out through the congregation.
Having selected Noye's Fludde from the Chester cycle as his subject, Britten began detailed planning for the opera in August 1957, while sailing to Canada for a tour with the English Opera Group. He told Colin Graham, at that time the EOG's stage manager, that he wanted him to direct the new work. After a further meeting at Associated Rediffusion's London headquarters on 18 October, Britten began a composition draft in Aldeburgh on 27 October.[n 4] To Pollard's edition of the Noah play's text, he added three congregational Anglican hymns: "Lord Jesus, think on me"; "Eternal Father, strong to save"; and "The spacious firmament on high".[n 5] He had completed about two-thirds of the opera when Ford was dismissed from Associated Rediffusion, allegedly for administrative shortcomings and inexperience. A-R then decided to withdraw from the project, which was then taken up by Associated Television (ATV), whose chairman Lew Grade personally took responsibility for signing the contract and urged that Britten should complete the opera.
In November 1957 Britten moved to the Red House, just outside Aldeburgh, but continued to work on the opera throughout the upheaval. According to a letter he wrote to Edith Sitwell on 14 December, "the final bars of the opera [were] punctuated by hammer-blows" from workmen busy at the Red House. Before he had finished the composition draft (on 18 December), Britten wrote to the baritone Owen Brannigan, who had sung in several previous Britten operas, asking if he would take the title role. Britten completed the full score of the opera in March 1958, which he dedicated "To my nephew and nieces, Sebastian, Sally and Roguey Welford, and my young friend Ronald Duncan [one of Britten’s godsons]".
With a wide variety of child performers required in the opera, and in light of how it was cast and performed at its premiere, Britten detailed some of its specific requirements for performance in the published vocal score (replicated in the study score published by Boosey & Hawkes). The opera is intended for a large hall or church, not a theatre. The action should take place on raised rostra, but not on a formal stage set apart from the audience, with the orchestra placed in full sight, and the conductor in a position to conduct both the orchestra and, when performing the hymns, the congregation. Noye and Mrs Noye should be sung by "accomplished singer-actors", and the Voice of God, although not necessarily a professional actor, should have "a rich speaking voice, with a simple and sincere delivery, without being at all 'stagey'". Noye's children should be between 11 and 15 years old, with well-trained voices and lively personalities; Jaffet, the eldest, could have a broken voice. Mrs Noye's Gossips should be older girls with strong voices and considerable acting ability. The children playing the animals should vary in size, and range in age from seven to eighteen. The older age groups, with perhaps some broken voices, should represent the larger animals (lions, leopards, horses, camels etc), while the younger play rats, mice and birds. There is a dance or ballet involving two child performers playing the roles respectively of the raven and the dove.
For the first time in any of his works involving amateurs, Britten envisaged a large complement of child performers among his orchestral forces, which also includes what Colin Graham described as "the professional stiffening" of a piano duet, string quintet (two violins, viola, cello and bass), recorder and a timpanist. The young musicians are required to play a variety of instruments, including a full string orchestra, each section led by a respective member of the professional string quintet. The violins are further divided into parts of different levels of difficulty, from the simplest (mostly playing open strings) to those able to play in third position. The recorders should led by an accomplished soloist able to flutter-tongue; bugles are played as the children representing animals march into the ark. and at the climax of the opera.[n 6] The child percussionists, led by a professional timpanist, play various exotic and invented percussion instruments:[n 7] the score itself specifies sandpaper ("two pieces of sandpaper attached to blocks of wood and rubbed together") and "Slung Mugs". To represent the first drops of rain, Britten had the idea of striking teacups with a spoon. However, having failed to make this work, he sought Imogen Holst's advice. She recalled that "by great good fortune I had once had to teach Women's Institute percussion groups during a wartime 'social half hour', so I was able to take him into my kitchen and show him how a row of china mugs hanging on a length of string could be hit with a large wooden spoon.
Britten also added – relatively late in his process of scoring the work – an ensemble of handbell ringers. According to Imogen Holst, a member of the Aldeburgh Youth Club brought Britten's attention to a local ensemble of young handbell ringers: hearing them play, Britten was so enchanted by the sound that he gave the ensemble a major part to play as the rainbow unfolds towards the end of the opera.[n 8] Though the sound of those handbells were widely and favourably remarked upon at the opera's premiere, the relative scarcity of the instrument tuned at several of the pitches required in the opera was to prove something of an issue between Britten and his publishers.
