Olympic winners of the Archaic period
|Event||Ancient Olympic Games|
|Subject||Ancient Olympic winners|
|Catalog of the Archaic period|
|Period||776 BC to 480 BC|
|Previous||no data available|
Just how far back in history organized athletic contests were held remains a matter of debate, but it is reasonably certain that they occurred in Greece almost 3,000 years ago. However ancient in origin, by the end of the 6th century BC at least four Greek sporting festivals, sometimes called "classical games," had achieved major importance: the Olympic Games, held at Olympia; the Pythian Games at Delphi; the Nemean Games at Nemea; and the Isthmian Games, held near Corinth. The Olympic Games was perhaps the greatest of all sporting event held every four years and all Olympian winners, were highly appreciated among the Greeks.
The sophist Hippias of Elis was the first who drew up the list of Olympians in his work "Olympians inscription", based perhaps on the records of Olympia, and the oral tradition memories of the older Olympiads were still live in Olympia. Conventional beginning was considered the Olympiad of 776 BC, when Coroebus of Elis win the foot race named stadion. The work of Hippias revised and continued in the 4th century BC by Aristotle, later by Eratosthenes, then by Phlegon of Tralles (Seleucia of Caria) and many others. Thus formed a kind of Olympians' chronicle, which was already in 3rd century BC the base of the ancient dating system.[note 1] Than younger tables survives complete the list of stadion winners by Sextus Julius Africanus (for the first 249 Olympiads), which included in a book by Eusebius of Caesarea.
List of Olympic winners in the Archaic period
The table below is an attempt to give a list (as complete as possible) of Olympic winners in the Archaic period (776 BC to 480 BC) combining all surviving sources. The work is based on records in the surviving historical and literary sources, race inscriptions, the texts of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, the testimony of Pausanias and the list of Sextus Julius Africanus. The first column shows the serial number of any Olympiad, the second column the same date, the third column contains the game and the fourth column lists the name and origin of the winner, or marked with [...] if the element is not readable on the papyrus and giving whenever possible a version of what could contain when an investigation exists over this element.
The supplementary list contains Olympic winners of this period known from literary and epigraphic records, but who have been dated only approximately and cannot be included in specific Olympiads.
|700 BC to 650 BC||Dolichos||Phanas of Messenia|||
|c. 636 BC||Stadion||Arytamas of Laconia|||
|612 BC to 592 BC||Tethrippon||Alcmaeon of Athens (son of Megacles)|||
|672 BC to 532 BC||Tethrippon||Euagoras the Lacedaemonian (three consecutive times)|||
|late 7th or early 6th century BC||Tethrippon||Periandros of Corinth (son of Cypselus of Corinth)|||
|early 6th century BC||Wrestling||Hetoimocles of Laconia (son of Hipposthenes) (five times)|||
|572 BC to 528 BC||Boxing||Tisandros of Sicilian Naxos (four consecutive times)|||
|c. 560 BC||Tethrippon||Miltiades of Athens (son of Cypselus of Athens)|||
|550 BC to 500 BC||Keles||Pheidolas of Corinth|||
|c. 520 BC||(unknown game)||Philippus of Croton (son of Butacides)|||
|late 6th century BC||Tethrippon||Pantares the Sicilian (son of Menecrates of Gela)|||
|510 BC to 491 BC||Tethrippon||Demaratus (King of Sparta)|||
|c. 500 BC||Pentathlon||Akmatidas the Lacedaemonian|||
|c. 500 BC||Stadion boys||Meneptolemos of Apollonia|||
|5th century BC||(unknown game)||Damarchos the Parrasian|||
|early 5th century BC||Keles||Echecrates of Pharsalus (or Echecratidas)|||
|early 5th century BC||Pentathlon||Theopombus of Heraea (son of Damaretos) (two times)|||
|500 BC to 488 BC||Boxing||Philon of Corcyra (two times)|||
|500 BC to 484 BC||Tethrippon||Callius of Athens (son of Hipponicus) (three times)|||
|c. 488 BC||Boxing||Diognetos of Crete|||
|c. 484 BC||Wrestling||Telemachus of Pharsalus|||
|before 484 BC||(unknown game)||Praxiteles of Syracuse|||
|before 480 BC||Boxing boys||Epikradios of Mantineia|||
|492 BC to 480 BC||Pentathlon||Hieronymos of Andros|||
|500 BC to 476 BC||Apene||Anaxilas (Tyrant of Region)|||
|500 BC to 450 BC||Boxing boys||Protolaus of Mantineia|||
- According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911), Chronology (§ Olympiads).
- None-Olympiad for Elis. Organized by Pisatans.
- It was Onomastus who established the rules of Boxing, according to Eusebius, p. 196.
- According to Eusebius, p. 198, Chionis was not the winner of this Olympiad, but Charmis of Laconia, who trained on a diet of dried figs.
- Chionis could leap a distance of 22 feet (about 6,71 meters), according to Eusebius, p. 198.
- Myron, son of Andreas, tyrant of Sicyon, according to Müller, p. 452.
- Were performed for the first time the games for boys.
- According to Eusebius, p. 199, exceptionally, only in this Olympiad, the boys fought in pancratium, and the name of winner was Deftelidas of Laconia.
- Chilon died of happiness after the victory of his son (according to Diogenes, ch. III (Chilon), pp. 72-73).
- He won six times at the Olympic games, six times at the Pythian games, ten times at the Isthmian games, and nine times at the Nemean games, according to Eusebius p. 202.
- Encyclopedia Britannica 2006, The ancient Olympic Games.
- According to Eusebius.
- According to HHN.
- According to FHW.
- According to Müller.
- The chronological value is considered to be uncertain.
- The chronology is considered to be relevant.
- The victory belongs to this town.
- According to Diogenes, ch. IV (Pittacus), p. 74
- This was in 584 BC, according to Müller, p. 454.
- Mentioned as Damagetos, HHN, p. 503.
- Mentioned as Leocreon (according to FHW) or Neocreon (according to HHN, p. 503).
- According to Greek base of FHW.
- According to FHW, this was on previous Olympiad.
- There is also a reference in the supplementary list below.
- According to FHW, this was on next Olympiad.
- According to FHW was from Kea.
- According to FHW the first one as a boy.
- Beginning (the most likely) from the 60th Olympiad (according to HHN) or maybe the 52nd Olympiad (according to FHW).
- According to Herodotus Book 5: ch. 47, 1-2.
- In 508 BC according to FHW.
- In 484 BC and 480 BC according to FHW. Also there are references to wrestling by athlete Theopombus according to HHN, p. 503 (wrestling) and p. 507 (pentathlon).
- In 500 BC and 496 BC (according to FHW), or in 492 BC and 488 BC (according to HHN, p. 503).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient sports.|
- Diogène de Laerte. Des Philosophes (in Greek and French translation) I. Paris: Charpentier (1847). pp. 72–74.
- Eusebius of Caesarea. Chronicon: Olympiads of the Greeks (in English - translation from Latin, original Greek lost). Schoene-Petermann. pp. 191–220.
- "Archaic Hellenism". History of Hellenic Nation: ISBN 960-213-095-4 (in Greek) 2. Athens Publishing. 1971. pp. 502–507. ISBN 960-213-097-0. OCLC 636806977. OL 18546042M. "Athens Academy Award 1980"
- Foundation of Hellenic World. "The Olympic Victors". "Archaic Era."
- Karl Otfried Müller (1839). The history and antiquities of the Doric race (in English translation: George Cornewall Lewis and Henry Tufnell) 2. London: Murray (Robarts - University of Toronto). pp. 446–462 App. VI.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Olympiads". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press