In 1890 he purchased Beiersdorf AG, which at the time was a chemist's shop and laboratory in Hamburg run by Paul Carl Beiersdorf (1836-1896). Soon afterwards, Troplowitz expanded the company into selling brand-name merchandise as well.
Under Troplowitz's ownership, the company developed several of its own products, including Nivea, Leukoplast, Labello, and a pressure-sensitive tape that would later be known as "Tesafilm". As did Paul Beiersdorf, Troplowitz maintained a close business relationship with dermatologist Paul Gerson Unna (1850–1929). It was on a recommendation by Unna that Troplowitz hired Isaak Lifschütz, a chemist who was the discoverer of the emulsifying agent Eucerit, the main ingredient in Nivea, a brand which he acquired in 1911 from French company Guerlain.
Troplowitz made several reforms in regards to worker benefits at Beiersdorf, such as paid vacations, maternity leave, and a 48-hour work week.
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