Performance history and reception
The first performance of Noye's Fludde was staged during the 1958 Aldeburgh Festival, at Orford Church on 18 June. The conductor was Charles Mackerras, who had participated in several productions at past Aldeburgh festivals. The production was directed by Colin Graham, who also designed its set, with costume designs by Ceri Richards.[n 9] Apart from Brannigan as Noye, two other professional singers were engaged: Gladys Parr, in her last role before retirement, sang the part of Mrs Noye, and the spoken Voice of God was provided by the Welsh bass Trevor Anthony. The other major roles were taken by child soloists, who were selected from widely-ranged auditions. Among these was the future actor-singer, Michael Crawford, then 16 years old and described by Graham as "a very recently broken-voiced young tenor", who played the role of Jaffet.[n 10] Mrs Noye's Gossips were originally to be performed by girls from a Suffolk school, but when the headmistress heard rumours about the "dissolute" parts they were to play, she withdrew her pupils. The Chorus of Animals was provided by children from three local schools: Sir John Leman School, Beccles; the County Primary School, Bungay; and the Heath Primary School, Kesgrave.
The professional element in the orchestra was provided by the English Opera Group players, led by Emanuel Hurwitz. The remaining adult players were a piano duet played by Viola Tunnard and Martin Penny, and the organist Ralph Downes. The children players, billed as "An East Suffolk Children's Orchestra", included handbell ringers from the County Modern School, Leiston; a percussion group, whose instruments included the slung mugs, from Woolverstone Hall School; recorder players from Framlingham College; and bugle players from the Royal Hospital School, Holbrook. Graham, recalling the scene in Orford Church at the premiere some years later, wrote: "The large orchestra (originally 150 players[n 11]) ... were massed around the font of Orford Church while the opera was played out on a stage erected at the end of the nave." Philip Hope-Wallace, writing for The Manchester Guardian, observed that "Charles Mackerras conducted the widespread forces, actually moving round a pillar to be able to control all sections in turn." Martin Cooper of the Daily Telegraph recalled: "The white walls of Orford Church furnished an ideal background to the gay colours of Ceri Richards's costumes and the fantastic head-dresses of the animals. In fact, the future of the work will lie in village churches such as this and with amateur musicians, for whom Britten has written something both wholly new and outstandingly original."
The general critical reception was warmly enthusiastic. Felix Aprahamian in The Sunday Times called the performance "a curiously moving spiritual and musical experience". Eric Roseberry, writing in Tempo magazine, found the music "simple and memorably tuneful throughout ... the writing for strings, recorders and percussion is a miracle of inspiration [and] lies well within the range of intelligent young players of very restricted technique". Andrew Porter in Opera magazine also found the music touched "by high inspiration"; the evening was "an unforgettable experience ... extraordinarlily beautiful, vivid and charming, and often deeply moving". The design and production, Porter reported, were "brilliant", while Mackerras commanded his disparate forces masterfully. The Times's critic noted the effectiveness of Britten's setting of the mystery play: "It is Britten's triumph that in this musically slender piece he has brought to new life the mentality of another century by wholly modern means. These means included a miscellaneous orchestra such as he alone could conceive and handle".
After the premiere, there were two further performances in Orford Church, with the same forces, on 19 and 21 June. Noye's Fludde became the first of Britten's operas to be shown on television, when it was broadcast by ATV on 22 June 1958.
Subsequent performances and publication
Noye's Fludde had been very much created according to the resources available from the local Suffolk community, including school ensembles (such as the bugle players from the Royal Hospital School). Yet, according to the Aldeburgh Festival organizer, Stephen Reiss, once Britten witnessed the tremendous reception both audiences and the critics gave to the opera at its first production in Orford, the composer insisted "We've got to take it to London." Looking for a London church "of right size & shape", Britten settled – somewhat reluctantly – on Southwark Cathedral. Four performances featuring the same principals as the premiere were given on 14 and 15 November 1958, Britten conducting the first.[n 12] All four sold out on the first day of booking, even, as Britten told a friend, "before any advertisement & with 2000 circulars yet to be sent!!"
