Papal conclave, 1464

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Papal conclave
August 1464
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
28–30 August 1464
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
Key officials
Dean Basilios Bessarion
Camerlengo Ludovico Trevisan
Protopriest Petrus von Schaumberg
Protodeacon Rodrigo Borgia
Election
Ballots 1
Elected Pope
Pietro Barbo
(Name taken: Paul II)
Pietrobarbo.jpg

Papal conclave 1464 (August 28–30, 1464) convened after the death of Pope Pius II, elected as his successor cardinal Pietro Barbo, who took the name Pope Paul II.

List of participants[edit]

Pope Pius II died on August 14, 1464 in Ancona during preparations to the crusade against Ottoman Empire. At the time of his death, there were 29 living cardinals, but only 19 of them participated in the conclave:[1]

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes[2]
Bessarion Greek Bishop of Frascati; commendatario of SS. XII Apostoli 1439, December 18 Pope Eugenius IV Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Latin Patriarch of Constantinople; Titular archbishop of Nicea and Tebe; Cardinal-protector of the Orders of Basilians, Franciscans and Dominicans
Guillaume d'Estouteville, O.S.B.Cluny French Bishop of Ostia e Velletri 1439, December 18 Pope Eugenius IV Archbishop of Rouen and administrator of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Cardinal-protector of the Order of Augustinians
Juan de Torquemada, O.P. Castilian Bishop of Sabina 1439, December 18 Pope Eugenius IV Bishop of Orense
Juan Carvajal Castilian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; commendatario of S. Lucia in Septisolio 1446, December 16 Pope Eugenius IV Bishop of Plasencia; Cardinal-protector of Hungary
Ludovico Trevisan Venetian Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 1440, July 1 Pope Eugenius IV Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Patriarch of Aquileia; bishop of Cava
Pietro Barbo (elected Pope Paul II) Venetian Priest of S. Marco 1440, July 1 Pope Eugenius IV (Cardinal-nephew) Bishop of Vicenza; Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica
Latino Orsini Roman Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo 1448, December 20 Pope Nicholas V Administrator of Bari; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica
Alain de Coëtivy French Priest of S. Prassede 1448, December 20 Pope Nicholas V Bishop of Avignon and administrator of Dol
Filippo Calandrini Bolognese Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina 1448, December 20 Pope Nicholas V (Cardinal-nephew) Grand penitentiary; Bishop of Bologna
Juan de Mella Castilian Priest of S. Prisca 1456, December 17 Pope Callixtus III Bishop of Zamora
Giacomo Tebaldi Neapolitan Priest of S. Anastasia 1456, December 17 Pope Callixtus III
Richard Olivier de Longueil French Priest of S. Eusebio 1456, December 17 Pope Callixtus III Bishop of Coutances
Angelo Capranica Roman Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme 1460, March 5 Pope Pius II Bishop of Rieti
Bartolomeo Roverella Ferrara Priest of S. Clemente 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II Archbishop of Ravenna; Governor of Benevento
Louis d'Albret French Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II Bishop of Cahors
Giacomo Ammanati-Piccolomini Siena Priest of S. Crisogono 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew) Bishop of Pavia; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
Rodrigo Borgia Catalonian Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano; commendatario of S. Maria in Via Lata 1456, September 17 Pope Callixtus III (Cardinal-nephew) Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Administrator of Valencia
Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini Siena Deacon of S. Eustachio 1460, March 5 Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew) Administrator of Siena; Legate in Rome and the Papal States
Francesco Gonzaga Mantua Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II Bishop of Brixen

Ten electors were Italian, four Spaniards, four French and one Greek. Six were creatures of Pius II, six of Eugenius IV, four of Callixtus III and three of Nicholas V.

