Organic fertilizer

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A cement reservoir containing cow manure mixed with water. This is common in rural Hainan Province, China. Note the bucket on a stick that the farmer uses to apply the mixture.

Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter or vegetable matter. (e.g. compost, manure).[1] In contrast, the majority of fertilizers are extracted from minerals (e.g., phosphate rock) or produced industrially (e.g., ammonia). Naturally occurring organic matter|organic fertilizers include animal wastes from meat processing, peat, manure, slurry, and guano.

Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer
A large commercial compost operation

Examples and sources of organic fertilizer[edit]

The main organic fertilizers are in ranked order: peat, animal wastes (often from slaughter houses), plant wastes from agriculture, and sewage sludge.[1]

Mineral[edit]

The main source of organic fertilizer is peat, an immature precursor to coal. Peat itself offers no nutritional value to the plants, but improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water.

Peat is the most widely used organic fertilizer.

Mined powdered limestone,[2] rock phosphate, and Chilean saltpeter are inorganic (not of biologic origins) compounds, which can be energetically intensive to harvest.[2][3][4]

Animal sources[edit]

These materials include the products of the slaughter of animals. Bloodmeal, bone meal, hides, hoofs, and horns are typical precursors.[1]

Chicken litter, which consists of chicken manure mixed with sawdust, is an organic fertilizer that has been shown to better condition soil for harvest than synthesized fertilizer. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) studied the effects of using chicken litter, an organic fertilizer, versus synthetic fertilizers on cotton fields, and found that fields fertilized with chicken litter had a 12% increase in cotton yields over fields fertilized with synthetic fertilizer. In addition to higher yields, researchers valued commercially sold chicken litter at a $17/ton premium (to a total valuation of $78/ton) over the traditional valuations of $61/ton due to value added as a soil conditioner.[5]

Plant[edit]

Processed organic fertilizers include compost, humic acid, amino acids, and seaweed extracts. Other examples are natural enzyme-digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. Decomposing crop residue (green manure) from prior years is another source of fertility.

Other ARS studies have found that algae used to capture nitrogen and phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields can not only prevent water contamination of these nutrients, but also can be used as an organic fertilizer. ARS scientists originally developed the "algal turf scrubber" to reduce nutrient runoff and increase quality of water flowing into streams, rivers, and lakes. They found that this nutrient-rich algae, once dried, can be applied to cucumber and corn seedlings and result in growth comparable to that seen using synthetic fertilizers.[6]

Sewage sludge[edit]

Although night soil is a traditional organic fertilizer, the main source of this type is sewage sludge.

Decomposing animal manure, an organic fertilizer source

Recycled sewage sludge (aka biosolids) as soil amendment is only available to less than 1% of US agricultural land. Industrial pollutants in sewage sludge prevents recycling it as fertilizer. The USDA prohibits use of sewage sludge in organic agricultural operations in the U.S. due to industrial pollution, pharmaceuticals, hormones, heavy metals, and other factors.[7][8][9] The USDA now requires 3rd-party certification of high-nitrogen liquid organic fertilizers sold in the U.S.[10]

Sewage sludge use in organic agricultural operations in the U.S. has been extremely limited and rare due to USDA prohibition of the practice (due to toxic metal accumulation, among other factors).[11][12][13]

Animal sourced urea and urea-formaldehyde from urine are suitable for organic agriculture; however, synthetically produced urea is not.[14] The common thread that can be seen through these examples is that organic agriculture attempts to define itself through minimal processing (e.g., via chemical energy such as petroleum — see Haber process), as well as being naturally occurring or via natural biological processes such as composting.

Examples[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Heinrich Dittmar, Manfred Drach, Ralf Vosskamp, Martin E. Trenkel, Reinhold Gutser, Günter Steffens "Fertilizers, 2. Types" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2009, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.n10_n01
  2. ^ a b Template:Http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/sustag/
  3. ^ "Can I Use This Input on My Organic Farm?". eXtension. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  4. ^ Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. "Organic Production and Organic Food: Information Access Tools". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "Researchers Study Value of Chicken Litter in Cotton Production". 23 July 2010. 
  6. ^ "Algae: A Mean, Green Cleaning Machine". USDA Agricultural Research Service. 7 May 2010. 
  7. ^ "Organic Farming | Agriculture | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  8. ^ "CalOrganic Farms News". Calorganicfarms.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  9. ^ "Biosolids: Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report". EPA.gov. January 2009. 
  10. ^ Schrack, Don (23 February 2009). "USDA Toughens Oversight of Organic Fertilizer: Organic fertilizers must undergo testing". The Packer. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  11. ^ "Organic Farming | Agriculture | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  12. ^ http://www.ewg.org/reports/sludgememo
  13. ^ "CalOrganic Farms News". Calorganicfarms.com. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  14. ^ "In a natural organic system, nitrate in the soil is derived from the gradual breakdown of humus". Ecochem.com. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  15. ^ "Phosphorus Fertilizers for Organic Farming Systems". CO State Extension. 
  16. ^ "Organic Materials as *Nitrogen Fertilizers". CO State Extension. 
  17. ^ "Managing Potassium for Organic Crop Production". CO State Extension. 
  18. ^ "Maintaining Soil Fertility in an Organic Fruit and Vegetable Crops System". University of MN Extension.