Meanwhile Britten had been corresponding with his publisher, Boosey & Hawkes, about publishing Noye's Fludde. Several of its novel features, including the use of a large amateur orchestra, and specifically its use of handbells, were posing problems. Ernst Roth of Boosey & Hawkes made enquiries about the availability of handbells to the firm Mears & Stainbank (the bell foundry based in Whitechapel, London), then wrote to Britten urging him to prepare an alternative version of Noye's Fludde for publication, since the rarity of handbells in the scale of E flat made the original score, in his view, impractical. Britten resisted such a proposal: "I think if you consider a performance of this work in a big church with about fifty or more children singing, you will agree that the orchestra would sound totally inadequate if it were only piano duet, a few strings and a drum or two." Britten suggested, rather, that Boosey & Hawkes should invest in a set of E flat handbells to hire for performances; or alternatively, that he rewrote the music for the ensemble in D, since sets in that key were more common than in E flat; or, that the handbells music could be simply cued in the piano duet part.
In the event, Britten never prepared an alternative version for reduced instrumentation. He did agree, however, to make the published full score "less bulky" by presenting the amateur forces of recorders, ripieno strings and percussion in the form of short score, on the understanding that full scores for those groups would be available to hire for rehearsal and performance purposes.
The problem of the scarcity of handbells became acute with preparations the following year for the first German performance of Noye's Fludde in Ettal, planned for early in May 1959. Britten suggested that in the absence of handbells a set of tubular bells in E flat should be "slung in small groups (twos or threes); these groups could then be played by four or six children with two hammers each. Only in this way can the chords be played; but of course it needs special frames." In the event, Roth reported to Britten, the Ettal production had substituted glockenspiel and metallophone for the handbells, noting that the bells in Carl Orff’s Schulwerk percussion ensembles were "too weak" for the purpose.
Britten did not attend either rehearsals or any of the performances in Ettal, but heard about it from Princess Margaret of Hesse and the Rhine. He wrote back to her: "I am rather relieved that I wasn't there! – no church, no bugles, no handbells, no recorders – but they seem to have done it with a great deal of care all the same. Still I rather hanker after doing it in Darmstadt as we want it – even importing handbells for instance."
Later performance history
Less than six months after the Aldeburgh production's Southwark Cathedral performances in November 1958, the East Finchley Children's Music Group (later the Finchley Children's Music Group), formed specially in 1958 to perform Noye's Fludde, gave the "first amateur London performance" at All Saint's Church, Durham Road on 24 and 25 April 1959: the cast included Norman Lumsden as Noah.
Meanwhile in the United States, after the opera was broadcast on the radio in New York City on 31 July 1958, the School of Sacred Music of Union Theological Seminary staged the US premiere on 16 March 1959. The following year saw the opera's Canadian premiere, conducted by John Avison, staged during the 1960 Vancouver International Festival in Christchurch Cathedral.
Back in the UK, Christopher Ede, producer of the landmark performances of the Chester mystery plays during the Festival of Britain (as well as subsequent productions in 1952 and 1957), directed Britten's opera in Winchester Cathedral 12–14 July 1960. Ede had been much in touch with Britten the preceding year, not only about this production but also discussing the Fanfare for St Edmundsbury which he had commissioned Britten to compose for the Pageant of Magna Carta.[n 13] Writing to Ede on 19 December 1959, Britten urged him to keep the staging of Noye's Fludde simple rather than elaborate.
In 1971, the Aldeburgh Festival once again staged Noye's Fludde at Orford; a full television broadcast of the production, transferred to Snape Maltings, was made by the BBC, conducted by Steuart Bedford under the composer's supervision, with Brannigan resuming the role of Noah, Sheila Rex as his wife, and Norman Lumsden as the Voice of God.
In 1972 Jonathan Miller directed his first opera with a production of Noye's Fludde, staged 21–23 December at the Roundhouse Theatre, London: the adult roles were taken by Michael Williams (God), Bryan Drake (Noah) and Isabelle Lucas (Mrs Noah), and the conductor was John Lubbock.
In September 2005 Noye's Fludde was performed at Nuremberg zoo, in a production by the Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg involving around 180 children from Nuremberg and from England, directed by Nina Kühner, conducted by Peter Selwyn. Subsequent productions in zoos have been presented by NI Opera in Northern Ireland and the KT Wong Foundation, in Belfast Zoo, directed by Oliver Mears and conducted by Nicholas Chalmers, with Paul Carey Jones as Noye and Doreen Curran as Mrs Noye. The same production was performed in October 2012 at the Beijing Music Festival, this being the Chinese premiere of the work, and the first full performance of a Britten opera in China, and then again at the Shanghai MISA Festival in July 2013.