Absentees[edit]

Ten cardinals (over 1/3 of the whole Sacred College) did not participate in this conclave:[1]

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes[2]
Pierre de Foix, O.F.M. French Bishop of Albano September, 1414 Antipope John XXIII Legate in Avignon; administrator of Lescar and Tarbes
Petrus von Schaumberg German Priest of S. Vitale 1439, December 18 Pope Eugenius IV Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Bishop of Augsburg
Dénes Szécsi Hungarian Priest of S. Ciriaco 1439, December 18 Pope Eugenius IV Archbishop of Esztergom; Chancellor of the Kingdom of Hungary
Jean Rolin French Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio 1448, December 20 Pope Nicholas V Bishop of Autun
Luis Juan del Mila y Borja Catalonian Priest of SS. IV Coronati 1456, September 17 Pope Callixtus III (Cardinal-nephew) Bishop of Lerida
Berardo Eroli Narni Priest of S. Sabina 1460, March 5 Pope Pius II Bishop of Spoleto; legate a latere in Perugia
Niccolò Fortiguerra Pistoia Priest of S. Cecilia 1460, March 5 Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew) Bishop of Teano; Supreme Commander of Papal Fleet
Burchard of Weissbruch German Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 1460, March 5 Pope Pius II Archbishop of Salzburg
Jean Jouffroy, O.S.B.Cluny French Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II Bishop of Albi
Jaime Cardona Catalonian Priest [no title assigned] 1461, December 18 Pope Pius II Bishop of Urgel

Of the absentee cardinals five were creatures of Pius II, two of Eugenius IV, one of Callixtus III and one of Nicholas V. Pierre de Foix was the last surviving cardinal of the Great Western Schism and was elevated by Pisan Antipope John XXIII.

Among them there were three French, two Italians, two Germans, two Spaniards and the one Hungarian.

Candidates to the papacy[edit]

Bessarion, d'Estouteville, Trevisan, Carvajal, Torquemada and Barbo were mentioned as main papabili in the contemporary reports of the ambassadors and envoys of Italian Princes. Also Calandrini, Roverella and Capranica were referred as possible candidates.[3]

The election of Pope Paul II[edit]

On the evening August 28 all cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave in Vatican, with the exception of ill Cardinal Torquemada, who joined the rest on the following day.

Initially, the electors prepared the conclave capitulation, and subscribed it all except Trevisan. The terms of the capitulation were the following:

  • continue the Crusades against the Ottoman Empire
  • leave Rome only with the consent of the majority of cardinals; the Italian Peninsula with the consent of all
  • college of Cardinals limited to 24
  • new pope limited to one cardinal-nephew
  • creation of cardinals or advancement of benefices required the consent of the College

The first scrutiny took place on August 30. Cardinal Pietro Barbo received eleven votes, while the remaining fell to Trevisan and d'Estouteville.[4] On the following accessus Barbo received three additional votes and was elected Pope.[4] He took the name Paul II,[5] and a little bit later protodeacon Rodrigo Borgia announced his election to the people of Rome with the ancient formula Habemus Papam. On September 6 new pope was solemnly crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica by Cardinal Niccolò Fortiguerra, priest of the title of S. Cecilia.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Salvador Miranda List of participants of papal conclave of 1464.
  2. ^ a b Notes according to biographical entries of the respective cardinals on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Consistories for the creation of Cardinals, 15th Century (1394-1503) by Salvador Miranda
  3. ^ Ludwig von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, pp.5-6
  4. ^ a b Francis Burkle-Young “Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century: the election of Paul II
  5. ^ Cardinal Ammanati claimed that Barbo wished at first to be called Formosus ("Beautiful"), but the cardinals objected on the grounds that it might seen as allusion to his good looks. He then changed it to Mark, but cardinals objected again, because "Marco!" was the war-cry of the Republic of Venice. Finally he decided to take the name Paul (L. von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, p. 12). F. Bourkle-Young considers this anecdote untrue [1]
  6. ^ Usually the rite of papal coronation was performed by Cardinal Protodeacon, but Rodrigo Borgia fell ill shortly after the election and was not able to do it. Cardinal Fortiguerra, who arrived to Rome when the election was already accomplished, acted as his substitute. L. von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, p. 18

Sources[edit]