Britten's centenary year 2013 prompted numerous performances across the UK, including by the Cheltenham Music Festival and the Thaxted Festival. The Britten-Pears Foundation also supported performances in June. An Aldeburgh Festival production to wrap up the centenary year was staged in November in Britten's home-town of Lowestoft with Andrew Shore as Noye and Felicity Palmer as Mrs Noye, and was broadcast in the UK on BBC Radio 3.
Outside the UK, several professional opera companies mounted the opera during Britten's centenary year in productions involving local children, including the New Zealand Opera,The Santa Fe Opera, and the New Orleans Opera, which mounted its first production of any Britten opera.
Voice of God
Choruses and Orchestra
|Norman Del Mar,
English Chamber Orchestra and East Suffolk Children's Chorus and Orchestra
|LP: Argo ZK 1
CD: Decca 4363972. Also contains Britten's The Golden Vanity
Coull Quartet, Endymion Ensemble, Salisbury and Chester Schools' Chorus and Orchestra.
|CD: Virgin Classics VC7 91129-2. Also contains Britten's Serenade for tenor, horn, and strings
CD: EMI Composer Boxes 2175262 (The Collector's Edition, 37 discs)
Members of the BBC Concert Orchestra, Finchley Children's Music Group.
|CD: Somm Recordings SOMM 212. Also contains Britten's Ceremony of Carols|
Notes and references
- The breach between Britten and Crozier began in 1949, although the two continued to work together on several projects, including Britten's opera Billy Budd,
- According to Imogen Holst, it was hearing "the eight-year-olds from Kesgrave and Bungay, singing unaccompanied folk-songs in the Paris Church during the 1956 Festival, who gave Britten the idea of writing a work for children to perform in church". Even so, the proposal that a children's opera should be staged at Orford's church met some opposition from a number of villagers.
- The "Kyrie" repetitions are Britten's own invention; they do not occur in the Chester play.
- On 25 October TV Times announced: "Benjamin Britten is writing a new opera for children - specially for ITV Schools Television Service. I rate this a great musical capture on the part of Boris Ford, head of Associated-Rediffusion Schools Broadcasting."
- "Lord Jesus, think on me": words by Synesius of Cyrene (tr. A. W. Chatfield), tune from Damon's Psalter. "Eternal Father, strong to save": words by William Whiting, tune "Melita" by John Bacchus Dykes. "The spacious firmament on high": words by Joseph Addison, tune "Tallis' Canon" by Thomas Tallis.
- An old friend of Britten's from Gresham's School, David Layton, was convinced that the bugles of Noye's Fludde recalled the school's Officer Training Corps band practicing in front of the cricket pavilion, where there was a "grand echo", while he and Britten were nearby in the nets. This scene at Gresham's was recreated by the documentary filmmaker, Tony Britten, in his film Peace and Conflict, who further made the connection to Noye's Fludde explicit by having the bugle players perform a fanfare heard in the opera.
- Graham recalled that the timpanist, James Blades, "rejoiced in helping Woolverstone Hall [the school providing the percussionists] devise outlandish percussion instruments to be played alongside the slung mugs and the wind machine". The critic Rollo H. Myers noted at the first performance that "Cups and saucers and dishes were also pressed into service to strengthen the percussion in places, but effects were never abused."
- Several commentators, including Michael Kennedy, Christopher Palmer, and Humphrey Carpenter have commented on the affinity between the sound of Britten's use of the handbells and the gamelan ensembles he had heard first-hand in Bali in 1956.
- To aid rehearsals, Britten prepared a 'demo' record of the opera with himself at the piano, and the various roles sung by him, Peter Pears, Imogen Holst, the composer's two sisters and Colin Graham. John Schlesinger made a documentary for the BBC's Monitor programme of the production as it was being rehearsed.
- Crawford had earlier performed in a production of The Little Sweep, sharing the title role of Sammy with David Hemmings; the cast subsequently recorded that opera with Britten conducting. In later life Crawford acknowledged the debt he owed to Britten: "Had it not been for him, I don't think I would have been an actor. He was very patient and encouraging. Throughout my career he always sent me good luck telegrams".
- Eric Roseberry, writing shortly after the premiere, noted closer to half that number: the "young persons' ripieno orchestra of strings, recorders and percussion...numbered twenty violins, three violas, six 'cellos, two double basses, eight descant recorders, five treble recorders, a percussion section of eight and a team of six handbells".
- All four pages of the programme are reproduced in the Facts and Figures category of the Noye's Fludde Harpenden blog, as well as some detailed recollections of the project by one of the chorus of animals, Richard Jones.
- Ede's other connection with Britten was through his wife, Joy Boughton, who played oboe with the English Opera Group.
- Woolf, p. 22
- Woolf, p. 54
- Woolf, p. 303
- Burton, Edwin. "Ranulf Higden". Catholic Encyclopedia. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Wolf, p. 306
- Happe, Ch. 5
- Woolf, pp. 140–41
- Thacker and Lewis, pp. 275-76
- Normington, p. 65
- "Chester Mystery Plays: Spectacle and History, Miracles and Mystery". Chester Mystery Plays. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Britten (2004): p. 287
- Carpenter, p. 381
- Elliott (2006): pp. 66-67
- White, pp. 168–73
- Oliver, p. 136
- Evans, p. 265
- Kildea, pp. 334–335
- Britten (2008), p. 580
- Britten (2008): pp. 562, 564
- Letter dated 15 April 1957, quoted in Britten (2008): p. 564
- Britten (2008): pp. 564-65
- Britten (2008): p. 565
- Holst, Imogen. "Children's Voices at the Aldeburgh Festival", from Blythe, p. 244
- Headington, p. 197; Carpenter, p. 503
- Britten, Benjamin; Holst, Imogen (1958). Noye's Flood: The Chester Miracle Play Vocal Score. London: Boosey & Hawkes.
- White, p. 217
- Britten (2008): p. 494
- Graham, Colin. "Staging first productions 3", from Herbert, p. 44
- John Gough "ITV Goes to School": quoted in Barnes, p. 47
- Hymns Ancient and Modern: Revised Edition (Numbers 200, 487 and 170). London: William Clowes. 1950. OCLC 61648725.
- Britten (2008): pp. 565-67
- Britten (2008): p. 582
- Britten (2008): p. 579-80
- Britten (2008): p. 566
- Britten (2008): p. 10
- "Original Noye's Fludde Programme". Britten-Pears Foundation. 18 June 1958. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- Britten Noye's Fludde pocket score, Boosey & Hawkes 1958
- Roseberry, p. 2
- Graham, p. 45
- Carpenter, p. 382
- Graham, p. 46
- Myers, Rollo H (August, 1958). "Aldeburgh Festival: Noye's Fludde". The Musical Times (Musical Times Publications Ltd.) 99 (1386): 443. Retrieved 17 July 2014. (subscription required)
- Carpenter: p. 383
- Kennedy (1981), p. 216
- Palmer, p. 76
- Carpenter, pp. 383-84
- Roseberry, p. 11
- The Times, quoted in Britten (2010): p. 48
- Britten (2008): p. 562
- Britten (2008): p. 555
- Graham, pp. 44-46
- Britten (2004): p. 27
- de Rosée, Sophie (14 November 2013). "Michael Crawford on working with Benjamin Britten in 1959". The Telegraph online. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Philip Hope-Wallace, "Britten's Noye's Fludde" in Manchester Guardian, 19 June 1958: quoted in Britten (2010): p. 49
- Carpenter, p. 386
- Roseberry, Eric (August 1958). "The Music of Noye's Fludde". Tempo (49): pp. 2–11. (subscription required)
- Porter, Andrew (August 1958). "Noye's Fludde (world premiere 18 June)". Opera: pp. 32–33.
- Britten (2010): p. 48
- Evans, p. 8
- Carpenter: p. 377
- Britten (2010): p. 53
- Britten (2010): p. 87
- Noye's Fludde Harpenden blog
- Britten (2010): p. 58
- Letter dated 16 July 1958, quoted in Britten (2010): pp. 55-6
- Letter dated 28 February 1959, quoted in Britten (2010): p. 57
- Britten (2010): p. 56
- Britten (2010): p. 57
- Britten (2010): p. 102
- "FCMG: History". Finchley Childrens Music Group. 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "The Amateurs' Exchange". The Musical Times (Musical Times Publications Ltd) 100 (1394): 218. April 1959. Retrieved 18 July 2014. (subscription required)
- Kennedy, p. 130
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